Topic: Potawatomi

Sacred Heart Mission and Church, Konawa, Oklahoma

When hearing of Konawa, many people immediately associate the town with the Sacred Heart Mission and Church, the cornerstone of Konawa history. Sacred Heart is located in the southeast corner of Pottawatomie County in Oklahoma approximately 9 miles east of Asher and 4 miles northwest of Konawa and approximately 1 mile north of Oklahoma Highway 39 on Sacred Heart Road.

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Use Of Tobacco Among North American Indians

Tobacco has been one of the most important gifts from the New World to the Old. In spite of the attempts of various authors to prove its Old World origin there can be no doubt that it was introduced into both Europe and Africa from America. Most species of Nicotiana are native to the New World, and there are only a few species which are undoubtedly extra- American. The custom of smoking is also characteristic of America. It was thoroughly established throughout eastern North and South America at the time of the discovery; and the early explorers, from Columbus on, speak of it as a strange and novel practice which they often find it hard to describe. It played an important part in many religious ceremonies, and the beliefs and observances connected with it are in themselves proof of its antiquity. Hundreds of pipes have been found in the pre-Columbian mounds and village sites of the eastern United States and, although these remains cannot be dated, some of them must be of considerable age. In the southwestern United States the Basket Makers, an ancient people whose remains are found below those of the prehistoric Cliff Dwellers, were smoking pipes at a time which could not have been much later than the beginning of our era.

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Narrative of the captivity of Alexander Henry, Esq – Indian Captivities

Narrative of the captivity of Alexander Henry, Esq., who, in the time of Pontiac’s War, fell into the hands of the Huron Indians. Detailing a faithful account of the capture of the Garrison of Michilimacki-Nac, and the massacre of about ninety people. Written by himself. 1Mr. Henry was an Indian trader in America for about sixteen years. He came to Canada with the army of General Amherst, and previous to his being made prisoner by the Indians experienced a variety of fortune. His narrative, as will be seen, is written with great candor as well as ability, and to the discriminating reader needs no encomium. He was living in Montreal in 1809, as appears from the date of his preface to his Travels, which he published in New York that year, with a dedication to Sir Joseph Banks. Ed. When I reached Michilimackinac I found several other traders, who had arrived before me, from different parts of the country, and who, in general, declared the dispositions of the Indians to be hostile to the English, and even apprehended some attack. M. Laurent Ducharme distinctly informed Major Etherington that a plan was absolutely conceived for destroying him, his garrison and all the English in the upper country; but the commandant believing this and other reports to be without foundation, proceeding only from idle or ill-disposed persons, and of a tendency...

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War Between the Colonies and The Western Indians – From 1763 To 1765

A struggle began in 1760, in which the English had to contend with a more powerful Indian enemy than any they had yet encountered. Pontiac, a chief renowned both in America and Europe, as a brave and skillful warrior, and a far-sighted and active ruler, was at the head of all the Indian tribes on the great lakes. Among these were the Ottawas, Miamis, Chippewas, Wyandott, Pottawatomie, Winnebago, Shawanese, Ottagamie, and Mississagas. After the capture of Quebec, in 1760, Major Rodgers was sent into the country of Pontiac to drive the French from it. Apprised of his approach, Pontiac...

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Treaty of July 29, 1829

Articles of a treaty made and concluded at Prairie du Chien, in the Territory of Michigan, between the United States of America, by their Commissioners, General John McNeil, Colonel Pierre Menard, and Caleb Atwater, Esq. and the United Nations of Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatamie Indians, of the waters of the Illinois, Milwaukee, and Manitoouck Rivers. Article 1. The aforesaid nations of Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatamie Indians, do hereby cede to the United States aforesaid, all the lands comprehended within the following limits, to wit: Beginning at the Winnebago Village, on Rock river, forty miles from its mouth, and running thence down the Rock river, to a line which runs due west from the most southern bend of Lake Michigan to the Mississippi river, and with that line to the Mississippi river opposite to Rock Island; thence, up that river, to the United States’ reservation at the mouth of the Ouisconsin; thence, with the south and east lines of said reservation, to the Ouisconsin river; thence, southerly, passing the heads of the small streams emptying into the Mississippi, to the Rock River aforesaid, at the Winnebago Village, the place of beginning. And, also, one other tract of land, described as follows, to wit: Beginning on the Western Shore of Lake Michigan, at the northeast corner of the field of Antoine Ouitmette, who lives near Gross Pointe, about twelve miles north...

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Treaty of September 19, 1827

A treaty between the United States and the Potawatamie Tribe of Indians. In order to consolidate some of the dispersed bands of the Potawatamie Tribe in the Territory of Michigan at a point removed from the road leading from Detroit to Chicago, and as far as practicable from the settlements of the Whites, it is agreed that the following tracts of land, heretofore reserved for the use of the said Tribe, shall be, and they are hereby, ceded to the United States. Two sections of land on the river Rouge at Seginsairn’s village. Two sections of land at Tonguish’s village, near the river Rouge. That part of the reservation at Macon on the river Raisin, which yet belongs to the said tribe, containing six sections, excepting therefrom one half of a section where the Potawatamie Chief Moran resides, which shall be reserved for his use. One tract at Mang ach qua village, on the river Peble, of six miles square. One tract at Mickesawbe, of six miles square. One tract at the village of Prairie Ronde, of three miles square. One tract at the village of Match e be nash she wish, at the head of the Kekalamazoo river, of three miles square, which tracts contain in the whole ninety nine sections and one half section of land. And in consideration of the preceding cession, there shall be reserved...

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Pottawatomie Theology

It is believed by the Pottawatomies, that there are two Great Spirits, who govern the world. One is called Kitchemonedo, or the Great Spirit, the other Matchêmonedo, or the Evil Spirit. The first is good and beneficent; the other wicked. Some believe that they are equally powerful, and they offer them homage and adoration through fear. Others doubt which of the two is most powerful, and endeavor to propitiate both. The greater part, however, believe as I, Podajokeed do, that Kitchemonedo is the true Great Spirit, who made the world, and called all things into being; and that Matchêmonedo ought to be despised. When Kitchemonedo first made the world, he filled it with a class of beings who only looked like men, but they were perverse, ungrateful, wicked dogs, who never raised their eyes from the ground to thank him for anything. Seeing this, the Great Spirit plunged them, with the world itself, into a great lake, and drowned them. He then withdrew it from the water, and made a single man, a very handsome young man, who, as he was lonesome, appeared sad. Kitchemonedo took pity on him, and sent him a sister to cheer him in his loneliness. After many years the young man had a dream which he told to his sister. Five young men, said he, will come to your lodge door this night, to...

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Indian Confederacy Of 1781

The spring of 1781 was a terrible season for the white settlements in Kentucky and the whole border country. The natives who surrounded them had never shown so constant and systematic a determination for murder and mischief. Early in the summer, a great meeting of Indian deputies from the Shawanees, Delawares, Cherokees, Wyandot, Tawas, Pottawatomie, and diverse other tribes from the north-western lakes, met in grand council of war at Old Chilicothe. The persuasions and influence of two infamous whites, one McKee, and the notorious Simon Girty, “inflamed their savage minds to mischief, and led them to execute every diabolical scheme.”

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Illinois Indian Land

With the rapid increase of a white population between the Lakes and the Mississippi, which followed the conclusion of hostilities with England and her Indian allies, new difficulties began to arise between the natives and the settlers. Illinois and Wisconsin were inhabited by various tribes of Indians, upon terms of bitter hostility among themselves, but united in their suspicions and apprehensions at the unprecedented inroads of emigrants from the east. The Winnebago, dwelling in Wisconsin; the Pottawatomie, situated around the southern extremity of Lake Michigan; and the Sac, (afterwards mingled with the Foxes, and usually coupled with that tribe,)...

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Shau-be-na Potawatami Chief

The following incidents in the early history of Shau-be-na are principally taken from his own statements, and the truth of them, no person acquainted with the old chief will doubt. My first acquaintance with Shau-be-na occurred nearly forty years ago, while his whole band, one hundred and forty-two in number, were hunting on Bureau River, Illinois. Being encamped near my father’s residence, I visited them almost daily for many weeks, and always felt myself at home in the old chief’s wigwam. Shau-be-na was above the medium size, tall and straight, with broad shoulders and intelligent face, while his bearing...

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Treaty of February 27, 1867

Articles of agreement concluded at Washington, D. C., on the twenty-seventh day of February, 1867, between the United States, represented by Lewis G. Bogy, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, W. H. Watson, special commissioner, Thos. Murphy, supt. of Indian affairs for Kansas, and Luther R. Palmer, U. S. Indian agent, duly authorized, and the Pottawatomie tribe of Indians, represented by their chiefs, braves, and head-men, to wit: Mazhee, Mianco, Shawgwe, B. H. Bertrand, J. N. Bourassa, M. B. Beaubien, L. H. Ogee, and G. L. Young Whereas the Pottawatomies believe that it is for the interest of their tribe that a home should be secured for them in the Indian country south of Kansas, while there is yet an opportunity for the selection of a suitable reservation; and whereas the tribe has the means of purchasing such reservation from funds to arise from the sale of lands under the provisions of this treaty, without interfering with the exclusive rights of those of their people who hold their lands in common to the ownership of their diminished reserve, held by them in common, or with their right to receive their just proportion of the moneys arising from the sale of unallotted lands, known as surplus lands: Now, therefore, it is agreed. Article 1.It being the intention of the Government that a commission shall visit the Indian country as soon as practicable...

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Treaty of March 29, 1866

Whereas certain amendments are desired by the Pottawatomie Indians to their treaty concluded at the Pottawatomie agency on the fifteenth day of November, A. D. 1861, and amended by resolution of the Senate of the United States dated April the fifteenth, A. D. 1862; and whereas the United States are willing to assent to such amendments, it is therefore agreed by and between Dennis N. Cooley, commissioner, on the part of the United States, thereunto duly authorized, and the undersigned business committee, acting on behalf of said tribe, and being thereunto duly authorized, in manner and form following, that is to say: Article 1.The beneficial provisions in behalf of the more prudent and intelligent members of said tribe, contained in the third article of the amended treaty above recited, shall not hereafter be confined to males and heads of families, but the same shall be and are hereby extended to all adult persons of said tribe, without distinction of sex, whether such persons are or shall be heads of families or otherwise, in the same manner, to the same extent, and upon the same terms, conditions, and stipulations as are contained in said third article of said treaty with reference to “males and heads of families.” In testimony whereof the said parties by their Commissioner and Business Committee aforesaid have hereunto set their hands and seals at Washington City,...

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Treaty of November 15, 1861

Articles of a treaty made and concluded at the agency on the Kansas River, on the fifteenth day of November, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-one, by and between Wm. W. Ross, commissioner on the part of the United States, and the undersigned chiefs, braves, and head-men of the Pottawatomie Nation, on behalf of said nation. Article 1. The Pottawatomie tribe of Indians believing that it will contribute to the civilization of their people to dispose of a portion of their present reservation in Kansas, consisting of five hundred and seventy-six thousand acres, which was acquired by them for the sum of $87,000, by the fourth article of the treaty between the United States and the said Pottawatomies, proclaimed by the President of the United States on the 23d day of July, 1846, and to allot lands in severalty to those of said tribe who have adopted the customs of the whites and desire to have separate tracts assigned to them, and to assign a portion of said reserve to those of the tribe who prefer to hold their lands in common: it is therefore agreed by the parties hereto that the Commissioner of Indian Affairs shall cause the whole of said reservation to be surveyed in the same manner as the public lands are surveyed, the expense whereof shall be paid out...

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Treaty of September 20, 1828

Articles of a treaty made and concluded at the Missionary Establishments upon the St. Joseph, of Lake Michigan, in the Territory of Michigan, this 20th day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and twenty-eight, between Lewis Cass and Pierre Ménard, Commissioners, on the part of the United States, and the Potowatami tribe of Indians. Article 1. The Potowatami tribe of Indians cede to the United States the tract of land included within the following boundaries: Beginning at the mouth of the St. Joseph, of Lake Michigan, and thence running up the said river to a point on the same river, half way between La-vache-qui-pisse and Macousin village: thence in a direct line, to the 19th mile tree, on the northern boundary line of the State Indiana; thence, with the same, west, to Lake Michigan; and thence, with the shore of the said Lake, to the place of beginning. Beginning at a point on the line run in 1817, due east from the southern extreme of Lake Michigan, which point is due south from the head of the most easterly branch of the Kankekee river, and from that point running south ten miles; thence, in a direct line, to the northeast corner of Flatbelly’s reservation; thence, to the northwest corner of the reservation at Seek’s village; thence, with the lines of the said reservation,...

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Treaty of October 2, 1818 – Potawatomi

Articles of a treaty made and concluded at St. Mary’s, in the state of Ohio, between Jonathan Jennings, Lewis Cass, and Benjamin Parke, commissioners of the United States and the Potawatamie nation of Indians. Article I. The Potawatamie nation of Indians cede to the United States all the country comprehended within the following limits: Beginning at the mouth of the Tippecanoe river, and running up the same to a point twenty-five miles in a direct line from the Wabash river—thence, on a line as nearly parallel to the general course of the Wabash river as practicable, to a point on the Vermilion river, twenty-five miles from the Wabash river; thence, down the Vermilion river to its mouth, and thence, up the Wabash river, to the place of beginning. The Potawatamies also cede to the United States all their claim to the country south of the Wabash river. Article II. The United States agree to purchase any just claim which the Kickapoos may have to any part of the country hereby ceded below Pine creek. Article III. The United States agree to pay to the Potawatamies a perpetual annuity of two thousand five hundred dollars in silver; one half of which shall be paid at Detroit, and the other half at Chicago; and all annuities which, by any former treaty, the United States have engaged to pay to the Potawatamies,...

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