Topic: Siouan

Houses of the Crow Tribe

Before the separation of the Crow from the Hidatsa they may have occupied permanent villages of earth-covered lodges, such as the latter continued to erect and use until very recent years. But after the separation the Crows moved into the mountains, the region drained by the upper tributaries of the Missouri, and there no longer built permanent structures but adopted the skin tipi, so easily erected and transported from place to place. Many of their tipis were very large, beautifully made and decorated, and were evidently not surpassed in any manner by the similar structures constructed by other tribes...

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Houses of the Mandan Tribe

As mentioned in the sketch of the houses of the Assiniboin, a small party of French accompanied by members of that tribe during the autumn of 1738 went southward from the Assiniboin country to the Mandan towns, where the French remained several weeks. The leader of the expedition, La Verendrye, prepared an account of the journey, this being the earliest record of a visit by Europeans to the Mandans known to exist, although it is easily conceived that French trappers may have been among the tribe earlier in the century. The expedition arrived among the Mandan November 28, 1738,...

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Houses of the Winnebago Tribe

When first known to Europeans the Winnebago occupied the region west of Green Bay, west of Lake Michigan, where, according to the Jesuit missionaries, they had resided for many generations. There they were living in the year 1634 when visited by Nicollet, and just 35 years later, during the winter of 1669-70, a mission on the shore of the same bay was conducted by Père Allouez, which proved a gathering place for various tribes, including the Winnebago, Sauk and Foxes, Menominee, and Potawatomi. These, with the exception of the Winnebago, were Algonquian tribes. As already mentioned, the Oto, Iowa,...

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Houses of the Missouri Tribe

In the narrative of the Lewis and Clark expedition appears this record: “June 13, 1804. We passed a bend of the river. Missouri and two creeks on the north, called the Round Bend creeks. Between these two creeks is the prairie, in which once stood the ancient village of the Missouri. Of this village there remains no vestige, nor is there any thing to recall this great and numerous nation, except a feeble remnant of about thirty families. They were driven from their original seats by the invasions of the Sauks and other Indians from the Mississippi, who destroyed at this village two hundred of them in one contest.” 1Lewis and Clark, History of the Expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark. . . Prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia, 1814. 2 vols., I, p. 13. About 5 miles beyond they reached the mouth of Grand River which flows from the northwest, serves as the boundary between Carroll and Chariton Counties, Missouri, and enters the left bank of the Missouri River. Therefore the old village of the Missouri evidently stood at some point in the latter county. It was probably composed of a number of mat and bark covered lodges resembling the village of the Osage which stood a few miles farther up the river. Two days later, June 15, the party identified the site...

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Houses of the Oto Tribe

When Lewis and Clark ascended the Missouri during the summer of 1804 they reached the mouth of the Platte July 21. At that time, so they entered in their journal, the Oto were living on the south side of the Platte, 10 leagues above its junction with the Missouri, and 5 leagues beyond, on the same bank, were the Pawnee. Living with the Oto were the remnants of the Missouri who had, a few years before, joined them. On August 3, 1804, the expedition having ascended the Missouri to about the location of the present city of Council Bluffs,...

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Houses of the Omaha Tribe

When Lewis and Clark ascended the Missouri in 1804 they found the Omaha village not far from the Missouri, in the present Dakota County, Nebraska. On the 13th of August the expedition reached the mouth of a creek entering the right bank of the Missouri. Just beyond they encamped on a sandbar, “opposite the lower point of a large island.” From here Sergeant Ordway and four men were sent to the Omaha village and returned the following day. “After crossing a prairie covered with high grass, they reached the Maha creek, along which they proceeded to its three forks,...

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Houses of the Yankton Tribe

When the expedition under the leadership of General Atkinson ascended the Missouri, during the summer of 1825, he wrote regarding the Yankton: “The Yankton are a band of the Sioux, and rove in the plains north of the Missouri, from near the Great Bend, down as far as the Sioux river. They do not cultivate, but live by the chase alone, subsisting principally upon buffalo. They cover themselves with leather tents, or lodges, which they move about from place to place, as the buffalo may chance to range. They are pretty well supplied with fusees, and with horses, and...

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Houses of the Yanktonai Tribe

Like other divisions of the Dakota, the Yanktonai formerly lived in the thickly timbered region surrounding the headwaters of the Mississippi, in the central portion of the present State of Minnesota, and, like them, moved southward and westward until they reached the plains and the habitat of the buffalo. Although in their earlier home they undoubtedly reared the mat-covered structures, nevertheless when they reached the open country they constructed the conical skin lodge. During the latter part of July, 1823, the Long expedition reached a village of this tribe then standing in the vicinity of Lake Traverse, in the present Traverse County, Minnesota. In the narrative of the expedition very little is said regarding the appearance of the encampment, which may not have offered any peculiar features, but much was said concerning the dress and ways of the inhabitants. In part the narrative states: “The principal interest which we experienced in the neighborhood of Lake Traverse, was from an acquaintance with Wanotan, (the Charger,) the most distinguished chief of the Yanktoanan tribe, which, as we were informed, is subdivided into six bands. He is one of the greatest men of the Dacota nation, and although but twenty-eight years of age, he has already acquired great renown as a warrior.” As the party neared the establishment of the Columbia Fur Company, on the border of the lake, “a salute was...

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Houses of the Mdewakanton Tribe

When preparing a sketch of the villages and village sites of the Mdewakanton, it is quite natural to begin with a brief description of the site of the village to which Father Hennepin was led captive, during the early spring of the year 1680. On the afternoon of April 11 of that year, while ascending the Mississippi with two companions, he was taken by a war party of the Sioux, and after much anxiety and suffering reached the Falls of St. Anthony, which he so named. Thence, going overland through the endless forests, they arrived at the village of...

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Villages of the Algonquian, Siouan and Caddoan Tribes West of the Mississippi

Life on the prairies or mountains with the best built house had to be hard for our ancestors, but consider the Indians of the 1800’s. With few implements, or tools, they constructed their homes from their surroundings. David Bushnell, provides a vivid picture of the traditional homes, hunting camps, and travels of the Algonquian, Caddoan and Siouan tribes. Even without the photos and drawings, all of which are included here, Bushnell paints a picture of these tribes life and culture with his words.

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Winnebago Tribe

Winnebago Indians, Winnebago Nation (winǐpig, ‘filthy water’ [Chippewa]; winǐpyägohagi, ‘people of the filthy water’ [Sauk and Fox]. W. J.) A tribe of the Siouan linguistic family. Winnebago Tribe History The Winnebago have been known to the whites since 1634, when the Frenchman Nicollet found them in Wisconsin, on Green bay, at which time they probably extended to Lake Winnebago. At this period they were found wedged in by Central Algonquian tribes, particularly by the Sauk and Foxes and the Menominee. To the west they were in intimate contact with a kindred tribe, the Iowa, who in turn were neighbors of the Oto and Missouri. These four tribes, the Winnebago, Iowa, Oto, and Missouri, speak dialects naturally intelligible to one another, and show many cultural similarities. On the other hand, the Winnebago show many cultural similarities with their Central Algonquian neighbors, particularly in all that pertains to material culture and art, and this double influence, that from their Siouan neighbors and that from their Algonquian neighbors, must be borne in mind in any attempt to understand properly the Winnebago culture. It is stated in the Jesuit Relation for 1671 1Jesuit Relation 1671, 42, 1858 that the Winnebago had always dwelt in the Green Bay region. Allouez spent the winter of 1669-70 at Green Bay, preaching to the Potawatomi, Menominee, Sauk, Foxes, and Winnebago, whom he, found commingled there. The map of...

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Waccamaw Tribe

Waccamaw Indians. One of the small tribes formerly dwelling on the Lower Pedee and its branches in South Carolina and the adjacent border of North Carolina. Nothing is known of their language, and very little else concerning them, as they were never prominent in history. Their associations indicate that they were Siouan. Their habitat was along Waccamaw River, which enters the Pedee from the north almost at its mouth. They were mentioned first in 1715 as living near the Winyaw, both tribes receiving ammunition from the Cheraw, who attempted to gain them as allies of the Yamasee and other tribes against the English. At this time they were living in 6 villages with a population of 610 1Rivers, Hist. S. Car., 94, 1874. In 1755 the Cherokee and Notchee were reported to have killed some Pedee and Waccamaw in the white settlements 2Gregg, Hist. of Old Cheraws, 15, 1867. Like the Pedee, Cheraw, and other tribes of that region 3Mooney, Siouan Tribes of the East, 76, 1894, the remnant was probably finally incorporated with the Catawba. Footnotes:   [ + ] 1. ↩ Rivers, Hist. S. Car., 94, 1874 2. ↩ Gregg, Hist. of Old Cheraws, 15, 1867 3. ↩ Mooney, Siouan Tribes of the East, 76,...

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Woccon Tribe

Woccon Indians. A small tribe formerly inhabiting east North Carolina, related linguistically to the Catawba, hence of Siouan stock. All that is known of them is recorded by Lawson, who states that about 1710 they lived 2 leagues from the Tuscarora on the lower Neuse in 2 villages, Yupwauremau and Tooptatmeer, having 120 warriors. In his map of 1709, reproduced by Hawks 1Hawks, Hist. No. Car., II, 104, 1859, he places them between Neuse river and one of its affluents, perhaps about the present Goldsboro, Wayne county. They joined the Tuscarora against the whites in the war of 1711-13, as is learned from incidental references in colonial documents, and it is probable that they were extinguished as a tribe by that war. The remnant may have fled north with the Tuscarora or have joined the Catawba 2Mooney, Siouan Tribes of the East, 65, 1894. Lawson preserved a vocabulary of 150 words of their language, which shows that it was closely related to the Catawba, although the two tribes were separated by nearly 200 miles. Footnotes:   [ + ] 1. ↩ Hawks, Hist. No. Car., II, 104, 1859 2. ↩ Mooney, Siouan Tribes of the East, 65,...

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Yanktonai Tribe

Yanktonai Indians (ihanke ‘end,’ tonwan ‘village,’ na diminutive: ‘little-end village.’Riggs). One of the 7 primary divisions or subtribes of the Dakota, speaking the same dialect as the Yankton and believed to be the elder tribe. Long evidently obtained tradition from the Indians to this effect. He first apparent reference to one of the tribes in which the other is not included is that to the Yankton by La Sueur in 1700. It is not until noticed by Lewis and Clark in 1804 that they reappear. These explorers state that they roved on the headwaters of the Sioux, James, and Red rivers. The migration from their eastern home, north of Mille Lac, Minnesota, probably took place at the beginning of the 18th century. It is likely that they followed or accompanied the Teton, while the Yankton turned more and more toward the southwest. Long (1823) speaks of them as one of the most important of the Dakota tribes, their hunting grounds extending from Red river to the Missouri. Warren (1855) gives as their habitat the country between the James river and the Missouri, extending as far north as Devils lake, and states that they fought against the United States in the War of 1812, and that their chief at that time went to England. It does not appear that this tribe took any part in the Minnesota massacre of 1862....

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Yankton Tribe

Yankton Indians (ihanke ‘end,’ ton’wan ‘village ‘end village’). One of the 7 primary divisions of the Dakota, constituting, with the closely related Yanktonai, the middle group. J. O. Dorsey arranged the Dakota-Assiniboin in 4 dialectic groups: Santee, Yankton, Teton, and Assiniboin, the Yankton dialect being spoken also by the Yanktonai, for the 2 tribes were the outgrowth of one original stem. Although the name Yankton was known earlier than Yanktonai, it does not follow that the Yankton were the elder tribe. Long 1Exped. St. Peter’s R., 1, 378, 1824 speaks of the Yankton as descendants of the Yanktonai. The Assiniboin, who were an offshoot from the Yanktonai, are mentioned in the Jesuit Relation for 1640 as a tribe; hence the Yanktonai must have been in existence as a tribe before that time. This fact serves as an aid in tracing back the Yankton both historically and geographically. However, the name Yankton and some of its synonyms appear early to have been used to include the 2 tribes, the distinction probably not then being known. The first mention of them is on Hennepin’s map (1683), on which they are placed directly north of Mille Lac, Minn., in the region of Leech lake or Red lake. This position would accord geographically with the withdrawal of the Assiniboin to the Cree. In the account of Hennepin’s expedition attributed to Tonti (1697), they...

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