Topic: Siouan

Treaty of July 5, 1825

For the purpose of perpetuating the friendship which has heretofore existed, as also to remove all future cause of discussion or dissension, as it respects trade and friendship between the United States and their citizens, and the Sioune and Ogallala bands of the Sioux tribe of Indians, the President of the United States of America, by Brigadier-General Henry Atkinson, of the United States’ Army, and Major Benjamin O’Fallon, Indian Agent, with full powers and authority, specially appointed and commissioned for that purpose, of the one part, and the undersigned Chiefs, Head-men, and Warriors, of the said Sioune and Ogallala bands of Sioux Indians, on behalf of their bands, of the other part, have made and entered into the following articles and conditions, which, when ratified by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate shall be binding on both parties,—to wit: Article I. It is admitted by the Sioune and Ogallala bands of Sioux Indians, that they reside within the territorial limits of the United States, acknowledge their supremacy, and claim their protection. The said bands also admit the right of the United States to regulate all trade and intercourse with them. Article II. The United States agree to receive the Sioune and Ogallala bands of Sioux into their friendship, and under their protection, and to extend to them, from time...

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Oto Indians

Oto Indians. From Wat’ota, meaning “lechers.” It often appears in a lengthened form such as Hoctatas or Octoctatas. Also called: Che-wae-rae, own name. Matokatági, Shawnee name. Motfitatak, Fox name. Wacútada, Omaha and Ponca name. Wadótata, Kansa name. Watohtata, Dakota name. Watútata, Osage name. Oto Connections. The Oto formed, with the Iowa and Missouri, the Chiwere group of the Siouan linguistic family and were closely connected with the Winnebago. Oto Location. The Oto moved many times, but their usual location in the historic period was on the lower course of the Platte or the neighboring banks of the Missouri. (See also Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin.) Oto History From the maps of the Marquette expedition it would seem that at the time when they were drawn, 1673, the Oto were some distance up Des Moines River. Their name was often coupled with that of the related Iowa who lived north of them, but they always seem to have occupied a distinct area. Shortly after this time they moved over to the Missouri and by 1804 had established their town on the south side of the Platte River not far from its mouth. According to native traditions, this tribe, the Iowa, and the Missouri were anciently one people with the Winnebago, but moved southwest from them, and then separated from the Iowa at the mouth of Iowa River and...

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Omaha Indians

Omaha Indians. Meaning “those going against the wind or current”; sometimes shortened to Maha. Also called: Ho’-măn’-hăn, Winnebago name. Hu-úmiûi, Cheyenne Dame. Onǐ’hä°, Cheyenne name, meaning “drum beaters” (?). Pŭk-tǐs, Pawnee name. U’-aha, Pawnee name. Connections. The Omaha belonged to that section of the Siouan linguistic stock which included also the Ponca, Kansa, Osage, and Quapaw, and which was called by J. O. Dorsey (1897) Dhegiha. Location. Their principal home in historic times was in northeastern Nebraska, on the Missouri River. (See also Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, and South Dakota.) History. According to strong and circumstantial traditions, the Omaha and others belonging to the same group formerly lived on the Ohio and Wabash Rivers. It is usually said that the Quapaw separated from the general body first, going down the Mississippi, but it is more likely that they were left behind by the others and later moved out upon the great river. The Osage remained on Osage River, and the Kansa continued on up the Missouri, but the Omaha, still including the Ponca, passed north inland as far as the Pipestone Quarry in Minnesota, and were afterward forced west by the Dakota, into what is now the State of South Dakota. There the Ponca separated from them and the Omaha settled on Bow Creek, in the present Nebraska. They continued from that time forward in the same general region, the...

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Dakota Indians

Dakota Indians. The earliest known home of this tribe was on and near the Mississippi in southern Minnesota, northwestern Wisconsin, and neighboring parts of Iowa. In 1825, after they had spread somewhat farther west, Long (1791) gives their boundaries thus: They were bounded by a curved line extending east of north from Prairie du Chien on the Mississippi, so as to include all the eastern tributaries of the Mississippi, to the first branch of Chippewa River; thence by a line running west of north to Spirit Lake; thence westwardly to Crow Wing River, Minn., and up that stream to its head; thence westwardly to Red River and down that stream to Pembina; thence southwestwardly to the eastern bank of the Missouri near the Mandan villages; thence down the Missouri to a point probably not far from Soldiers River; thence east of north to Prairie du Chien. At a later time they occupied less territory toward the east but extended much farther westward between the Yellowstone and Platte Rivers.

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Assiniboin Indians

Assiniboin Indians. From a Chippewa term signifying “one who cooks by the use of stones.” E-tans-ke-pa-se-qua, Hidatsa name, from a word signifying “long arrows” (Long, 1823). Guerriers de pierre, French name. Hohe, Dakota name, signifying “rebels.” Sioux of the Rocks, English name. Stonies, or Stone Indians, English name translated from the Indian. Tlu’tlama’eka, Kutenai name, signifying “cutthroats,” the usual term for Dakota derived from the sign language. Weepers, given by Henry (1809). Assiniboin Connections. The Assiniboin belonged to the Siouan linguistic family, and were a branch of the Dakota (see South Dakota), having sprung traditionally from the Yanktonai whose dialect they spoke. Assiniboin Location. The Assiniboin were most prominently associated historically with the valleys of the Saskatchewan and Assiniboin Rivers, Canada. In the United States they occupied the territory north of the Milk and Missouri Rivers as far east as the White Earth. (See also North Dakota) Assiniboin Subdivisions The latest list is that given by Professor Lowie (1939). He states that, anciently, there were three principal tribal divisions, viz: Ho-‘ke (Like-Big-Fish) Tu-waa’hudaa (Looking-like-Ghosts) Sitcoa’-ski (Tricksters, lit. “Wrinkled-Ankles”). Lowie obtained the names of the following smaller bands: Tcanxta’daa, Uaska’ha (Roamers), Wazi-‘a wintca’cta, (Northern People), Wato-‘paxna-on wan or Wato’paxnatun, Tcan’xe wintca’cta (People of the Woods), Tani°’ta’bin (Buffalo-Hip), Hu’deca-‘bine (Red-Butt), Waci-‘azI hya-bin (Fat-Smokers), Witci-‘abin, In’yanton’wanbin (Rock People), Wato-‘pabin (Paddlers), Cuñtce-‘bi (Canum Mentulae), Cahi-‘a iye’ska-bin (Speakers of Cree (Half-Crees) ), Xe’natonwan (Mountain...

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Crow Indians

Crow Indians. A translation, through the French gens des corbeaux, of their own name: Absároke, “crow-, sparrowhawk-, or bird-people.” Also called: Handeruka, Mandan name. Haideroka, Hidatsa name. Hounena, Arapaho name, signifying “crow men.” Issl£ppo’, Siksika name. Kangitoka, Yankton Dakota name. Ka’-xi, Winnebago name. Kihnatsa, Hidatsa name, signifying “they who refused the paunch,” and referring to the tradition regarding the separation of these two tribes. Kokokiwak, Fox name. Long-haired Indians, by Sanford (1819). O-e’-tun’-i-o, Cheyenne name, signifying “crow people.” Par-is-ca-oh-pan-ga, Hidatsa name, signifying “crow people” (Long, 1823). Stemchi, Kalispel name. StBmtchi, Salish name. Stimk, Okinagan name. Yaxka’-a, Wyandot name, signifying “crow.” Crow Connections. The Crow belonged to the Siouan linguistic stock and were most closely related to the Hidatsa, from whom they claim to have separated. Crow Location. On the Yellowstone River and its branches, extending as far north as the Musselshell and as far south as Laramie Fork on the Platte, but centering particularly on three southern tributaries of Yellowstone River, the Powder, Wind, and Big Horn Rivers. (See also Wyoming) Crow Subdivisions. There were formerly three local divisions, known to the people themselves as Minë’së?pere, Dung-on-the-river-banks?, or Black Lodges; the A`c’araho-‘, Many-Lodges; and the Erarapi-‘o, Kicked-in-their-bellies. The first of these is called River Crow by some writers and the last two collectively Mountain Crow. They were also divided into 12 clans arranged in pairs. Crow History. As stated...

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Hidatsa Indians

Hidatsa Indians. Derived from the name of a former village and said, on somewhat doubtful authority, to signify “willows.” Also called: A-gutch-a-ninne-wug, Chippewa name, meaning “the settled people.” A-me-she’, Crow name, meaning “people who live in earth houses.” Gi-aucth-in-in-e-wug, Chippewa name, meaning “men of the olden time.” Gros Ventres of the Missouri, traders’ name, probably derived from the sign for them in the sign language. Hewaktokto, Dakota name. Minitari, meaning “they crossed the water,” said to have been given to them by the Mandan, from the tradition of their first encounter with the tribe on the Missouri. Wa-nuk’-e-ye’-na, Arapaho name, meaning “lodges planted together.” Wetitsatn, Arikara name. Hidatsa Connections. The Hidatsa belonged to the Siouan linguistic stock, their closest relations within it being the Crow. Hidatsa Location. They lived at various points on the Missouri between the Heart and Little Missouri Rivers. (See also Montana) Hidatsa Villages Lewis and Clark (1804-5) give the following three names: Amahami or Mahaha, on the south bank of Knife River, formerly an independent but closely related tribe. Amatiha, on the south bank of Knife River. Hidatsa, on the north bank of Knife River. The band names given by Morgan are rather those of social divisions. Hidatsa History. According to tradition, the Hidatsa formerly lived by a lake northeast of their later country, one sometimes identified with Devil’s Lake. They moved from there to...

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Mandan Indians

Mandan Indians. Probably a corruption of the Dakota word applied to them, Mawatani. Also called: A-rach-bo-cu, Hidatsa name (Long, 1791) As-a-ka-shi, Us-suc-car-shay, Crow name. How-mox-tox-sow-es, Hidatsa name (?). Kanit’, Arikara name. Kwowahtewug, Ottawa name. Métutahanke, own name since 1837, after their old village. Mo-no’-ni-o, Cheyenne name. Numakaki, own name prior to 1837, meaning “men,” “people.” U-ka’-she, Crow name, meaning “earth houses.” Mandan Connections. The Mandan belonged to the Siouan linguistic stock. Their connections are with the Tutelo and Winnebago rather than the nearer Siouan tribes. Mandan Location. When known to the Whites, the Mandan were on the same part of the Missouri River as the Hidatsa, between Heart and Little Missouri Rivers. (See also South Dakota) Mandan Subdivisions and Villages. The division names given by Morgan (1851) appear to have been those of their former villages and are as follows: Horatamumake, Matonumake, Seepoosha, Tanatsuka, Kitanemake, Estapa, and Neteahke. In 1804 Lewis and Clark found two villages in existence, Metutahanke and Ruptari, about 4 miles below the mouth of Knife River. They were divided socially into two moieties named like those of the Hidatsa, the Four-Clan Moiety and Three-Clan Moiety, and many of the clans constituting these bear village names. One of Dr. Lowie’s (1917) informants gave the Prairie-chicken people, Young white-headed Eagle, People all in a bunch, and Crow people, as clans of the first Moiety; and the Maxi’?kina,...

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Tutelo Indians

Tutelo Tribe: Significance unknown but used by the Iroquois, who seem to have taken it from some southern tongue. Also called: Kattera, another form of Tutelo. Shateras, a third form of the name. Tutelo Connections. The Tutelo belonged to the Siouan linguistic family, their nearest connections being the Saponi and probably the Monacan. Tutelo Location. The oldest known town site of the Tutelo was near Salem, Va., though the Big Sandy River at one time bore their name and may have been an earlier seat. (See also North Carolina, New York, and Pennsylvania.) Tutelo History. In 1671 Fallam and Batts (1912) visited the town above mentioned. Some years later the Tutelo moved to an island in Roanoke River just above the Occaneechi, but in 1701 Lawson found them still farther southwest, probably about the headwaters of the Yadkin (Lawson, 1860). From that time forward they accompanied the Saponi until the latter tribe separated from them at Niagara as above noted. In 1771 they were settled on the east side of Cayuga Inlet about 3 miles from the south end of the lake. This village was destroyed by Sullivan in 1779, but the Tutelo continued to live among the Cayuga sufficiently apart to retain their own language until 1898, when the last individual who could speak it fluently died. A certain amount of Tutelo blood flows in the veins of...

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Saponi Indians

Saponi Tribe: Evidently a corruption of Monasiccapano or Monasukapanough, which, as shown by Bushnell, is probably derived in part from a native term “moni seep” signifying “shallow water.” Paanese is a corruption and in no way connected with the word “Pawnee.” Saponi Connections. The Saponi belonged to the Siouan linguistic family, their nearest relations being the Tutelo. Saponi Location. The earliest known location of the Saponi has been identified by Bushnell (1930) with high probability with “an extensive village site on the banks of the Rivanna, in Albemarle County, directly north of the University of Virginia and about one-half mile up the river from the bridge of the Southern Railway.” This was their location when, if ever, they formed a part of the Monacan Confederacy. (See also North Carolina, New York, and Pennsylvania.) Saponi Villages. The principal Saponi settlement usually bore the same name as the tribe or, at least, it has survived to us under that name. In 1670 Lederer reports another which he visited called Pintahae, situated not far from the main Saponi town after it had been removed to Otter Creek, southwest of the present Lynchburg (Lederer, 1912), but this was probably the Nahyssan town. Saponi History As first pointed out by Mooney (1895), the Saponi tribe is identical with the Monasukapanough which appears on Smith’s map as though it were a town of the Monacan...

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Occaneechi Indians

Occaneechi Tribe: Meaning unknown. The Botshenins, or Patshenins, a band associated with the Saponi and Tutelo in Ontario, were perhaps identical with this tribe. Occaneechi Connections. The Occaneechi belonged to the Siouan linguistic stock; their closest connections were probably the Tutelo and Saponi. Occaneechi Location. On the middle and largest island in Roanoke River, just below the confluence of the Staunton and the Dan, near the site of Clarksville, Mecklenburg County, Va. (See also North Carolina.) Occaneechi History. Edward Blande and his companions heard of them in 1650. When first met by Lederer in 1670 at the spot above mentioned, the Occaneechi were noted throughout the region as traders, and their language is said to have been the common speech both of trade and religion over a considerable area (Lederer, 1912). Between 1670 and 1676 the Occaneechi had been joined by the Tutelo and Saponi, who settled upon two neighboring islands. In the latter year the Conestoga sought refuge among them and were hospitably received, but, attempting to dispossess their benefactors, they were driven away. Later, harassed by the Iroquois and English, the Occaneechi fled south and in 1701 Lawson (1860) found them on the Eno River, about the present Hillsboro, Orange County, North Carolina. Later still they united with the Tutelo and Saponi and followed their fortunes, having, according to Byrd, taken the name of the Saponi. Occaneechi...

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Nahyssan Indians

Nahyssan Tribe: A contraction of Monahassano or Monahassanugh, remembered in later times as Yesan. Nahyssan Connections. The Nahyssan belonged to the Siouan linguistic stock, their nearest relatives being the Tutelo, Saponi, and probably the Monacan and Manahoac. Nahyssan Location. The oldest known location of the Nahyssan has been identified by D. I. Bushnell, Jr. (1930), within very narrow limits as “probably on the left bank of the James, about 1½ miles up the stream from Wingina, in Nelson County.” Nahyssan History. In 1650 Blande and his companions noted a site, 12 miles south-southwest of the present Petersburg, called “Manks Nessoneicks” which was presumably occupied for a time by the Nahyssan or a part of them, since “Manks” may be intended for “Tanks,” the Powhatan adjective signifying “little.” In 1654 or 1656 this tribe and the Manahoac appeared at the falls of James River having perhaps been driven from their former homes by the Susquehanna. They defeated a force of colonials and Powhatan Indians sent against them but did not advance further into the settlements. In 1670 Lederer (1912) found two Indian towns on Staunton River, one of which he calls Sapon and the other Pintahae. Sapon was, of course, the town of the Saponi but it is believed that Pintahae was the town of the Nahyssan Indians, though Lederer gives this name to both towns. Pintahae was probably the...

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