Topic: Shoshonean

Treaty of July 3, 1868

Articles of a treaty made and concluded at Fort Bridger, Utah Territory,on the third day of July, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight, by and between the undersigned commissioners on the part of the United States, and the undersigned chiefs and head-men of and representing the Shoshonee (eastern band)and Bannack tribes of Indians, they being duly authorized to act in the premises: Article 1. From this day forward peace between the parties to this treaty shall forever continue. The Government of the United States desires peace, and its honor is hereby pledged to keep it. The Indians desire peace, and they hereby pledge their honor to maintain it. If bad men among the whites, or among other people subject to the authority of the United States, shall commit any wrong upon the personor property of the Indians, the United States will, upon proof made to the agent and forwarded to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs,at Washington City, proceed at once to cause the offender to be arrested and punished according to the laws of the United States, and also re-imburse the injured person for the loss sustained. If bad men among the Indians shall commit a wrong or depredation upon the person or property of any one, white, black, or Indian, subject to the authority of the United States, and at peace therewith,...

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Northern Paiute Indians

Northern Paiute. The Northern Paiute were not properly a tribe, the name being used for a dialectic division as indicated above. They covered western Nevada, southeastern Oregon, and a strip of California east of the Sierra Nevada as far south as Owens Lake except for territory occupied by the Washo. According to the students of the area, they were pushed out of Powder River Valley and the upper course of John Day River in the nineteenth century by Shahaptian tribes and the Cayuse.

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Bannock Indians

Bannock Indians. In historic times their main center was in southeastern Idaho, ranging into western Wyoming, between latitude 42° and 45° North and from longitude 113° West eastward to the main chain of the Rocky Mountains. At times they spread well down Snake River, and some were scattered as far north as Salmon River and even into southern Montana.

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Yahuskin Tribe

Yahuskin Indians. A Shoshonean band which prior to 1864 roved and hunted with the Walpapi about the shores of Goose, Silver, Warner, and Harney Lakes, Oregon, and temporarily in Surprise Valley and Klamath Marsh, where they gathered wokas for food. They came specially into notice in 1864, on Oct. 14 of which year they became party to the treaty of Klamath Lake by which their territory was ceded to the United States and they were placed on Klamath Reservation, established at that time. With the Walpapi and a few Paiute who had joined them, the Yahuskin were assigned lands in the southern part of the reservation, on Sprague river about Yainax, where the have since resided, although through intermarriage with other Indians on the reservation their tribal identity became lost by 1898, since which time they have been officially designated as Paiute. Gatschet, who visited them about 1884, says they were then engaged in agriculture, lived in willow lodges and log houses, and were gradually abandoning their roaming proclivities. The Yahuskin have always been officially enumerated with the Walpapi, the aggregate population varying between 1877 and 1891 from 135 to 166 persons. In 1909 they were reported at...

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Lohim Tribe

Lohim Indians. A small Shoshonean band living on Willow Creek, a south affluent of the Columbia, in Southern Oregon, and probably belonging to the Mono-Paviotso group.  They have never made a treaty with the Government and are generally spoken of as renegades belonging to the Umatilla Reservation. In 1870 their number ws reported as 114, but the name has not appeared in recent official reports.  Ross mistook them for Nez...

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Tübatulabal Tribe

Tübatulabal Indians (‘pine-nut eaters,’ Merriam). A small tribe which formerly inhabited the valley of Kern river, south California above the falls extending probably to the river’s source, but centering especially about the junction of the main and south forks. With the Bankalachi they constitute one of the four principal coordinate branches of the Shoshonean...

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History of San Luis Rey de Francia Mission

(Saint Louis, King of France, commonly contracted to San Luis Rey). A Franciscan mission founded June 13, 1798, in San Diego County, California. It was the last mission established in California south of Santa Barbara, and the last one by Fr. Lasuen, who was aided by Frs. Santiago and Peyri. The native name of the site was Tacayne. Occupying an intermediate position between San Juan Capistrano and San Diego, it seems to have been chosen chiefly because of the great number of docile natives in the neighborhood. On the day of the founding, 54 children were baptized, and the number of baptisms by the end of the year reached 214. Fr. Peyri, the head of the new mission, was most zealous and energetic, the natives were willing to work, and by July 1, 6,000 adobes were made for the new church, which was completed in 1802. Other buildings also were constructed, and neophytes rapidly gathered in, so that by 1810 the number reached 1,519, a more rapid growth than in any other mission, while the death rate was the lowest. The mission also prospered materially, having in 1810, 10,576 large stock, 9,710 small stock, and an average crop for the preceding decade of 5,250 bushels. During the next decade the mission continued to prosper, the population reaching 2,603 in 1820, while the large stock numbered 11,852, the small stock...

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History of San Juan Capistrano Mission

A Franciscan mission established by Fr. Junfpero Serra, Nov. 10, 1776, at a place called in the native tongue Sajirit, or Quanis-Savit, at the present San Juan, Orange County, Cal. As soon as Franciscan missionaries, who were superseded by Dominicans in Lower California, arrived in San Diego, the ardent apostle to Alta California sent two friars to institute a mission at a roadstead 26 leagues north of San Diego. They raised a cross on Oct. 30, 1775, but hastily returned when they learned that in the absence of the soldiers the natives had burned San Diego mission. No sooner was it rebuilt than Fr. Junípero proceeded to inaugurate the projected second mission, then hurried to San Gabriel and brought down the requisite stock of cattle escorted by a single soldier, and when a band of yelling, painted Indians threatened his life he won their confidence and friendship. The natives of this coast, well supplied by prolific nature, were not covetous of food or gifts, but remarkably eager for baptism. The inhabitants of the valley came from the other side of the Santa Ana Mountains, where they had a large rancheria called Sejat. About 2 miles from the mission they had one called Putuidem, and in its immediate vicinity they settled at Acagchemem 1Geronimo Boscana in California Farmer, Oct. 11, 1861 . The fruitful plain soon yielded an exchangeable surplus...

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Shoshoni Tribe

Shoshoni Indians. The most northerly division of the Shoshonean family. They formerly occupied west Wyoming, meeting the Ute on the south, the entire central and southern parts of Idaho, except the territory taken by the Bannock, north east Nevada, and a small strip of Utah west of Great Salt lake. The Snake River country in Idaho is, perhaps, to be considered their stronghold. The northern bands were found by Lewis and Clark in 1805, on the headwaters of the Missouri in west Montana, but they had ranged previously farther east on the plains, whence they had been driven into the Rocky Mountains by the hostile Atsina and Siksika, who already possessed firearms. Nowhere had the Shoshoni established themselves on the Columbia, although they reached that river on their raiding excursions. The origin of the term Shoshoni appears to be unknown. It apparently is not a Shoshoni word, and although the name is recognized by the Shoshoni as applying to themselves, it probably originated among some other tribe. The Cheyenne name for the Comanche, who speak the Shoshoni language, is Shǐshǐnoats-hitäneo, ‘snake people’; but they have a different name for the Shoshoni. The term Snake seems to have no etymological connection with the designation Shoshoni. It has been variously and frequently applied to the northern bands of the Shoshoni, especially those of Oregon. By recent official usage the term Snake...

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Shoshonean Indians

Shoshonean Family, Shoshonean People, Shoshonean Nation. The extent of country occupied renders this one of the most important of the linguistic families of the North American Indians. The area held by Shoshonean tribes, exceeded by the territory of only two families – the Algonquian and the Athapascan, – may thus be described: On the north the south west part of Montana, the whole of Idaho south of about lat. 45° 30′, with south east Oregon, south of the Blue Mountains, west and central Wyoming, west and central Colorado, with a strip of north New Mexico; east New Mexico and the whole of north west Texas were Shoshonean. According to Grinnell, Blackfoot (Siksika) tradition declares that when the Blackfeet entered the plains south of Belly River they found that country occupied by the Snake and the Crow. If this be true, south west Alberta and north west Montana were also Shoshonean territory. All of Utah, a section of north Arizona, and the whole of Nevada (except a small area occupied by the Washo) were held by Shoshonean tribes. Of California a small strip in the north east part east of the Sierras, and a wide section along the east border south of about lat. 38°, were also Shoshonean. Shoshonean bands also lived along the upper courses of some of the streams flowing into the San Joaquin. Toward the broken southern...

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Serrano Tribe

Serrano Indians (Spanish: ‘highlanders’, ‘monntaineer-‘ ). A Shoshonean division with a common dialect, centering in the San Bernardino mountains, southern California, north of Los Angeles, but extending down Mohave river at least to Daggett and north across the Mohave desert into the valley of Tejon creek. They also occupied San Bernardino valley. Fray Francisco Garcés. in 1775-76, described the Serranos near Tejon creek, under the name Cuahajai or Cuabajay (their Mohave name), as living in large square communal houses of toile mats on a framework of willow, each family having its own fireplace; they made small baskets, flint knives, and vessels inlaid with mother-of-pearl, and conducted much trade with the natives of the coast near Santa Barbara. One of their rancherias Garcés named San Pascual. The Serranos on the upper waters of Santa Ana river. He called also by their Mohave name, Jenequich (Hanakwiche). In his time these were approachable “and of middling good heart; they are of medium stature, and the women some what smaller, round-faced, flat-nosed, and rather ugly; their custom in gentiledoin is for the men to go entirely naked, and the women wear some sort of deerskin, with which they cover themselves, and also some small coat of otter or of hare.” The same friar visited the Serranos of Mohave river, whom he designated Beñemé (from Vanyume, the Mohave name of this branch). These were...

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Buena Vista Tribe

Buena Vista Indians (Spanish: pleasant view ). A descriptive name applied to one or more Shoshonean or Mariposan tribes living on Buena Vista lake, in the lower Kern River Drainage, California. By treaty of June 10, 1851, these tribes reserved a tract between Tejon Pass and Kern River, and ceded the remainder of their land to the United States.

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