Topic: Quapaw

Western Garrison Life

Grant Foreman describes the early life in a Western Garrison; providing insights on some of the traders in the region, the deaths of Seaton, Armstrong, Wheelock and Izard, all soldiers obviously familiar to him. But he also shares the story of the elopement of Miss Sarah Knox Taylor, daughter of General Taylor, to Lieutenant Jefferson Davis… yes, THAT Jefferson Davis.

An interesting section of the chapter are the references to the punishments inflicted upon the soldiers in the event of their disobedience.

Painted by Catlin in 1834, the picture attached is of Clermont, chief of the Osage Tribe. Clermont is painted in full length, wearing a fanciful dress, his leggings fringed with scalp-locks, and in his hand his favorite and valued war-club.

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Earliest Known Traders on Arkansas River

With the help of contemporary records it is possible to identify some of the early traders at the Mouth of the Verdigris. Even before the Louisiana Purchase, hardy French adventurers ascended the Arkansas in their little boats, hunting, trapping, and trading with the Indians, and recorded their presence if not their identity in the nomenclature of the adjacent country and streams, now sadly corrupted by their English-speaking successors. 1Many tributaries of Arkansas River originally bore French names. There was the Fourche La Feve named for a French family [Thwaites, R. G., editor, Early Western Travels, vol. xiii, 156]; the...

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Establishment of Fort Gibson in 1824

By Act of Congress of March 2, 1819, Arkansas Territory was established July 4, embracing substantially all of what are now the states of Arkansas and Oklahoma; though the civil government of Arkansas Territory was limited to that section lying east of the Osage line, divided into counties, and embracing approximately the present state of Arkansas. That west of the Osage line was the Indian country, and in later years became known as Indian Territory. James Miller 1James Miller was born in Peterboro, N. H., April 25, 1776; entered the array as major in 1808, became Lieutenant-colonel in 1810,...

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Establishment of Fort Smith in 1817

The white population in Arkansas in 1817 had increased to several thousand, whose protection, as well as that of the Cherokee people living in that territory, from the continued hostilities of the Osage, required the establishment of a military post at the western border dividing the white settlements from the Osage. From Saint Louis came further news of threatened hostilities by the Osage near Clermont’s Town, and a report 1Niles Register, (Baltimore) vol. xiii, 176. that Major William Bradford with a detachment of United States riflemen, and accompanied by Major Long, topographical engineer, had left that city for the...

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Treaty of November 15, 1824

Articles of a treaty between the United States of America and the Quapaw Nation of Indians. Article I. The Quapaw Nation of Indians cede to the United States of America, in consideration of the promises and stipulations hereinafter made, all claim or title which they may have to lands in the Territory of Arkansas, comprised in the following boundaries, to wit: Beginning at a point on the Arkansas river, opposite to the Post of Arkansas, and running thence a due south-west course to the Ouachita river; and thence, up the same, to the Saline Fork; and up the Saline Fork, to a point from whence a due north-east course will strike the Arkansas river at Little Rock: and thence down the right (or south bank) of the Arkansas river to the place of beginning. Article II. In consideration of the cession made in the first article of this Treaty, by the aforesaid Chiefs and Warriors, the United States engage to pay to the four head Chiefs of the Quapaw Nation, the sum of five hundred dollars each, in consideration of the losses they will sustain by removing from their farms and improvements. The payment to be made at the time they receive their annuity for the year 1825. And, also, to the said nation, the sum of four thousand dollars, to be paid in goods, at the signing of...

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Treaty of August 24, 1818

A treaty of friendship, cession, and limits, made and entered into, this twenty-fourth day of August, eighteen hundred and eighteen, by, and between, William Clark and Auguste Chouteau, Commissioners on the part and behalf of the United States, of the one part, and the undersigned, chiefs and warriors of the Quapaw tribe or nation, on the part and behalf of their said tribe or nation, of the other part. Article I. The undersigned chiefs and warriors, for themselves and their said tribe or nation, do hereby acknowledge themselves to be under the protection of the United States, and of no other state, power, or sovereignty, whatsoever. Article II. The undersigned chiefs and warriors, for themselves and their said tribe or nation, do hereby, for, and in consideration of, the promises and stipulations hereinafter named, cede and relinquish to the United States, forever, all the lands within the following boundaries, viz: Beginning at the mouth of the Arkansaw river; thence extending up the Arkansaw, to the Canadian fork, and up the Canadian fork to its source; thence south, to Big Red river, and down the middle of that river, to the Big Raft; thence, a direct line, so as to strike the Mississippi river, thirty leagues in a straight line, below the mouth of Arkansaw; together with all their claims to land east of the Mississippi, and north of the...

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Illinois Burial Customs

The term Illinois Indians as used by some early writers was intended to include the various Algonquian tribes, encountered in the “Illinois country,” in addition to those usually recognized as forming the Illinois confederacy. Thus, in the following quotation from Joutel will be found a reference to the Chahouanous – i. e., Shawnee – as being of the Islinois, and in the same note Accancea referred to the Quapaw, a Siouan tribe living on the right bank of the Mississippi, not far north of the mouth of the Arkansas. Describing the burial customs of the Illinois, as witnessed by him during the latter years of the seventeenth century, Joutel wrote: ” They pay a Respect to their Dead, as appears by their special Care of burying them, and even of putting into lofty Coffins the Bodies of such as are considerable among them, as their Chiefs and others, which is also practised among the Accancea’s, but they differ in this Particular, that the Accancea’s weep and make their Complaints for some Days, where as the Chahoaanous, and other People of the Islinois Nation do just the Contrary; for when any of them die, they wrap them up in Skins, and then put them into Coffins made of the Barks of Trees, then sing and dance about them for twenty four Hours. Those Dancers take Care to tie Calabashes, or...

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Treaty of May 13, 1833

Articles of agreement or a treaty between the United States and the Quapaw Indians entered into by John F. Schermerhorn, commissioner of Indian affairs west on the part of the United States and the chiefs and warriors of the Quapaw Indians. Whereas, by the treaty between the United States and the Quapaw Indians, concluded November 15th, 1824, they ceded to the United States all their lands in the Territory of Arkansas, and according to which they were “to be concentrated and confined to a district of country inhabited by the Caddo Indians and form a part of said tribe,” and whereas they did remove according to the stipulations of said treaty, and settled on the Bayou Treache on the south side of Red River, on a tract of land given them by the Caddo Indians, but which was found subject to frequent inundations on account of the raft on Red River, and where their crops were destroyed by the water year after year, and which also proved to be a very sickly country and where in a short time, nearly one-fourth of their people died, and whereas they could obtain no other situation from the Caddoes and they refused to incorporate them and receive them as a constituent part of their tribe as contemplated by their treaty with the United States, and as they saw no alternative but to...

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Treaty of August 24, 1835

Treaty with the Comanche and Witchetaw Indians and their associated Bands. For the purpose of establishing and perpetuating peace and friendship between the United States of America and the Comanche and Witchetaw nations, and their associated bands or tribes of Indians, and between these nations or tribes, and the Cherokee, Muscogee, Choctaw, Osage, Seneca and Quapaw nations or tribes of Indians, the President of the United States has, to accomplish this desirable object, and to aid therein, appointed Governor M. Stokes, M. Arbuckle Brigdi.-Genl. United States army, and F. W. Armstrong, Actg. Supdt. Western Territory, commissioners on the part of the United States; and the said Governor M. Stokes and M. Arbuckle, Brigdi. Genl. United States army, with the chiefs and representatives of the Cherokee, Muscogee, Choctaw, Osage, Seneca, and Quapaw nations or tribes of Indians, have met the chiefs, warriors, and representatives of the tribes first above named at Camp Holmes, on the eastern border of the Grand Prairie, near the Canadian river, in the Muscogee nation, and after full deliberation, the said nations or tribes have agreed with the United States, and with one another upon the following articles: Article 1. There shall be perpetual peace and friendship between all the citizens of the United States of America, and all the individuals composing the Comanche and Witchetaw nations and their associated bands or tribes of Indians, and...

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Quapaw Reservation

The Quapaw Indian reservation is situated in the extreme northeast corner of the agency, and is 6.5 miles wide north and south, 14 miles long east and west, and contains 56,685 acres of land. The land is mostly prairie and well watered. Indications of mineral are found on this reservation in almost all the land east of Spring River mid along the Missouri state line. The tribe numbers 154 in all, 75 males and 79 females, of whom 100 speak English and 55 read it. The farms of the Quapaws are small and not well cultivated; the fencing and improvements are mostly done by the whites. A very few of the young men have good farms and are quite industrious, but are retarded by the indolence of the older ones, who teach that none but the white man should work. The appearance of the Quapaws, especially the older ones, shows fewer indications of civilization than that of other Indians at this agency. While they dress like white men, some still wear paint on their faces and feathers in their hats. The women dress in citizens’ clothes, but with very few exceptions wear nothing but handkerchiefs on their heads. They are not very neat or tidy and are not good housekeepers. Many of the older Indians show signs of-scrofula, and some are inclined to consumption. The women have a more...

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Fort Coffee Quapaws

On the fourth day of September two Indians, a man and his wife, came to Fort Coffee, to seek admission into the school. They were, according to their statement, Quapaws, and belonged to a remnant of a once numerous tribe, residing near the south-west corner of Missouri, in the vicinity of a mixed tribe of Senecas and Shawnees. The Quapaws then only numbered a fraction over three hundred souls. The Rev. S. G. Patterson, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, had been laboring with them as a missionary for several years. The Quapaw’s name was Villiers, and his wife was sister of the chief then in power and the daughter of the old chief. Villiers professed to be a Christian, and a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He believed himself called to the work of the ministry, and had come to our mission to improve his education and qualify himself for greater usefulness. He stated that, before leaving his tribe, he had procured a letter of recommendation from Colonel Barker, the United States Agent; also one from Mr. Patterson, the missionary, which was also signed by Rev. D. B. Cumming, the presiding elder of the district. The letters were addressed to Mr. Goode, but having been robbed on the way he had lost his papers, They had left their home, traveled across the country to the Neosho and there...

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Treaty of February 23, 1867

Articles of agreement, concluded at Washington, D. C., the twenty-third day of February, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven, between the United States, represented by Lewis V. Bogy, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, W. H. Watson, special commissioner, Thomas Murphy, superintendent of Indian Affairs, George C. Snow, and G. A. Colton, U. S. Indian agents, duly authorized, and the Senecas, represented by George Spicer and John Mush; the Mixed Senecas and Shawnees, by John Whitetree, John Young, and Lewis Davis; the Quapaws, by S. G. Vallier and Ka-zhe-cah; the Confederated Peorias, Kaskaskias, Weas, and Piankeshaws, by Baptiste Peoria, John Mitchell, and Edward Black; the Miamies, by Thomas Metosenyah and Thomas Richardville, and the Ottawas of Blanchard’s Fork and Roche de Boeuf, by John White and J. T. Jones, and including certain Wyandott[e]s, represented by Tauromee, or John Hat, and John Karaho. Whereas it is desirable that arrangements should be made by which portions of certain tribes, parties hereto, now residing in Kansas, should be enabled to remove to other lands in the Indian country south of that State, while other portions of said tribes desire to dissolve their tribal relations, and become citizens; and whereas it is necessary to provide certain tribes, parties hereto, now residing in the Indian country, with means of rebuilding their houses, re-opening their farms, and supporting their families, they having been driven from their reservations...

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Quapaw Indians

Quapaw Tribe: Meaning “downstream people.” They were known by some form of this word to the Omaha, Ponca, Kansa, Osage, and Creeks. Also called: Akansa, or Arkansas, by the Illinois and other Algonquian Indians, a name probably derived from one of the Quapaw social subdivisions. Beaux Hommes, a name given them by the French. Bow Indians, so-called probably because the bow wood from the Osage orange came from or through their country. Ima, by the Caddo, probably from one of their towns. Papikaha, on Marquette’s map (1673). Utsushuat, Wyandot name, meaning “wild apple,” and referring to the fruit of the Carica papaya. Quapaw Connections. The Quapaw were one of the five tribes belonging to what J. O. Dorsey (1897) called the Cegiha division of the Siouan linguistic stock. Quapaw Location. At or near the mouth of Arkansas River. (See also Louisiana, Kansas, Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Texas.) Quapaw Villages Tongigua, on the Mississippi side of Mississippi River above the mouth of the Arkansas, probably in Bolivar County, Miss. Tourima, at the junction of White River with the Mississippi, Desha County, probably the town’ elsewhere called Imaha. Ukakhpakhti, on the Mississippi, probably in Phillips County. Uzutiuhi, on the south side of the lower course of Arkansas River not far from Arkansas Post. Quapaw History Before the French became acquainted with this tribe (in 1673) the Quapaw had lived on Ohio River...

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Agreement of September 13, 1865

Articles of agreement entered into this thirteenth day of September, 1865, between the commissioners designated by the President of the United States and the persons here present representing or connected with the following named nations and tribes of Indians located within the Indian country, viz: Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Osages, Seminoles, Senecas, Shawnees, and Quapaws. Whereas the aforesaid nations and tribes, or bands of Indians, or portions thereof, were induced by the machinations of the emissaries of the so-called Confederate States to throw off their allegiance to the government of the United States, and to enter into treaty stipulations with said so-called Confederate States, whereby they have made themselves liable to a forfeiture of all rights of every kind, character, and description which had been promised and guaranteed to them by the United States; and whereas the government of the United States has maintained its supremacy and authority within its limits; and whereas it is the desire of the government to act with magnanimity with all parties deserving its clemency, and to re-establish order and legitimate authority among the Indian tribes; and whereas the undersigned representatives or parties connected with said nations or tribes of Indians have become satisfied that it is for the general good of the people to reunite with and be restored to the relations which formerly existed between them and the United States, and as...

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Houses of the Quapaw Tribe

The Quapaw, the southernmost tribe of the Dhegiha group, occupied several villages west of the Mississippi, near the mouth of the Arkansas. When the closely allied tribes had removed from their ancient habitat in the upper valley of the Ohio, and had arrived at the mouth of that stream, the Quapaw are believed to have, turned southward while the others went northward. The name of the tribe, Quapaw, signifies “downstream people;” Omaha being translated “those going against the wind or current.” As a people they seem to have been known to the members of the De Soto expedition about 1541, probably occupying villages on or near the sites of the settlements visited by the French during the latter part of the next century. Père Marquette, while on his memorable journey down the Mississippi, in the year 1673, went as far as the mouth of the Arkansas, where he lingered a few days before returning northward on July 17. The villages of the Quapaw, designated the Arkansa, were reached, but the habitations were only briefly described: “Their cabins, which are long and wide, are made of bark; they sleep at the two extremities, which are raised about two feet from the ground. They keep their corn in large baskets, made of cane, or in gourds, as large as half barrels.” They used both wooden dishes and “plates of baked earth....

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