Topic: Seminole War

The Osage Massacre

When the treaty council with the Osage at Fort Gibson broke up in disagreement on April 2, 1833, three hundred Osage warriors under the leadership of Clermont departed for the west to attack the Kiowa. It was Clermont’s boast that he never made war on the whites and never made peace with his Indian enemies. At the Salt Plains where the Indians obtained their salt, within what is now Woodward County, Oklahoma, they fell upon the trail of a large party of Kiowa warriors going northeast toward the Osage towns above Clermont’s. The Osage immediately adapted their course to that pursued by their enemies following it back to what they knew would be the defenseless village of women, children, and old men left behind by the warriors. The objects of their cruel vengeance were camped at the mouth of Rainy-Mountain Creek, a southern tributary of the Washita, within the present limits of the reservation at Fort Sill.

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Establishment of Fort Gibson in 1824

By Act of Congress of March 2, 1819, Arkansas Territory was established July 4, embracing substantially all of what are now the states of Arkansas and Oklahoma; though the civil government of Arkansas Territory was limited to that section lying east of the Osage line, divided into counties, and embracing approximately the present state of Arkansas. That west of the Osage line was the Indian country, and in later years became known as Indian Territory. James Miller 1James Miller was born in Peterboro, N. H., April 25, 1776; entered the array as major in 1808, became Lieutenant-colonel in 1810,...

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Second Seminole War – Indian Wars

The second Seminole war against the Indians and runaway Blacks in Florida commenced in 1835. A treaty had been concluded with the Seminole warriors, by which they agreed to remove beyond the Mississippi. A party of the Indians had proceeded to the territory appointed for their reception, and reported favorably upon their return. Everything promised a speedy conformity to the wishes of the government. But at this juncture, John Hext, the most influential chief of the tribe, died, and was succeeded in power, by Osceola. This chief wielded his power for far different purposes. Being opposed to emigration, he...

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The Seminole War of 1816 and 1817 – Indian Wars

After the close of the war with Great Britain, in 1815, when the British forces were withdrawn from the Florida’s, Edward Nicholls, formerly a colonel, and James Woodbine, a captain in the British service, who had both been engaged in exciting the Indians and Blacks to hostility, remained in the territory for the purpose of forming combinations against the southwestern frontier of the United States. Nicholls even went so far as to assume the character of a British agent, promising the Creeks the assistance of the British forces if they would rise and assert their claim to the land...

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Biography of Capt. Alfred M. Julian

Among the many prominent, enterprising and successful citizens of Springfield, Missouri, whose biography it is a pleasure to give among the honored ones of that city, is the pioneer attorney, Capt. Alfred M. Julian, who has been a resident of Springfield since the year 1838. Over eighty years have passed over the head of this venerable man, leaving their impress in the whitening hair and lined features, but while the outward garments of the soul show the wear and tear of years, the man himself is richer and nobler and grander for the experience that each successive decade has brought him. Honorable and upright in every walk of life, his long career has been without blemish or blot to mar its whiteness. Capt. Julian was born in Knox County, Tennessee, August 7, 1813, and was a son of John and Lucretia Julian, natives of North Carolina and England, respectively. The Julian family is of French origin and settled in America during the seventeenth century, in South Carolina. John Julian, father of subject, was a representative man of his county in North Carolina, and took a prominent part in all matters of moment. In politics he was a Whig. The mother was of Scotch descent, and her ancestors came to America at a period antedating the Revolutionary War, some of them taking a prominent part in that struggle. The Julian...

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Biography of Mikanopy

Mikanopy (`head chief’). A Seminole chief. On May 9, 1832, a treaty was signed purporting to cede the country of the Seminole to the United States in exchange for lands west of the Mississippi. The Seminole had already relinquished their desirable lands near the coast and retired to the pine barrens and swamps of the interior. Mikanopy, the hereditary chief, who possessed large herds of cattle and horses and a hundred Negro slaves, stood by young Osceola and the majority of the tribe in the determination to remain. Neither of them signed the agreement to emigrate given on behalf of the tribe by certain pretended chiefs on Apr. 23, 1835. In the summer of that year the Indians made preparations to resist if the Government attempted to remove them. When the agent notified them on Dec. 1 to deliver their horses and cattle and assemble for the long journey they sent their women and children into the interior, while the warriors were seen going about in armed parties. The white people had contented the Seminole as a degenerate tribe, enervated through long contact with the whites. Although Mikanopy, who was advanced in years, was the direct successor of King Payne, the chief who united the tribe, the agent said he would no longer recognize him as a chief when he absented himself from the council where the treaty was...

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Muskogean Indians

Muskhogean Family, Muskhogean Stock, Muskhogean People, Muskhogean Indians. An important linguistic stock, comprising the Creeks, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Seminole, and other tribes. The name is an adjectival form of Muskogee, properly Măskóki (pl. Maskokalgi or Muscogulgee). Its derivation has been attributed to an Algonquian term signifying `swamp’ or `open marshy land’, but this is almost certainly incorrect. The Muskhogean tribes were confined chiefly to the Gulf states east of almost all of Mississippi and Alabama, and parts of Tennessee, Georgia, Florida, and South Carolina. According to a tradition held in common by most of their tribes, they had reached their historic seats from some starting point west of the Mississippi, usually placed, when localized at all, somewhere on the upper Red River. The greater part of the tribes of the stock are now on reservations in Oklahoma.

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Mikasuki Tribe

Mikasuki Indians, Mikasuki Tribe. A former Seminole town in Leon County, Florida, on the west shore of Miccosukee lake, on or near the site of the present Miccosukee. The name has been applied also to the inhabitants as a division of the Seminole. They spoke the Hitchiti dialect, and, as appears from the title of B. Smith’s vocabulary of their language, were partly or wholly emigrants from the Sawokli towns on lower Chattahoochee River, Alabama. The former town appears to have been one of the ‘red’ or ‘bloody’ towns, for at the beginning of the Seminole troubles of 1817 its inhabitants stood at the head of the hostile element and figured conspicuously as “Red Sticks,” or “Batons Rouges,” having painted high poles, the color denoting war and blood. At this time they had 300 houses, which were burned by Gen. Jackson. There were then several villages near the lake, known also as Mikasuki towns, which were occupied almost wholly by Negroes. In the Seminole war of 1835-42 the people of this town became noted for their courage, dash, and...

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Yuchi Indians

Yuchi Tribe. Significance unknown, but perhaps, as suggested by Speck (1909), from a native word meaning “those far away,” or “at a distance,” though it is also possible that it is a variant of Ochesee or Oeese, which was applied by the Hitchiti and their allies to Indians speaking languages different from their own. Also called: Ani’-Yu’tsl, Cherokee name. Chiska, probably a Muskogee translation of the name of one of their bands. Hughchee, an early synonym. Round town people, a name given by the early English colonists. Rickohockans, signifying “cavelanders” (Hewitt, in Hodge, 1907), perhaps an early name for a part of them. Tahogalewi, abbreviated to Hogologe, name given them by the Delaware and other Algonquian people. Tamahita, so called by some Indians, perhaps some of the eastern Siouans. Tsoyaha, “People of the sun,” their own name, or at least the name of one band. Westo, perhaps a name applied to them by the Cusabo Indians of South Carolina though the identification is not beyond question. Yuchi Connections. The Yuchi constituted a linguistic stock, the Uchean, distinct from all others, though structurally their speech bears a certain resemblance to the languages of the Muskhogean and Siouan families. Yuchi Location. The earliest known location of the Yuchi was in eastern Tennessee, perhaps near Manchester, but some of them extended still farther east, while others were as far west as Muscle...

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Yaha Hajo, Seminole War Chief

Advancing on Yaha Hajo, General Joseph Shelton placed the pistol at his breast, and drew the trigger, but the weapon missed fire. The Indian brought his rifle to his shoulder and shot the General in the hip; at the same moment the brave savage received a fatal wound from another hand, fell on his knees, attempted to load his rifle in that position, and died, resisting to the last gasp. with the obstinacy which always marks the death of the Indian warrior.

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Seventh Regiment 1st Brigade Florida Militia

Muster Roll of Captain A. A. Fisher’s Company of the 7th Regiment, 1st Brigade of Florida Militia; commanded by Col. John A. Cuth ? , ordered into service of the United States by Gov. R. K. Call from the 10th day of May to the 10th day of November 1836. Company enrolled at Tallahassee, Florida. by Col. L. Parkhill. Fisher, A. A. Captain, 2 horses, 1 servant. Johnson, J. B.1st Lieut., 2 horses, 1 servant. Kerr, R. B. 2d Lieut., 2 horses, 1 servant. David, F. H. Bryan, E. 1st Sergt. Frazier, Micajah 2d Sergt. Mills, Stephen 3d Sergt. Lee, Amos 1st Corporal. Houck, G. 2d Corporal. Fields, A. L. 3d Corporal. Privates Antley, Lagarous Aulf, Richard Burket, Thomas Bist, Ely Carter, Levi Chadwick, Daniel Cole, Seamon, discharged 9 July 1836. Culberth, Arthur, died 18 July 1836. Duncan, Hugh Eccles, William Farthingham, David Fitzgerald, Aron Grantham, John, absent Highsmith, James Holland, William H_______, N. B. Kenyon, James Lewis, Pearce A. Lovett, Jonathan Mc D_____, William McKnight, Sam’i Mills, Myron, dyed 16 July 1836 Miller, Thomas, discharged 9 July 1836 Miegs, J. B. Ragsdale, William Rawls, Henry Ringgold, Sam’l G. Smith, William Smith, Isanath Standley, Thomas Speers, John Salley, Alley Shepherd, Francis Simpson, Joseph Turner, Matthew Thornsbury, Thomas, deserted Tillery, William Thomas, Isham Wilkinson, Thomas, Dyed 16 October 1836. Whiting, Wm. M. Wadkins, Tobias Certified a true copy of the...

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Second Regiment, Second Brigade Mounted Men

Muster Roll of Captain Charles Freymuth’s Company of Mounted men of the 2nd Regiment, Second Brigade of the Florida Militia, commanded by General Hernandez ordered into the service of the United States by Governor Call from the 1st day of October 1836 to the 1st day of February 1837. The company was enrolled by Major Pierce. Muster roll certified as true by Charles Freymuth, Captain, February 1837 at St. Augustine, East Florida. Also certified by the Mustering Officer, L. O. Webster. Freymuth, Charles Captain, furnished 1 public horse from the 5th of Nov. Lopez, Petronelus 1st Lieut. Sanchez, John 1st Sergt. Dupont, Virgil 2nd Sergt Sanchez, Francis Corporal Perpal, Gabriel Corporal Campbell, Robert Musician Privates Anderson, William Bassareri, Robert Bravo, Gregorio Braested, Garret Black, Wm. Dupont, Abraham horse died in service 31 Jan. 1837. Faulk, John horse died in service 20th Nov. Ferman, Walter discharged Oct.11th by order Gov. Call. Hughes, J. C. (Huthes?) Ives, Washington Ives, Edward Loring, William Thos. DOOLEY mustered as substitute from 12/25. Gates, John trans, to Col. Warren’s Command. Pinkerton, John furnished a public horse. Rouse, F. L. discharged 10/11/36 by order of Gov. Call. Saunders, Jessee furnished a public horse. Saunders, Daniel furnished a public horse. Sanchez, John furnished a public horse. name not readable. Torres, Raphial Tucker, M. H. discharged 11/1/ by order Col. Downing. White, Daniel discharged by order of Col....

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Michael Garrison’s Mounted Company

Muster Roll of Captain Michael Garrison’s Mounted Company of the 1st Regiment 2nd Brigade of the Florida Militia, commanded by Col. John Warren, ordered into service of the United States by His Excellency Governor Call from the 22nd day of September 1836 to the 22nd day of January 1837. Lieutenants Bruton and Hindley with a part of this Company greatly distinguished themselves at the Battle of San _____ on ____ber 1836 and in several other services. Also, with a part of the Company, they serviced in the Battalion under my command in Col. Pearce’s Division and greatly distinguished them-selves for their soldier-like conduct, particular at the Wahoo Swamp on the 21st of Nov. 1836. Garrison, Michael Captain; 1 servant & 2 horses. Bruton, David 1st Lieut., 1 servant & 2 horses. Hindley, Matthew 2d Lieut, 1 servant & 2 horses. Y0ungblo0d, Robert 1st Sgt. *Harvill, John E. Sgt. Garrason, Isaac Sgt. Garrason, Richard ZL. Sgt. Geiger, John Corporal. Miller, Joshua Corporal. Barron, Thomas E. Corporal. Bivan, Robert Corporal. * Lost his horse in the campaign and procured another. Privates Adams, William Bates, Wilson Bates, Fleming, Sr. Bates, Fleming, Jr., lost his horse in the Withlacochie, procured another, Bates, Jas. B. Blocker, _____ Branch, Britton Branch, John Buffam, R. V. Burnett, James Burnett, Jerry, mortally wounded in action 9/18; died after discharge. Burnett, Saburn Burnett, Samuel Cash, David C. Christian,...

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Seminole Indian War

During the American Revolution (1776-1783), Spain gained control of Florida as part of the Treaty of Paris. On September 3, Britain also signed separate agreements with France and Spain, and (provisionally) with the Netherlands. In the treaty with Spain, the colonies of East and West Florida were ceded to Spain (without any clearly defined northern boundary, resulting in disputed territory resolved with the Treaty of Madrid), as was the island of Minorca, while the Bahama Islands, Grenada and Montserrat, captured by the French and Spanish, were returned to Britain. Spanish colonists as well as settlers from the newly formed United States came pouring in. Many of these new residents were lured by favorable Spanish terms for acquiring property, called land grants. Even Seminoles were encouraged to set up farms, because they provided a buffer between Spanish Florida and the United States. Escaped slaves also entered Florida, trying to reach a place where their U.S. masters had no authority over them. First Seminole War, 1817-1818 Timeline of Seminole Wars (hosted at Clude Walker) First, Second and Third Seminole War Forts by County (Tour of Florida Territory) Index to Florida Militia Muster Rolls (hosted at USGenWeb Archives Pension Project, Seminole War) Surnames A-D Surnames E-H Surnames I-O Surnames P-S Surnames T-Z Seminole Wars (hosted at My Florida, Division of Historical Resources) Second Seminole War, 1835-1842 History of the Second Seminole War...

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