Topic: Shahaptian

Palouse Indians

Palouse Indians were located in the valley of Palouse River in Washington and Idaho and on a small section of Snake River, extending eastward to the camas grounds near Moscow, Idaho. The Palouse were included in the Yakima treaty of 1855 but have never recognized the treaty obligations and have declined to lead a reservation life.

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Klickitat Indians

Klickitat Indians. The original home of the Klickitat was somewhere south of the Columbia, and they invaded their later territory after the Yakima crossed the river. They joined in the Yakima treaty at Camp Stevens, June 9, 1855, by which they ceded their lands to the United States, and most of them settled upon the Yakima Reservation.

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Paloos Tribe

Paloos (Pä-lus;) A Shahaptian tribe formerly occupying the valley of Palouse river in Washington and Idaho, and the north bank of Snake river as far as its junction with the Columbia.  They were found by Lewis and Clark in 1805 on the Clearwater in Idaho.  Their closest connection was with the kindred Nez Percé and they still hold close relations with that tribe.  They were included in the Yakima treaty of 1855, but have never recognized the treaty obligations an have declined to lead a reservation life.  They have 4 villages, all on Snake river, as follows: Almotu, Palus, Tasawiks, and Kasispa.  They are active adherents of the Smohalla doctrine (Ghost Dance).  Lewis and Clark estimated their number in 1805 at 1,600; in 1854 they were said to number 500; at present (1905) the population is...

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Ithkyemamits Tribe

Ithkyemamits Indians. A tribe or band of doubtful linguistic affinity, either Chinookan or Shahaptian, living in 1812 on Columbia River in Klickitat County, Washington, nearly opposite The Dalles. Their number was estimated at...

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Wallawalla Tribe

Wallawalla Indians (‘little river’). A Shahaptian tribe formerly living on lower Walla Walla river and along the east bank of the Columbia from Snake river nearly to the Umatilla in Washington and Oregon. While a distinct dialect, their language is closely related to the Nez Percé. Their number was estimated by Lewis and Clark as 1,600 in 1805, but it is certain this figure included other bands now recognized as independent. By treaty of 1855 they were removed to the Umatilla Reservation in Oregon, where they are now (1910) said to number 461, but are much mixed with Nez Percé, Umatilla, and Cayuse. In the Wasco treaty of 1855, by which the Warm Springs Reservation was established, a number of Shahaptian tribes or bands are mentioned as divisions of the Walla Walla which had no real connection with that...

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Umatilla Tribe

Umatilla Indians. A Shahaptian tribe formerly lining on Umatilla Reservation and the adjacent banks of the Columbia in Oregon.  They were included under the Walla Walla by Lewis and Clark in 1805, though their language is distinct. In 1855 they joined in a treaty with the United States and settled on the Umatilla Reservation in eastern Oregon.  They are said to number 250, but this figure is doubtful, owing to a mixture of tribes on the...

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Tyigh Tribe

Tyigh Indians. A Shahaptian tribe speaking the Tenino language and formerly occupying the country about Tygh and White rivers in Wasco County, Oregon.  They took part in the Wasco treaty of 1855 and are now on the Warm Springs Reservation, Oregon.  Their number is not reported, as they are classed under the indiscriminate term “Warm Springs Indians,” but in 1854 they were said to number 500, and in 1859,...

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Tenino Tribe

Tenino Indians. A Shahaptian tribe formerly occupying the valley of Des Chutes River, Oregon.  The Tenino dialect was spoken on both sides of the Columbia from The Dalles to the mouth of the Umatilla.  In 1855 they joined in the Wasco treaty and were placed on Warm Springs Reservation, since which time they have usually been called Warm Springs Indians, a term embracing a number of tribes of other stocks which were included in the treaty.  The present number of Tenino is unknown, but it is probably not more than...

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Yakima Tribe

Yakima Indians, Yakima Nation (Ya-ki-ná, `runaway’). An important Shahaptian tribe, formerly living on both sides of the Columbia and on the northerly branches of the Yakima (formerly Tapteal) and the Wenatchee, in Washington. They are mentioned by Lewis and Clark in 1806 under the name Cutsahnim (possibly the name of a chief): and estimated as 1,200 in number, but there is no certainty as to the bands it eluded under that figure. In 1855 the United States made a treaty with the Yakima and 13 other tribes of Shahaptian, Salishan, and Chinookan stocks, by whit they ceded the territory from the Cascade Mountains to Palouse and Snake Rivers and from Lake Chelan to the Columbia, and the Yakima Reservation was established, upon which all the participating tribes and bands were to be confederated as the Yakima Nation under the leadership of Kamaiakan, distinguished Yakima chief. Before the treaty could be ratified the Yakima War broke out, and it was not until 1859 that the provisions of the treaty were carried into effect. The Paloos and certain other tribes have never recognized the treaty or come on the reservation. Since the establishment of the reservation the term Yakima has been generally used in comprehensive sense to include all their tribes within its limits, so that it is now impossible to estimate the number Yakima proper.  The total Indian population of the...

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Nez Percé Indians

Nez Percé Indians. A French appellation signifying “pierced noses.” Also called: Â’dal-k’ato’igo, Kiowa name, signifying “people with hair cut across the forehead.” Anípörspi, Calapooya name. A-pa-o-pa, Atsina name (Long, 1823). A-pū-pe’, Crow name, signifying “to paddle,” “paddles.” Blue Muds, name applied by traders. Chopunnish, Lewis and Clark. Green Wood Indians, Henry-Thompson Journal. I’-na-cpĕ, Quapaw name. Kamŭ’inu, own name. Ko-mun’-i-tup’-i-o, Siksika name. Mikadeshitchísi, Kiowa Apache name. Nimipu, own name, signifying “the people.” Pa ka’-san-tse, Osage name, signifying “plaited hair over the forehead.” Pe ga’-zan-de, Kansa name. Pierced Noses, English translation of name. Po’-ge-hdo-ke, Dakota name. Sa-áptin, Okanagon name. Shi’wanǐsh, Tenino name for this tribe and the Cayuse, signifying “strangers from up the river.” Tchaχsúkush, Caddo name. Thoig’a-rik-kah, Shoshoni name, signifying “louse eaters(?).” Tsuhárukats, Pawnee name. Tsútpeli, own name. Nez Percé Connections. The Nez Percé Indians were the best known tribe of the Shahaptian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic stock, to which they gave the name commonly applied to them by Salish tribes. Nez Percé Location. The Nez Perce occupied a large part of central Idaho, and sections of southeastern Washington and northeastern Oregon. (See also Montana and Oklahoma.) Nez Percé Subdivisions The following bands are given by Spinden (1908): Alpowē’ma, on Alpaha (Alpowa) Creek. Atskaaiwawixpu, at the mouth of the northern fork of Clearwater River. Esnime, Slate Creek Band, the Upper Salmon River Indians. Ilasotino, at Hasutin, opposite Asotin City,...

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Shahaptian Indian Bands, Gens and Clans

Many tribes have sub-tribes, bands, gens, clans and phratry.  Often very little information is known or they no longer exist.  We have included them here to provide more information about the tribes. Aigspaluma (Shahaptian: people of the chipmunks ). The Klamath, Modoc, Shoshoni, and Paiute living on Klamath res. and its vicinity in Oregon. Gatschet in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., II, pt. I, xxxiii, 1890. Akaitchis. A tribe said to have resided on Columbia r. not far from the mouth of the Umatilla, in Oregon (Nouv. Ann. des Voy., x, 78, 1821. Their location would indicate a Shahaptian division, but they can not be...

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