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Topic: Siouan

Monacan Indians

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Monacan Tribe: Possibly from an Algonquian word signifying “digging stick,” or “spade,” but more likely from their own language. Also called: Rahowacah, by Archer, 1607, in Smith (1884). Monacan Connections. The Monacan belonged to the Siouan linguistic stock. Their nearest connections were the Manahoac, Tutelo, and Saponi. Monacan Location. On the upper waters of James River above the falls at Richmond. Monacan Villages (Locations as determined by D. I. Bushnell, Jr.) Massinacack, on the right bank of James River about the mouth of Mohawk Creek, and a mile or more south of Goochland. Mohemencho, later called Monacan Town, on the south bank of James River and probably covering some of “the level area bordering the stream in the extreme eastern part of the present Powhatan County, between Bernards Creek on the east and Jones Creek on the west.” Rassawek, at the confluence of the James and Rivanna Rivers and probably “on the right bank of the Rivanna, within the angle formed by the two streams.” Two other towns are sometimes added but as they afterward appeared as wholly independent tribes, the Saponi and the Tutelo, it is probable that their connection with the Monacan was never very intimate. They seem to have been classed as Monacan largely on the evidence furnished by Smith’s map, in which...

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Mosopelea Indians

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Mosopelea Tribe: Significance uncertain, though probably from an Algonquian language. Also called: Chonque, by Tonti in 1690, probably the Quapaw name. Ofo, own name, perhaps an abbreviation of the Mobilian term, Ofogoula, though this last may mean simply “Ofo people.” Ofogoula may also be interpreted Ofi okla, “Dog People.” Ouesperie, Ossipe, Ushpee, names by which they were known to other tribes and evidently shortened forms of Mosopelea. Mosopelea Connections. The Mosopelea spoke a Siouan dialect most closely related to Biloxi and Tutelo and secondarily to Dakota. Mosopelea Location. When the French first heard of them, they were in southwestern Ohio, but their best-known historical location was on the lower Yazoo, close to the Yazoo and Koroa Indians. (See also Arkansas, Indiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee.) Mosopelea Villages. Anciently they had eight villages, but none of the names of these have been preserved. Mosopelea History. After abandoning southwestern Ohio some time before 1673, the Mosopelea appear to have settled on the Cumberland, driven thither probably by the Iroquois, and to have given it the name it bears in Coxe’s map (1741), Ouesperie, a corruption of Mosopelea. By 1673 they had descended to the Mississippi and established themselves on its western side below the mouth of the Ohio. Later they appear to have stopped for a time among the...

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Yadkin Indians

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Yadkin Tribe. Meaning unknown. Yadkin Connections. The Yadkin probably belonged to the Siouan linguistic family. Yadkin Location. On Yadkin River. Yadkin History. The Yadkin first appear in history in a letter by the Indian trader, Abraham Wood, narrating the adventures of two men, James Needham and Gabriel Arthur, whom he had sent on an exploring expedition to the west. They passed this tribe and town, which they call “Yattken,” in the summer of 1674. Lawson (1860) gives the name as Reatkin but applies it to the river, and there is no later mention of the people. Connection in which they have become noted. Their name Yadkin is perpetuated by the Yadkin River, Yadkin County, and the towns and villages of Yadkin College, Yadkin Falls, Yadkin Valley, and Yadkinville, all in the State of North...

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Cape Fear Indians

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Cape Fear Tribe: Named from Cape Fear, their native designation being unknown or indeed whether they were an independent tribe or a part of some other. Cape Fear Connections. No words of the language of the Cape Fear Indians have been preserved, but early references clearly associate them with the eastern Siouan tribes, and they may have been a part of the Waccamaw, since Waccamaw River heads close to Cape Fear. They would then have been connected with the Siouan linguistic family and probably with the southern Atlantic division of which Catawba is the typical member. Cape Fear Location. On Cape Fear River, as above stated. (See also South Carolina.) Cape Fear Villages. The only village mentioned by name is Necoes, about 20 miles from the mouth of Cape Fear River, probably in Brunswick County. In 1715 five villages were reported. Cape Fear History. While the Cape Fear Indians were probably met by several of the early voyagers, our first specific notice of them comes from the narratives of a New England colony planted on Cape Fear River in 1661. These settlers seized some of the Indian children and sent them away under pretense of instructing them in the ways of civilization and were themselves in consequence driven off. In 1663 a colony from Barbadoes settled...

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Cheraw Indians

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Cheraw Tribe: Significance unknown.  Also called: Ani’-Suwa’II, Cherokee name. Saraw, Suali, synonyms even more common than Cheraw. Xuala, Xualla, Spanish and Portuguese forms of the word, the x being intended for sh. Cheraw Connections. The Cheraw are classed on circumstantial grounds in the Siouan linguistic family though no words of their tongue have been preserved. Cheraw Location.-The earliest known location of the Cheraw appears to have been near the head of Saluda River in Pickens and Oconee Counties, S. C., whence they removed at an early date to the present Henderson, Polk, and Rutherford Counties. Cheraw Villages. The names given are always those of the tribe, though we have a “Lower Saura Town” and an “Upper Saura Town on a map dating from 1760. Cheraw History. Mooney (1928) has shown that the Cheraw are identical with the Xuala province which De Soto entered in 1540, remaining about 4 days. They were visited by Pardo at a later date, and almost a hundred years afterward Lederer (1912) heard of them in the same region. Before 1700 they left their old country and moved to the Dan River near the southern line of Virginia, where they seem to have had two distinct settlements about 30 miles apart. About the year 1710, on account of constant Iroquois attacks, they...

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Eno Indians

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Eno Tribe: Significance unknown, but Speck suggests i’nare, “to dislike,” whence “mean,” “comptemptible”; yeni’nare, “People disliked,”  Haynokes, synonym form Yardley (1645) Eno Connections. The Eno were probably of the Siouan linguistic stock, though, on account of certain peculiarities attributed to them, Mooney (1895) casts some doubt upon this. Their nearest relatives were the Shakori. Eno Location. On Eno River in the present Orange and Durham Counties. (See also South Carolina.) Eno Villages. The only village name recorded, distinct from that of the tribe, is Adshusheer, a town which they shared with the Shakori. It is located by Mooney (1928) near the present Hillsboro. Lawson (1860) speaks in one place as if it were a tribe but as there is no other mention of it, it is more likely that it was simply the name of the town which the Eno and Shakori occupied. Eno History. The Eno are first mentioned by Governor Yeardley of Virginia, who was told that they had valiantly resisted the northward advance of the Spaniards. From this it appears possible that they had formerly lived upon the Enoree River in South Carolina, which lay on the main trail from St. Helena to the Cheraw country at the foot of the Appalachian Mountains. Lederer (1912) mentions them in 1671 and Lawson (1860) in...

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Keyauwee Indians

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Keyauwee Tribe: Meaning unknown. Keyauwee Connections. From the historical affiliations of Keyauwee, they are presumed to have been of the Siouan linguistic family. Keyauwee Location. About the points of meeting of the present Guilford, Davidson, and Randolph Counties. (See also South Carolina.) Keyauwee Villages. No separately named villages are known. Keyauwee History. The Keyauwee do not appear to have been noted by white men before 1701 when Lawson (1860) found them in a palisaded village about 30 miles northeast of Yadkin River near the present Highpoint, Guilford County. At that time they were preparing to join the Saponi and Tutelo Indians for better protection against their enemies, and, shortly afterward, together with the last mentioned tribes, the Occaneechi, and the Shakori, they moved toward the settlements about Albemarle Sound. As mentioned already, Governor Spotswood’s project to settle this tribe together with the Eno and Cheraw at Enotown on the frontier of North Carolina was foiled by the opposition of the latter colony. The Keyauwee then moved southward to the Pee Dee along with the Cheraw, and perhaps the Eno and Shakori. In the Jefferys Atlas of 1761 their town appears close to the boundary line between the two Carolinas. They do not reappear in any the historical records but probably united ultimately in part with the...

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Shakori Indians

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Shakori Tribe: A native name but its significance unknown, though perhaps the same as Sugari, “stingy or spoiled people,” or “of the river whose-water-cannot-be drunk.” Also called: Cacores, a misprint. Shakori Connections. The Shakori belonged to the Siouan linguistic family, their closest connections being evidently with the southern division of the Siouan tribes of the East. Barnwell (1908) identified them with the Sissipahaw. Shakori Location. The Shakori moved so frequently and there is so much uncertainty regarding their early history, that this is hard to give, but, as they usually kept company with the Eno, tenancy of the courses of Shocco and Big Shocco Creeks in the present Vance, Warren, and Franklin Counties is perhaps the location most closely connected with them in historic times. (See South Carolina and Virginia.) Shakori History. It is possible that the Shakori gave their name to the province of Chicora visited by Ayllon and his companions in 1521. If so, we must suppose that they moved north later in the sixteenth century or early in the seventeenth, perhaps as a result of the Pardo expeditions. In 1650 Edward Blande and his associates found the “Nottoway and Schockoores old fields” between Meherrin and Nottoway Rivers, but the Indians were not there. In 1654 Governor Yeardley of Virginia was told by a...

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Woccon Indians

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Woccon Tribe: Significance unknown. Woccon Connections. The Woccon belonged to the Siouan linguistic stock, their closest relations being the Catawba. Woccon Location. Between Neuse River and one of its affluents, perhaps about the present Goldsboro, Wayne County. Woccon Villages Tooptatmeer, supposed to have been in Greene County. Yupwauremau, supposed to have been in Greene County. Woccon History.-The first mention of the Woccon appears to be by Lawson writing about 1701, who recorded 150 words of their language. These show that it was nearer Catawba than any other known variety of speech. Lack of any earlier mention of such a large tribe lends strength to the theory of Dr. Douglas L. Rights that they were originally Waccamaw (see South Carolina). They took part against the Whites in the Tuscarora Wars and were probably extinguished as a tribe at that time, the remnant fleeing north with the Tuscarora, uniting with the Catawba, or combining with other Siouan remnants in the people later known as Croatan. Woccon Population. The number of Woccon war estimated by Mooney (1928) at 600 in 1600. Lawson (1860) gives 120 warriors in 1709. Connection in which they have become noted. The sole claim of the Woccon to distinction is from the fact that it is the only one of the southern group of eastern Siouan...

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Wateree Indians

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Wateree Tribe: Gatschet suggests a connection with Catawba, wateran, “to float on the water.” Also called: Chickanee, name for a division of Wateree and meaning “little.” Guatari, Spanish spelling of their name. Wateree Connections. The Wateree are placed in the Siouan linguistic stock on circumstantial evidence. Wateree Location. The location associated most closely with the Wateree historically was on Wateree River, below the present Camden. (See North Carolina.) Wateree History. The Wateree are first mentioned in the report of an expedition from Santa Elena (Beaufort) by Juan Pardo in 1566-67. They lived well inland toward the Cherokee frontier. Pardo made a small fort and left a corporal there and 17 soldiers, but the Indians soon wiped it out. In 1670 Lederer (1912) places them very much farther north, perhaps on the upper Yadkin, but soon afterward they are found on Wateree River where Lawson met them. In 1711-12 they furnished a contingent to Barnwell in his expedition against the Tuscarora during the Tuscarora War. In a map dated 1715 their village is placed on the west bank of Wateree River, possibly in Fairfield County, but on the Moll map of 1730 it is laid down on the east bank. The Yamasee War reduced their power considerably, and toward the middle of the eighteenth century they went...

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Winyaw Indians

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Winyaw Tribe: Meaning unknown. Winyaw Connections. The Winyaw are placed in the Siouan linguistic family on circumstantial evidence. Their closest connections were with the Pedee and Waccamaw. Winyaw Location. On Winyaw Bay, Black River, and the lower course of the Pee Dee. Winyaw History. Unless this tribe is represented by the Yenyohol of Francisco of Chicora (1521), the Winyaw were first mentioned by the colonists of South Carolina after 1670. In 1683 it was charged that colonists had raided them for slaves on an insufficiently supported charge of murder by some of their people This unfriendly act did not prevent some of them from joining Barnwell’s army in the first Tuscarora War. Along with other Indians they, indeed, withdrew later from the expedition, but they claimed that it was for lack of equipment. In 1715 the Cheraw tried to induce them and the Waccamaw to side against the colonists in the Yamasee War. A year later a trading post was established in the territory of the Waccamaw not far from their own lands. About the same time some of them settled among the Santee, but they appear to have returned to their own country a few years later. Some assisted the Whites in their war with the Waccamaw in 1720. They soon disappear from history and...

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Waccamaw Indians

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Waccamaw Tribe: Meaning unknown. Waccamaw Connections. Nothing of their tongue has been preserved but evidence points to a  connection with the Waccamaw with the Siouan linguistic family, and presumably with the Catawba dialectic group. The Woccon may have been a late subdivision, as Dr. Rights has suggested. (See North Carolina.) Waccamaw Location. On Waccamaw River and the lower course of the Pee Dee. (See North Carolina.) Waccamaw Villages. The Waccamaw were reported to have had six villages in 1715, but none of the names is preserved. Waccamaw History. The name of the Waccamaw may perhaps be recorded in the form Guacaya, given by Francisco of Chicora as that of a “province” in this region early in the sixteenth century. In 1715 Cheraw attempted to incite them to attack the English, and they joined the hostile party but made peace the same year. In 1716 a trading post was established in their country at a place called Uauenee (Uaunee, Euaunee), or the Great Bluff, the name perhaps a synonym of Winyaw, although we know of no Winyaw there. There was a short war between them and the colonists in 1720 in which they lost 60 men, women, and children killed or captured. In 1755 the Cherokee and Natchez are reported to have killed some Pedee and Waccamaw...

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Sugeree Indians

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Sugeree Tribe: Speck (1935) suggests Catawba yensr grihere, “people stingy,” or “spoiled,” or “of the river whose-water-cannot-be drunk.” Also called: Suturees, a synonym of 1715. Sugeree Connections. —No words of their language have been preserved, but there is every reason to suppose that they belonged to the Siouan linguistic family and were closely related to the Catawba, and perhaps still more closely to the Shakori. Sugeree Location. On and near Sugar Creek in York County, S. C, and Mecklenburg County, N. C. Sugeree Villages. There were said to be many but their names have not been preserved. Sugeree History. The Sugeree are hardly mentioned by anyone before Lawson in 1701. They probably suffered in consequence of the Yamasee War and finally united with the Catawba. Population. No separate enumeration or estimate of the to Sugeree have appears ever to have been made, and Mooney included them in the population of 5,000 allowed the Catawba. Connection in which they have become noted. The name Sugeree has been preserved in Sugar Creek, an affluent of Catawba River in North and South...

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Congaree Indians

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Congaree Tribe: Meaning unknown. Congaree Connection. No words of this language have been preserved but the form of the name and general associations of the tribe leave little doubt that it was a Siouan dialect, related most closely to Catawba. Congaree Location. On Congaree River, centering in the neighborhood of the present State Capital, Columbia. Congaree Villages. The only village mentioned bore the same name as the tribe and was sometimes placed on the Congaree opposite Columbia, sometimes on the north side of the river. Congaree History. The Congaree are mentioned in documents of the seventeenth century as one of the small tribes of the Piedmont region. In 1701 Lawson (1860) found them settled on the northeast bank of Santee River below the mouth of the Wateree. They took part against the Whites in the Yamasee War of 1715, and in 1716 over half of them were captured and sent as slaves to the West Indies. The remnant appear to have retreated to the Catawba, for Adair (1930) mentions their dialect as one of those spoken in the Catawba Nation. Congaree Population. The Congaree are estimated by Mooney (1928) at 800 in 1600. A census taken in 1715 gives 22 men and a total population of about 40. Connection in which they have become noted. Congaree...

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Catawba Indians

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Catawba Tribe: Significance unknown though the name was probably native to the tribe. Also called: Ani’ta’guă, Cherokee name. Iswa or Issa, signifying “river,” and specifically the Catawba River; originally probably an independent band which united early with the Catawba proper. Oyadagahrcenes, Tadirighrones, Iroquois names. Usherys, from iswahere, “river down here”; see Issa. Catawba Connections. The Catawba belonged to the Siouan linguistic family, but Catawba was the most aberrant of all known Siouan languages, though closer to Woccon than any other of which a vocabulary has been recorded. Catawba Location. In York and Lancaster Counties mainly but extending into the neighboring parts of the State and also into North Carolina and Tennessee. Catawba Subdivisions. Two distinct tribes are given by Lawson (1860) and placed on early maps, the Catawba and Iswa, the latter deriving their name from the native word meaning “river,” which was specifically applied to Catawba River. Catawba Villages. In early days this tribe had many villages but few names have come down to us. In 1728 there were six villages, all on Catawba River, the most northerly of which was known as Nauvasa. In 1781 they had two called in English Newton and Turkey Head, on opposite sides of Catawba River. Catawba History The Catawba appear first in history under the name Ysa, Issa...

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