Topic: Sauk

Treaty of September 27, 1836

In a convention held this twenty-seventh day of September 1836, between Henry Dodge Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and the chiefs, braves, and principal men of the Sac and Fox tribe of Indians, it has been represented, that according to the stipulations of the first article of the treaty of Prairie du Chien, of the 15th July 1830, the country thereby ceded, is “to be assigned and allotted under the direction of the President of the United States, to the tribes now living thereon, or to such other tribes as the President may locate thereon for hunting and other purposes.” And, whereas, it is further represented to us, the chiefs, braves, and principal men of the tribe aforesaid, to be desirable that the lands lying between the State of Missouri and the Missouri river should be attached to, and become a part of said State, and the Indian title thereto be entirely extinguished; but that, notwithstanding, as these lands compose a part of the country embraced by the provisions of said first article of the treaty aforesaid, the stipulations thereof will be strictly observed until the assent of the Indians interested is given to the proposed measure. Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. choose a state: Any AL AK AZ AR CA CO CT DE DC FL GA HI ID IL IN IA KS KY...

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Treaty of May 18, 1854

Articles of agreement and convention made and concluded at the city of Washington this eighteenth day of May, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-four, by George W. Manypenny, commissioner on the part of the United States, and the following-named delegates of the Sacs and foxes of Missouri, viz: Pe-to-o-ke-mah, or Hard Fish; Mo-less or Wah-pe-nem-mah, or Sturgeon; Ne-son-quoit, or Bear; Mo-ko- ho-ko, or Jumping Fish; and No-ko-what, or Fox; they being thereto duly authorized by the said Sac and Fox Indians. Article 1. The Sacs and Foxes of Missouri hereby cede, relinquish and convey to the United States all their right, title and interest in and to the country assigned to them by the treaty concluded on the seventeenth day of September, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-six, between William Clark, superintendent of Indian affairs, on the part of the United States, and the Ioways and Missouri Sacs and Foxes, being the lower half of the country described in the second article thereof as “the small strip of land on the south side of the Missouri River, lying between the Kickapoo northern boundary-line and the Grand Nemahaw River, and extending from the Missouri back and westwardly with the said Kickapoo line and the Grand Nemahaw, making four hundred sections; to be divided between the said Ioways and Missouri band of Sacs and Foxes; the lower half to the Sacs...

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Sauk Indians

Sauk Indians. From Osā’kiwŭg, meaning “people of the outlet, or people of the yellow earth.” Also called: Hotǐ’nestakon’, Onondaga name. Satoeronnon, Huron name. Quatokeronon, Huron name. Za’-ke, Santee and Yankton Dakota name. Sauk Connections. The Sauk belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock and the same subdivision as that embracing the Foxes and Kickapoo. Sauk Location. On the upper part of Green Bay and lower course of Fox River. (See also Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, and Oklahoma.) Sauk History. The earliest known home of the Sauk was about Saginaw Bay, Michigan, which still bears their name. Shortly before appearance of the Whites they were expelled from this country by the Ottawa and the Neutral Nation, and settled in the region above indicated where they remained for a considerable period. In (1796) found their chief villages on Wisconsin River. After the destruction of the Illinois they extended their territories over the Rock River district of northwestern Illinois.  In 1804 a band of Sauk wintering near St. Louis were induced to enter into a treaty ceding to the United States Government the Sauk territories in Illinois and Wisconsin, but this transaction created so much indignation among the rest of the tribe when it became known that the band who made treaty never returned to the rest and they have received independent recognition as the Missouri River Sauk. As the rest...

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Treaty of August 19, 1825

Treaty with the Sioux and Chippewa, Sacs and Fox, Menominie, Ioway, Winnebago, and a portion of the Ottawa, and Potawattomie Tribes. The United States of America have seen with much regret, that wars have for many years been carried on between the Sioux and the Chippewas, and more recently between the confederated tribes of Sacs and Foxes, and the Sioux; and also between the Ioways and Sioux; which, if not terminated, may extend to the other tribes, and involve the Indians upon the Missouri, the Mississippi, and the Lakes, in general hostilities. In order, therefore, to promote peace among these tribes, and to establish boundaries among them and the other tribes who live in their vicinity, and thereby to remove all causes of future difficulty, the United States have invited the Chippewa, Sac, and Fox, Menominie, Ioway, Sioux, Winnebago, and a portion of the Ottowa, Chippewa and Potawatomie Tribes of Indians living upon the Illinois, to assemble together, and in a spirit of mutual conciliation to accomplish these objects; and to aid therein, have appointed William Clark and Lewis Cass, Commissioners on their part, who have met the Chiefs, Warriors, and Representatives of the said tribes, and portion of tribes, at Prairie des Chiens, in the Territory of Michigan, and after full deliberation, the said tribes, and portions of tribes, have agreed with the United States, and with one...

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Treaty of August 25, 1828

Articles of agreement with the Winnebago Tribe and the United Tribes of Potawatamie, Chippewa and Ottawa Indians. The Government of the United States having appointed Commissioners to treat with the Sac, Fox, Winebago, Potawatamie, Ottawa, and Chippewa, tribes of Indians, for the purpose of extinguishing their title to land within the State of Illinois, and the Territory of Michigan, situated between the Illinois river and the Lead Mines on Fever River, and in the vicinity of said Lead Mines, and for other purposes; and it having been found impracticable, in consequence of the lateness of the period when the instructions were issued, the extent of the country occupied by the Indians, and their dispersed situation, to convene them in sufficient numbers to justify a cession of land on their part; and the Chiefs of the Winnebago tribe, and of the united tribes of the Potawatamies, Chippewas, and Ottawas, assembled at Green Bay, having declined at this time to make the desired cession, the following temporary arrangement, subject to the ratification of the President and Senate of the United States, has this day been made, between Lewis Cass and Pierre Menard, Commissioners of the United States, and the said Winnebago tribe, and the United tribes of Potawatamie, Chippewa, and Ottawa, Indians, in order to remove the difficulties which have arisen in consequence of the occupation, by white persons, of the...

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Treaty of January 9, 1789

Articles of a Treaty Made at Fort Harmar, between Arthur St. Clair, Governor of the Territory of the United States North- West of the River Ohio, and Commissioner Plenipotentiary of the United States of America, for removing all Causes of Controversy, regulating Trade, and settling Boundaries, with the Indian Nations in the Northern Department, of the one Part; and the Sachems and Warriors of the Wiandot, Delaware, Ottawa, Chippewa, Pattawatima and Sac Nations, on the other Part. Article 1. Whereas the United States in Congress assembled, did, by their Commissioners George Rogers Clark, Richard Butler, and Arthur Lee, Esquires, duly appointed for that purpose, at a treaty holden with the Wiandot, Delaware, Ottawa and Chippewa nations, at Fort M’Intosh, on the twenty-first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-five, conclude a peace with the Wyandot, Delaware, Ottawa and Chippewa, and take them into their friendship and protection: And whereas at the said treaty it was stipulated that all prisoners that had been made by those nations, or either of them, should be delivered up to the United States. And whereas the said nations have now agreed to and with the aforesaid Arthur St. Clair, to renew and confirm all the engagements they had made with the United States of America, at the before mentioned treaty, except so far as are altered...

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Treaty of November 3, 1804

A treaty between the United States of America and the United tribes of Sac and Fox Indians. ARTICLES of a treaty made at St. Louis in the district of Louisiana between William Henry Harrison, governor of the Indiana territory and of the district of Louisiana, superintendent of Indian affairs for the said territory and district, and commissioner plenipotentiary of the United States for concluding any treaty or treaties which may be found necessary with any of the north western tribes of Indians of the one part, and the chiefs and head men of the united Sac and Fox tribes of the other part. ARTICLE I. The United States receive the united Sac and Fox tribes into their friendship and protection, and the said tribes agree to consider themselves under the protection of the United States, and of no other power whatsoever. ARTICLE II. The general boundary line between the lands of the United States and of the said Indian tribes shall be as follows, to wit: Beginning at a point on the Missouri River opposite to the mouth of the Gasconade River; thence in a direct course so as to strike the river Jeffreon at the distance of thirty miles from its mouth, and down the said Jeffreon to the Mississippi, thence up the Mississippi to the mouth of the Ouisconsing River and up the same to a point...

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Houses of the Sauk and Fox Tribes

It is not the purpose of the present sketch to trace the early migrations of the Sauk and Fox tribes, or to refer to their connection, linguistically or socially. However, it is evident their villages were similar in appearance, and both had two distinct forms of habitations which were occupied during different seasons of the year. The summer villages of both tribes consisted of bark houses, and near by were gardens in which they raised corn, squashes, beans, and some tobacco, but with the coming of autumn the families scattered and sought the more protected localities where game was to...

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Sauk Indian Religion

Sauk Religion. The religion of the Sauk is fundamentally the belief in what are now commonly known as manitos. The sense of the term is best given by the combined use of the two words “power” and “magic.” The world is looked on as inhabited by beings permeated with a certain magic force, not necessarily malicious and not necessarily beneficent, the manifestation of which might produce one or the other effect. Objects in nature held to be endowed with this force become the recipients of varying degrees of adoration. A child is early taught to get into personal relation with some manito by means of fasting and vigil to secure his tutelary or genius. The manitos of Sauk mythology and religious worship are represented in all nature. They are human beings, animals, birds, fishes, reptiles, insects, plants, fire, water, and all the elements personified. The mythology of the Sauk is rich with fables of anthropomorphic beasts and beings. The principal myth is concerned with the god of life, called Nanabozho by cognate tribes, with the flood, and with the restoration of the earth. The Sauk had numerous ceremonies, social and religious. Some of these they still retain. The chief two religious ceremonies still in existence are the gens festivals and the secret rite of the Midewiwin, or Grand Medicine Society. The gens festival is held twice a year-in the spring, when thanksgiving...

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Sauk Indian Treaties

The Sauk made or were parties to the following treaties with the United States: Treaty of Ft Harmar, Jan. 9, 1789; St Louis, Mo. (Sauk and Fox), Nov. 3, 1804; Portage des Sioux, Mo. (Sauk of Missouri), Sept. 13, 1815; St Louis, Mo., May 13, 1816; Ft Armstrong, Ill. (Sauk and Fox), Sept. 3, 1822; Washington, D. C. (Sauk and Fox), Aug. 4, 1824; Prairie du Chien, Wis. (Sauk and Fox), Aug. 19, 1825, and July 15, 1830; Ft Armstrong, 111. (Sauk and Fox), Sept. 21, 1832; Ft Leavenworth, Mo. (Sauk and Fox), Sept. 17,1836; near Dubuque, Iowa (Sauk and Fox), Sept. 27 and 28, 1836; Washington, D. C. (Sauk and Fox), Oct. 21, 1837; ditto (Sauk and Fox of Missouri), same date and place; Sauk and Fox agency, Ia. (Sauk and Fox), Oct. 11, 1847; Washington, D. C. (Sauk and Fox of Missouri), May 18, 1854; Sauk and Fox agency, Kan. (Sauk and Fox), Oct. 1, 1859; Nemaha agency, Nebr. (Sauk and Fox), Mar. 6,1861; Washington, D.C. (Sauk and Fox), Feb. 18,...

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Sauk Indian Chiefs and Leaders

Mokohoko Mokohoko (Mokohokoa, ‘he who floats visible near the surface of the water’). A chief of the band of Sauk that took the lead in supporting Black Hawk in the Black Hawk war. He was of the Sturgeon clan, the ruling clan of the Sauk, and was a bitter enemy of Keokuk. The band still retains its identity. It refused to leave Kansas when the rest of the tribe went to Indian Territory, and had to be removed thither by the military. It is now known as the Black Hawk band, and its members are the most conservative of...

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Sauk Indian Tribe Culture

Material culture of the Sauk tribe. The culture of the Sauk was that of the eastern wooded area. They were a canoe people while they were in the country of the Great Lakes, using both the birch-bark canoe and the dugout. They still retain the dugout, and learned the use and construction of the bull-boat on coming out upon the plains. They practiced agriculture on an extensive scale; they cultivated the ground for maize, squashes, beans, and tobacco. Despite their fixed abodes and villages they did not live a sedentary life altogether, for much of the time they devoted to the chase, hunting game and fishing almost the whole year round. They were acquainted with wild rice, and hunted the buffalo. They did not get possession of horses until after the Black Hawk war in 1832, and they did not become very familiar with the horse and the mule until after their arrival in Kansas, after the year 1837. Their abode was the bark house in warm weather and the oval flag reed lodge in winter; the bark house was characteristic of the village. Every gens had one large bark house wherein were celebrated the festivals of the gens. In this lodge hung the sacred bundles of the gens, and here dwelt the priests that watched over them. It is said that some of these lodges were of the...

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Sauk Tribe

Sauk Indians, Sac Indians, Sac Tribe ( Osā’kiwŭg, ‘people of the outlet,’ or, possibly, ‘people of the yellow earth,’ in contradistinction from the Muskwakiwuk, ‘Red Earth People’, a name of the Foxes). One of a number of Algonquian tribes whose earliest known habitat was embraced within the eastern peninsula of Michigan, the other tribes being the Potawatomi, the “Nation of the Fork,” and probably the famous Mascoutens and the Foxes. The present name of Saginaw Bay (Sāginā’we’, signifying ‘the country or place of the Sauk’) is apparently derived from the ethnic appellative Sauk. There is presumptive evidence that the Sauk, with the tribes mentioned above, were first known to Europeans under the general ethnic term “Gens de Feu” or that of “Asistagueronon,” the latter being the Huron translation of the specific name Potawatomi, both the terms in question being first recorded by Champlain and Sagard. In 1616 Champlain, while in what is now Ontario, learned from the Tionontati, or Tobacco Nation, that their kindred, the Neutral Nation, aided the Ottawa (Cheueux releuez) in waging war against the Gens de Feu, i. e. ‘People of the Fire,’ and that the Ottawa carried on a warfare against “another nation of savages who were called Asistagueronon, which is to say, ‘People of the Place of the Fire,”‘ who were distant from the Ottawa 10 days’ journey; and lastly, in more fully describing...

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Sauk Indian Social Organization

Social organization. Society was rather complex. In the days when the tribe was much larger there were numerous gentes. There may be as many as 14 gentes yet in existence. These are: Bass Bear Bear-potato Eagle Elk Fox Great Lynx or Fire Dragon Grouse Sea Sturgeon Swan Thunder Trout Wolf It seems that at one time there was a more rigid order of rank both socially and politically than at present. For example, chiefs came from the Trout and Sturgeon gentes, and war chiefs from the Fox gens; and there were certain relationships of courtesy between one gens and another, as when one acted the role of servants to another, seen especially on the occasion of a gens ceremony. Marriage was restricted to men and women of different gentes, and was generally attended with an exchange of presents between the families of the pair. Woman as a rule was paid formal courtship before marriage. In the case of death, a man might marry the sister of his deceased wife, or a widow might become the wife of the brother of her dead husband. Polygamy was practiced, but was not usual; it was a privilege that went with wealth and social prestige. A child followed the gens of the father, but it frequently happened that the mother was given the right to name; in that case the child took a...

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