Topic: Sac

The Tribes West of the Mississippi – Indian Wars

By treaties concluded by the agents of the United State government at different periods, nearly all of the Indian tribes have been induced to remove west of the Mississippi. Those who remain in the haunts of their fathers are chiefly converts to Christianity, and in a half civilized state. Many of the tribes have dwindled into insignificance, yet the few who remain are proud to maintain their distinctive appellation, and support the independence of their old clan. The most powerful and numerous tribes in the northwest are the Sioux, or Dacotahs, the Blackfeet, Crows, and Pawnees. A few of the celebrated Delaware tribe still remain, and are a source of terror to their numerous enemies. The Blackfeet Indians occupy the whole of the country about the sources of the Missouri, from the mouth of the Yellow Stone to the Rocky Mountains. Their number is between forty and fifty thousand, and their general bearing is warlike and ferocious. Their enemies are numerous, yet they maintain their ascendancy. The Crows are a much smaller tribe than the Blackfeet, with whom they are always at war. They are fearless warriors, and seek their enemies wherever they are to be found. In number they are about six thousand. The following is an account of one of their battles with the Blackfeet Indians. Fight Between the Crow and the Blackfeet Indians In June, 1845, a...

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Black Hawk’s War – Indian Wars

We have now to record the events of a war “which brought one of the noblest of Indians to the notice and admiration of the people of the United States. Black Hawk was an able and patriotic chief. With the intelligence and power to plan a great project, and to execute it, he united the lofty spirit which secures the respect and confidence of a people. He was born about the year 1767, on Rock river, Illinois. At the age of fifteen he took a scalp from the enemy, and was in consequence promoted by his tribe to the...

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Treaty of October 11, 1842

1842, October 11. Treaty with the Confederated tribes of Sauk and Fox at the agency of the Sauk and Fox Indians in the Territory of Iowa. Schedule of debts annexed. Resolution of Senate, February 15, 1843. Ratification of President, March 23, 1843. The confederated tribes of Sacs and Foxes cede to the U. S. all the lands W. of the Mississippi river to which they have any claim or title. The Indians reserve a right to occupy for three years from the signing of this treaty all that part of the land above ceded which lies W. of a line running due N. and S. from the painted or red rocks on the White Breast fork of the Des Moines river, which rocks will be found about 8 miles in a straight line from the junction of the White Breast with the Des Moines. Upon ratification of this treaty the U. S. agree to assign a tract of land suitable and convenient for Indian purposes to the Sacs and Foxes for a permanent home for them and their descendants, which tract shall be upon the Missouri river or some of its waters.

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Treaty of August 4, 1824

To perpetuate peace and friendship between the United States and the Sock and Fox tribes or nations of Indians, and to remove all future cause of dissensions which may arise from undefined territorial boundaries, the President of the United States of America, by William Clark, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and sole Commissioner specially appointed for that purpose, of the one part, and the undersigned Chiefs and Head Men of the Sock and Fox tribes or nations, fully deputized to act for and in behalf of their said nations, of the other part, have entered into the following articles and conditions, viz: Article I. The Sock and Fox tribes or nations of Indians, by their deputations in council assembled, do hereby agree, in consideration of certain sums of money, &c. to be paid to the said Sock and Fox tribes, by the Government of the United States, as hereinafter stipulated, to cede and for ever quit claim, and do, in behalf of their said tribes or nations, hereby cede, relinquish, and forever quit claim, unto the United States, all right, title, interest, and claim, to the lands which the said Sock and Fox tribes have, or claim, within the limits of the state of Missouri, which are situated, lying, and being, between the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, and a line running from the Missouri, at the entrance of Kansas river,...

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Treaty of September 3, 1822

Articles of a Treaty entered into and concluded at Fort Armstrong, by and between Thomas Forsyth, Agent of Indian Affairs, authorized on the part of the United States for that purpose, of the one part, and the Chiefs, Warriors, and Head Men, of the United Sac and Fox Tribes, for themselves and their Tribes, of the other part. Whereas by the ninth article of the Treaty made and entered into between the United States and the Sac and Fox Tribes of Indians, concluded and signed at Saint Louis, in the District of Louisiana, on the third day of November, one thousand eight hundred and four, it is stipulated, in order to put a stop to the abuses and impositions which are practiced upon the said Tribes by the private traders, the United States will, at a convenient time, establish a trading house or factory, where the individuals of the said Tribes can be supplied with goods at a more reasonable rate than they have been accustomed to procure them. Now, We, the said Chiefs, Warriors, and head men of the said Tribes, for and in consideration of the sum of one thousand dollars to us, now paid in merchandise out of the United States’ Factory, by said Thomas Forsyth, on behalf of the United States, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, do exonerate, release, and forever discharge, the United...

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Treaty of May 13, 1816

A treaty of peace and friendship made and concluded at St. Louis between William Clark, Ninian Edwards, and Auguste Chouteau, commissioners plenipotentiary of the United States of America, on the part and behalf of the said states, of the one part, and the undersigned chiefs and warriors of the Sacs of Rock river and the adjacent country, of the other part. Whereas by the ninth article of the treaty of peace, which was concluded on the twenty-fourth day of December, eighteen hundred and fourteen, between the United States and Great Britain, at Ghent, and which was ratified by the president, with the advice and consent of the senate, on the seventeenth day of February, eighteen hundred and fifteen, it was stipulated that the said parties should severally put an end to all hostilities with the Indian tribes, with whom they might be at war, at the time of the ratification of said treaty; and to place the said tribes inhabiting their respective territories, on the same footing upon which they stood before the war. Provided, they should agree to desist from all hostilities against the said parties, their citizens or subjects respectively, upon the ratification of the said treaty being notified to them, and should so desist accordingly. And whereas the United States being determined to execute every article of the treaty with perfect good faith, and wishing to...

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Treaty of September 13, 1815

A treaty of peace and friendship, made and concluded between William Clark, Ninian Edwards, and Auguste Chouteau, Commissioners Plenipotentiary of the United States of America, on the part and behalf of the said States, of the one part; and the undersigned Chiefs and Warriors of that portion of the Sac Nation of Indians now residing on the Missouri river, of the other part. Whereas the undersigned chiefs and warriors, as well as that portion of the nation which they represent, have at all times been desirous of fulfilling their treaty with the United States, with perfect good faith; and for that purpose found themselves compelled, since the commencement of the late war, to separate themselves from the rest of their nation, and remove to the Missouri river, where they have continued to give proofs of their friendship and fidelity; and whereas the United States, justly appreciating the conduct of said Indians, are disposed to do them the most ample justice that is practicable; the said parties have agreed to the following articles: Article 1. The undersigned chiefs and warriors, for themselves and that portion of the Sacs which they represent, do hereby assent to the treaty between the United States of America and the united tribes of Sacs and Foxes, which was concluded at St. Louis, on the third day of November, one thousand eight hundred and four; and...

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Dawes Act

General Allotment Act or Dawes Act An Act to Provide for the Allotment of Lands in Severalty to Indians on the Various Reservations (General Allotment Act or Dawes Act), Statutes at Large 24, 388-91,      Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That in all cases where any tribe or band of Indians has been, or shall hereafter be, located upon any reservation created for their use, either by treaty stipulation or by virtue of an act of Congress or executive order setting apart the same for their use, the President of the United States be, and he hereby is, authorized, whenever in his opinion any reservation or any part thereof of such Indians is advantageous for agricultural and grazing purposes, to cause said reservation, or any part thereof, to be surveyed, or resurveyed if necessary, and to allot the lands in said reservation in severalty to any Indian located thereon in quantities as follows: To each head of a family, one-quarter of a section; To each single person over eighteen years of age, one-eighth of a section; To each orphan child under eighteen years of age, one-eighth of a section; and To each other single person under eighteen years now living, or who may be born prior to the date of the order of the President...

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Illinois Indian Land

With the rapid increase of a white population between the Lakes and the Mississippi, which followed the conclusion of hostilities with England and her Indian allies, new difficulties began to arise between the natives and the settlers. Illinois and Wisconsin were inhabited by various tribes of Indians, upon terms of bitter hostility among themselves, but united in their suspicions and apprehensions at the unprecedented inroads of emigrants from the east. The Winnebago, dwelling in Wisconsin; the Pottawatomie, situated around the southern extremity of Lake Michigan; and the Sac, (afterwards mingled with the Foxes, and usually coupled with that tribe,)...

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1759, August 28, Fort Loudoun

Sir Your Dispatches of the 31st of July, I recd. By James Holmes: I acquainted your Excellency by Charles McCuningham of the Little Carpenter being gone to Warr, with thirty Young fellows and Willi_awaw, with him. He was no sooner gone but I found great attentions in the Disposition and Mind of the Indians; for he kept them very quiet. Tho’ I thank God I live here very easy, in the Upper Towns, and I hear no bad Talks, tho I do not know how long it will continue. I have Recd. Intelligence from the Lower Towns, that it is not so with them, and that they have very bad Talks, and bring White People’s Scalps every Day. They give out there (tho without any foundation) that the Little Carpenter is gone to the French Fort, to make a Peace with the French, and that as soon as he comes back, the Warr will Begin. They may say what they please, I do not believe it, and am almost sure of the company, for a little white before he went away he gave me all the Afsurance of Friendship for the English, and desird me not to mind what I was told in his absence that he was going for Fort Afsumption, to endeavour to a French Prisoner, that he might know what the French were about, and to...

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Treaty of September 17, 1836

Articles of a treaty, made and concluded at Fort Leavenworth, on the Missouri river, between William Clark, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, on the part of the United States, of the one part, and the undersigned chiefs, warriors, and counsellors of the Ioway [Iowa] tribe and the band of Sacks [Sac] and Foxes of the Missouri, (residing west of the State of Missouri,) in behalf of their respective tribes, of the other part. Article 1. By the first article of the treaty of Prairie du Chien, held the fifteenth day of July eighteen hundred and thirty, with the confederated tribes of Sacks, Foxes, Ioways, Omahaws, Missourias, Ottoes, and Sioux, the country ceded to the United States by that treaty, is to be assigned and allotted under the direction of the President of the United States to the tribes living thereon, or to such other tribes as the President may locate thereon for hunting and other purpose.—And whereas it is further represented to us the chiefs, warriors, and counsellors of the Ioways and Sack and Fox band aforesaid, to be desirable that the lands lying between the State of Missouri and the Missouri river, should be attached to and become a part of said State, and the Indian title thereto, be entirely extinguished; but that notwithstanding, as these lands compose a part of the country embraced by the provisions of said...

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Sac and Fox Reservation

Report of Special Agent Reuben Sears on the Indians of the Sac and Fox tract or reservation, Sac and Fox agency, Tama County, Iowa. 2.5 miles from the town of Tama, September 1890. Names of Indian tribes or parts of tribes occupying said reservation: (a) Pottawatomie, Sac (Sauk) and Fox of the Mississippi, and Winnebago. The unallotted area of this tract is 1,258 acres, or 2 square miles. The tract has been surveyed and subdivided. It was established by purchase. (See act of Congress approved. March 2, 1867, 14 U. S. Stats, p. 507.) Deeds November 1870, and 1882 and 1883. Indian. population 1800: 397. Sac and Fox Reservation This reservation is one only in name, as the Sacs and Foxes own it in fee, the deed to the same being held in trust by the governor of Iowa. On this these Indians have lived surrounded by the whites for the last 30 years, and should now be in a fair state of civilization if white influence has much power in molding Indian character. In fact, this tribe shows but little civilized or Christianized results from such surroundings. Their physical condition is comparatively good; a few seem troubled with a cough and other evidences of chronic lung trouble, but then a majority give every indication of health. Their children are to all appearance healthy, and behave quite as well...

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Sauk Indians

Sauk Indians. From Osā’kiwŭg, meaning “people of the outlet, or people of the yellow earth.” Also called: Hotǐ’nestakon’, Onondaga name. Satoeronnon, Huron name. Quatokeronon, Huron name. Za’-ke, Santee and Yankton Dakota name. Sauk Connections. The Sauk belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock and the same subdivision as that embracing the Foxes and Kickapoo. Sauk Location. On the upper part of Green Bay and lower course of Fox River. (See also Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, and Oklahoma.) Sauk History. The earliest known home of the Sauk was about Saginaw Bay, Michigan, which still bears their name. Shortly before appearance of the Whites they were expelled from this country by the Ottawa and the Neutral Nation, and settled in the region above indicated where they remained for a considerable period. In (1796) found their chief villages on Wisconsin River. After the destruction of the Illinois they extended their territories over the Rock River district of northwestern Illinois.  In 1804 a band of Sauk wintering near St. Louis were induced to enter into a treaty ceding to the United States Government the Sauk territories in Illinois and Wisconsin, but this transaction created so much indignation among the rest of the tribe when it became known that the band who made treaty never returned to the rest and they have received independent recognition as the Missouri River Sauk. As the rest...

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The Sac and Fox of the Mississippi

The history of the Sacs and Foxes of the Mississippi is the same as that of the Missouri portion of the tribes, except that they had never wandered so far from the ancestral home. They lived nearer the Mississippi River, and the other band lived on the Missouri River—or the Osage, a branch of the Missouri, and from these circumstances came the names of the two bands. One band was the Sacs and Foxes of the Mississippi, and the other the Sacs and Foxes of the Missouri. The Sacs and Foxes of the Mississippi owned and held about three-fourths...

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