Topic: Seminole

Treaty of May 9, 1832

The Seminole Indians, regarding with just respect, the solicitude manifested by the President of the United States or the improvement of their condition, by recommending a removal to a country more suitable to their habits and wants than the one they at present occupy in the Territory of Florida, are willing that their confidential chiefs, Jumper, Fuck-a-lus-ti-had-jo, Charley Emartla, Coi-had-jo, Holati Emartla Ya-hadjo; Sam Jones, accompanied by their agent Major Phagan, and their faithful interpreter Abraham, should be sent at the expense of the United States as early as convenient to examine the country assigned to the Creeks west of the Mississippi river, and should they be satisfied with the character of that country, and of the favorable disposition of the Creeks to reunite with the Seminoles as one people; the articles of the compact and agreement, herein stipulated at Payne’s landing on one Ocklewaha river, this ninth day of May, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-two, between James Gadsden, for and in behalf of the Government of the United States, and the undersigned chiefs and head-men for and in behalf of the Seminole Indians, shall be binding on the respective parties. Article 1.The Seminole Indians relinquish to the United States, all claim to the lands they at present occupy in the Territory of Florida, and agree to emigrate to the country assigned to the Creeks, west of the...

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Agreement of September 13, 1865

Articles of agreement entered into this thirteenth day of September, 1865, between the commissioners designated by the President of the United States and the persons here present representing or connected with the following named nations and tribes of Indians located within the Indian country, viz: Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Osages, Seminoles, Senecas, Shawnees, and Quapaws. Whereas the aforesaid nations and tribes, or bands of Indians, or portions thereof, were induced by the machinations of the emissaries of the so-called Confederate States to throw off their allegiance to the government of the United States, and to enter into treaty stipulations with said so-called Confederate States, whereby they have made themselves liable to a forfeiture of all rights of every kind, character, and description which had been promised and guaranteed to them by the United States; and whereas the government of the United States has maintained its supremacy and authority within its limits; and whereas it is the desire of the government to act with magnanimity with all parties deserving its clemency, and to re-establish order and legitimate authority among the Indian tribes; and whereas the undersigned representatives or parties connected with said nations or tribes of Indians have become satisfied that it is for the general good of the people to reunite with and be restored to the relations which formerly existed between them and the United States, and as...

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Treaty of September 18, 1823

Article I. The undersigned chiefs and warriors, for themselves and their tribes, have appealed to the humanity; and thrown themselves on, and have promised to continue under, the protection of the United States, and of no other nation, power, or sovereign; and, in consideration of the promises and stipulations hereinafter made, do cede and relinquish all claim or title which they may have to the whole territory of Florida, with the exception of such district of country as shall herein be allotted to them. Article II. The Florida tribes of Indians will hereafter be concentrated and confined to the following metes and boundaries: commencing five miles north of Okehumke, running in a direct line to a point five miles west of Setarky’s settlement, on the waters of Amazura, (or Withlahuchie river, ) leaving said settlement two miles south of the line; from thence, in a direct line, to the south end of the Big Hammock, to include Chickuchate; continuing, in the same direction, for five miles beyond the said Hammock–provided said point does not approach nearer than fifteen miles the sea coast of the Gulf of Mexico; if it does, the said line will terminate at that distance from the sea coast; thence, south, twelve miles; thence in a south 30° east direction, until the same shall strike within five miles of the main branch of Charlotte river; thence,...

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Biography of Mikanopy

Mikanopy (`head chief’). A Seminole chief. On May 9, 1832, a treaty was signed purporting to cede the country of the Seminole to the United States in exchange for lands west of the Mississippi. The Seminole had already relinquished their desirable lands near the coast and retired to the pine barrens and swamps of the interior. Mikanopy, the hereditary chief, who possessed large herds of cattle and horses and a hundred Negro slaves, stood by young Osceola and the majority of the tribe in the determination to remain. Neither of them signed the agreement to emigrate given on behalf of the tribe by certain pretended chiefs on Apr. 23, 1835. In the summer of that year the Indians made preparations to resist if the Government attempted to remove them. When the agent notified them on Dec. 1 to deliver their horses and cattle and assemble for the long journey they sent their women and children into the interior, while the warriors were seen going about in armed parties. The white people had contented the Seminole as a degenerate tribe, enervated through long contact with the whites. Although Mikanopy, who was advanced in years, was the direct successor of King Payne, the chief who united the tribe, the agent said he would no longer recognize him as a chief when he absented himself from the council where the treaty was...

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Biography of Osceola

Osceola (also spelled Oseola, Asseola, Asseheholar, properly Asi-yaholo, ‘Blackdrink halloer,’ from asi, the ‘black drink’, yaholo, the long drawn-out cry sung by the attendant while each man in turn is drinking). A noted Seminole leader to whom the name Powell was sometimes applied from the fact that after the death of his father his mother married a white man of that name. He was born on Tallapoosa river, in the Creek country, about 1803 his paternal grandfather was a Scotchman, and it is said the Caucasian strain was noticeable in his features and complexion. He was not a chief by descent, nor, so far as is known, by formal election, but took his place as leader and acknowledged chieftain by reason of his abilities as a warrior and commander during the memorable struggle of his people with the United States in the Seminole war of 1835. Secreting the women, children, and old men of his tribe in the depths of a great swamp, where the white troops were for a long time unable to find them, Osceola turned his energy to the work of harassing the Government forces. Maj. Dade and his detachment, the first to attack him, were cut off, only two or three wounded men escaping. Beginning with Gen. Gaines, one after another officer was placed in charge of the army sent against this intrepid warrior and...

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Biographical Sketch of Chief Bowlegs

Bowlegs (probably corrupted from Bolek). An inferior Seminole chief who was brought temporarily into notice in 1812 during the Indian war on the Georgia frontier. When early in that year King Paine, also a Seminole chief, at the head of sundry bands of Seminole and blacks, started on a mission of blood and plunder, Bowlegs joined him. A small force under Capt. Williams was met and defeated Sept. 11. Their force being considerably increased, they soon there after marched from the Alachua towns to attack Gen. Neuman, who had been sent against them with orders to destroy their towns. After 4 severe charges in which King Paine was killed and Bowlegs wounded, the Indians were driven back. With this occurrence Bowlegs drops from history, though he probably lived several years longer. In a document exhibited in the trial of Arbuthnott and Ambrister his name is signed Boleck. See also Billy Bowlegs, but don’t confuse the...

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Billy Bowlegs and His Raid on Dr. Braden’s Farm

“Billy Bowlegs” was a Seminole chief, and lived in the swamps and Everglades of Florida, and some might ask, what had, he to do with the history of Fort Bend County. Personally, nothing, but Fort Bend has an old Negro woman living at Old Arcola (Lucinda Lawson), who has some interesting reminiscences connected with the exploits of this famous chief. She belonged to Dr. Braden in Florida, who had a fine plantation not a great distance from the stronghold of Chief Bowlegs, who often made raids on the planters and carried off their stock, and even Negroes. United States troops were in the vicinity, but so sudden and swift were the raids of Bowlegs that he often got off scott-free with his booty. On one occasion he made a sudden dash upon the plantation of Dr. Braden. It was at night, and the family was at the supper table, Lucinda waiting upon them. In passing from the kitchen to the dining room she discovered the Indians in the orange orchard creeping towards the house. The master was at once informed, who had every light extinguished, and, seizing his gun approached a window and opened fire on them. They returned the fire and yelled considerably, but finally drew off, with Bowlegs badly wounded, having an arm shattered by a ball. They could not easily burn the doctor’s house, as it...

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Biographical Sketch of Hornotlimed

Hornotlimed: A Seminole chief who came into notice chiefly through a single incident of the Seminole war of 1817-18. He resided at the Fowl Town, in northwest Florida, at the beginning of hostilities, but was forced to flee to Mikasuki. On Nov. 30, 1817, three vessels arrived at the mouth of Apalachicola River with supplies for the garrison farther up the stream, but on account of contrary winds were unable to ascend. Lieutenant Scott was sent to their assistance with a boat and 40 men, who, on their return from the vessels, were ambushed by Hornotlimed and a band of warriors, all being killed except 6 soldiers, who jumped overboard and swam to the opposite shore. Twenty soldiers who had been left to aid the vessels, and an equal number of women and sick who were with them, fell into the hands of Hornotlimed and his warriors and were slain and scalped. The scalps were carried to Mikasuki and displayed on red sticks as tokens of the victory. Mikasuki was soon afterward visited by American troops and, although most of the Indians escaped, Hornotlimed was captured and immediately hanged. Gen. Jackson called him “Homattlemico, the old Red-stick,” the latter name being applied because he was a chief of the Mikasuki band, known also as Red sticks, because they erected red-painted poles in their...

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Treaty of August 7, 1856

Articles of agreement and convention between the United States and the Creek and Seminole Tribes of Indians, made and concluded at the city of Washington the seventh day of August, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-six, by George W. Manypenny, commissioner on the part of the United States, Tuck-a-batchee-Micco, Echo-Harjo, Chilly McIntosh, Benjamin Marshall, George W. Stidham, and Daniel N. McIntosh, commissioners on the part of the Creeks; and John Jumper, Tuste-nuc-o-chee, Pars-co-fer, and James Factor, commissioners on the part of the Seminoles: Whereas the convention heretofore existing between the Creek and Seminole tribes of Indians west of the Mississippi River, has given rise to unhappy and injurious dissensions and controversies among them, which render necessary a readjustment of their relations to each other and to the United States; and Whereas the United States desire, by providing the Seminoles remaining in Florida with a comfortable home west of the Mississippi River, and by making a liberal and generous provision for their welfare, to induce them to emigrate and become one people with their brethren already west, and also to afford to all the Seminoles the means of education and civilization, and the blessings of a regular civil government; and Whereas the Creek Nation and individuals thereof, have, by their delegation, brought forward and persistently urged various claims against the United States, which it is desirable shall be finally adjusted...

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Seminole Indian Tribe Photo Descriptions

“The Isti-Semole (wild men) who inhabit the peninsula of Florida (1836) are pure Muskogee, who have gradually detached themselves from the confederacy, but were still considered members of it till the United States treated with them as with an independent nation. The name of Seminoles was given to them on account of their being principally hunters and attending but little to farming.” Were very hostile to the Americans up to the cession of Florida in 1819, but a treaty was finally made with them in 1823. Other treaties followed looking to their removal westward, in attempting to carry out which a war ensued, lasting from 1835 until 1842. Nearly 2,000 had then been removed, leaving about 300 in Florida, and 145 of these, under Billy Bowlegs, joined the western band in the Indian Territory in 1858. Had much trouble in getting settled upon a reservation, locating finally upon a tract of 200,000 acres bought of the Creeks, where they now number 2,553 a prosperous and civilized tribe. List of illustrations 714. O-LAC-TO-MI-CO. Billy Bowlegs Photo. The well-known and famous leader of the Seminoles in the Florida war, 1835-’42, but was finally compelled to remove with the remnants of his tribe to the Indian Territory.        ...

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Seminole Tribe

Seminole Indians, Seminole Nation (Creek: Sim-a-no’-le, or Isti simanóle, ‘separatist’, ‘runaway’ ). A Muskhogean tribe of Florida, originally made up of immigrants from the Lower Creek towns on Chattahoochee river, who moved down into Florida following the destruction of the Apalachee and other native tribes. They were at first classed with the Lower Creeks, but began to be known under their present name about 1775.  Those still residing in Florida call themselves Ikaniúksalgi, peninsula people’ (Gatschet). The Seminole, before the removal of the main body to Indian Territory, consisted chiefly of descendants of Muscogee (Creeks) and Hitchiti from the Lower Creek towns, with a considerable number of refugees from the Upper Creeks after the Creek War, together with remnants of Yamasee and other conquered tribes, Yuchi, and a large Negro element from runaway slaves. When Hawkins wrote, in 1799, they had 7 towns, which increased to 20 or more as they overran the peninsula. While still under Spanish rule the Seminole became involved in hostility with the United States, particularly in the War of 1812, and again in 1817-18, the latter being known as the first Seminole War. This war was quelled by Gen. Andrew Jackson, who invaded Florida with a force exceeding 3,000 men, as the result of which Spain ceded the territory to the United States in 1819. By treaty of Ft Moultrie in 1823, the Seminole ceded...

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Muskogean Indians

Muskhogean Family, Muskhogean Stock, Muskhogean People, Muskhogean Indians. An important linguistic stock, comprising the Creeks, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Seminole, and other tribes. The name is an adjectival form of Muskogee, properly Măskóki (pl. Maskokalgi or Muscogulgee). Its derivation has been attributed to an Algonquian term signifying `swamp’ or `open marshy land’, but this is almost certainly incorrect. The Muskhogean tribes were confined chiefly to the Gulf states east of almost all of Mississippi and Alabama, and parts of Tennessee, Georgia, Florida, and South Carolina. According to a tradition held in common by most of their tribes, they had reached their historic seats from some starting point west of the Mississippi, usually placed, when localized at all, somewhere on the upper Red River. The greater part of the tribes of the stock are now on reservations in Oklahoma.

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Big Swamp Tribe

Big Swamp Indians. A name applied to Seminole, principally of the Mikasuki division, near Miccosukee Lake, Leon County, Florida. For Further Study The following articles and manuscripts will shed additional light on the Big Swamp Tribe as both an ethnological study, and as a people. McKenney and Hall, Ind. Tribes, II, 157, 1854. Alternate Spellings Long Swamp Indians – McKenney and Hall, Ind. Tribes, II, 157,...

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