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Topic: Peoria

Indians about Prairie du Rocher Illinois

By the time the early French arrived, the Mississippi had laid layer upon layer of rich silt on the land for decades. They copied the Indian way of planting corn in the spring, forgetting about it, and harvesting it in the fall. Since there was no need to till the soil, the populace had leisure time. Why the Indians did not build a great culture can be explained partially through the humid climate. The American Bottom is humid and moist which produces a lassitude and inertia that hangs heavy over the valley. Consequently, creative work is to a large extent inhibited. Visitors to Prairie du Rocher who sleep in the bottoms often comment how difficult they find it to rise in the morning, and how this sluggishness increases with the heat of noon. Exhaustion from this languor is soon dispersed with as the visitor returns homeward. The climate is partially responsible for the preservation of many old interesting buildings; moreover, for the calmness, and peacefulness which is characteristic of its inhabitants. Strangely enough the French settled at Prairie du Rocher before the Metchigamias Indians with whom we associate this area. Illinois consisted of at this time five basic Indian tribes known as the “Illinois Confederacy”: The habitat of the Metchigamis was originally west of the Mississippi and they really became a part of the confederacy by adoption when they...

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Illinois Burial Customs

The term Illinois Indians as used by some early writers was intended to include the various Algonquian tribes, encountered in the “Illinois country,” in addition to those usually recognized as forming the Illinois confederacy. Thus, in the following quotation from Joutel will be found a reference to the Chahouanous – i. e., Shawnee – as being of the Islinois, and in the same note Accancea referred to the Quapaw, a Siouan tribe living on the right bank of the Mississippi, not far north of the mouth of the Arkansas. Describing the burial customs of the Illinois, as witnessed by him during the latter years of the seventeenth century, Joutel wrote: ” They pay a Respect to their Dead, as appears by their special Care of burying them, and even of putting into lofty Coffins the Bodies of such as are considerable among them, as their Chiefs and others, which is also practised among the Accancea’s, but they differ in this Particular, that the Accancea’s weep and make their Complaints for some Days, where as the Chahoaanous, and other People of the Islinois Nation do just the Contrary; for when any of them die, they wrap them up in Skins, and then put them into Coffins made of the Barks of Trees, then sing and dance about them for twenty four Hours. Those Dancers take Care to tie Calabashes, or...

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Dawes Act

General Allotment Act or Dawes Act An Act to Provide for the Allotment of Lands in Severalty to Indians on the Various Reservations (General Allotment Act or Dawes Act), Statutes at Large 24, 388-91,      Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That in all cases where any tribe or band of Indians has been, or shall hereafter be, located upon any reservation created for their use, either by treaty stipulation or by virtue of an act of Congress or executive order setting apart the same for their use, the President of the United States be, and he hereby is, authorized, whenever in his opinion any reservation or any part thereof of such Indians is advantageous for agricultural and grazing purposes, to cause said reservation, or any part thereof, to be surveyed, or resurveyed if necessary, and to allot the lands in said reservation in severalty to any Indian located thereon in quantities as follows: To each head of a family, one-quarter of a section; To each single person over eighteen years of age, one-eighth of a section; To each orphan child under eighteen years of age, one-eighth of a section; and To each other single person under eighteen years now living, or who may be born prior to the date of the order of the President...

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Treaty of May 30, 1854

Articles of agreement and convention made and concluded at the city of Washington, this thirtieth day of May, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-four, by George W. Manypenny, commissioner on the part of the United States, and the following-named delegates representing the united tribes of Kaskaskia and Peoria, Piankeshaw and Wea Indians, viz: Kio-kaw-mo-zan, David Lykins; Sa-wa-ne-ke-ah, or Wilson; Sha-cah-quah, or Andrew Chick; Ta-ko-nah, or Mitchel; Che-swa-wa, or Rogers; and Yellow Beaver, they being duly authorized thereto by the said Indians. Article 1. The tribes of Kaskaskia and Peoria Indians, and of Piankeshaw and Wea Indians, parties to the two treaties made with them respectively by William Clark, Frank J. Allen, and Nathan Kouns, commissioners on the part of the United States, at Castor Hill, on the twenty-seventh and twenty-ninth days of October, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-two, having recently in joint council assembled, united themselves into a single tribe, and having expressed a desire to be recognized and regarded as such, the United States hereby assent to the action of said joint council to this end, and now recognize the delegates who sign and seal this instrument as the authorized representatives of said consolidated tribe. Article 2. The said Kaskaskias and Peorias, and the said Piankeshaws and Weas, hereby cede and convey to the United States, all their right, title, and interest in and to the tracts...

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Treaty of September 25, 1818 – Peoria

A treaty made and concluded by, and between, Ninian Edwards and Auguste Chouteau, Commissioners on the part and behalf of the United States of America, of the one part, and the undersigned, principal chiefs and warriors of the Peoria, Kaskaskia, Mitchigamia, Cahokia, and Tamarois, tribes of the Illinois nation of Indians, on the part and behalf of the said tribes, of the other part. Whereas, by the treaty made at Vincennes, on the thirteenth day of August, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and three, between the United States, of the one part, and the head chiefs and warriors of the tribe of Indians commonly called the Kaskaskia tribe, but which was composed of, and rightfully represented, the Kaskaskia, Mitchigamia, Cahokia, and Tamarois, tribes of the Illinois nation of Indians, of the other part, a certain tract of land was ceded to the United States, which was supposed to include all the land claimed by those respective tribes, but which did not include, and was not intended to include, the land which was rightfully claimed by the Peoria Indians, a tribe of the Illinois nation, who then did, and still do, live separate and apart from the tribes abovementioned, and who were not represented in the treaty referred to above, nor ever received any part of the consideration given for the cession of land therein...

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Treaty of October 27, 1832 – Kaskaskia

Articles of a treaty made and entered into at Castor Hill, in the county of St. Louis in the State of Missouri, this twenty-seventh day of October, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-two, between William Clark, Frank J. Allen and Nathan Kouns, Commissioners on the part of the United States, of the one part; and the Kaskaskia and Peoria tribes, which, with the Michigamia, Cahokia and Tamarois bands, now united with the two first named tribes, formerly composed the Illinois nation of Indians, of the other part. Whereas, the Kaskaskia tribe of Indians and the bands aforesaid united therewith, are desirous of uniting with the Peorias, (composed as aforesaid) on lands west of the State of Missouri, they have therefore for that purpose agreed with the commissioners aforesaid, upon the following stipulations: Article 1.The Kaskaskia tribe of Indians and the several bands united with them as aforesaid, in consideration of the stipulations herein made on the part of the United States, do forever cede and release to the United States the lands granted to them forever by the first section of the treaty of Vincennes of 13th August 1803, reserving however to Ellen Decoigne the daughter of their late Chief who has married a white man, the tract of land of about three hundred and fifty acres near the town of Kaskaskia, which was secured to said tribe by...

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Treaty of February 23, 1867

Articles of agreement, concluded at Washington, D. C., the twenty-third day of February, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven, between the United States, represented by Lewis V. Bogy, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, W. H. Watson, special commissioner, Thomas Murphy, superintendent of Indian Affairs, George C. Snow, and G. A. Colton, U. S. Indian agents, duly authorized, and the Senecas, represented by George Spicer and John Mush; the Mixed Senecas and Shawnees, by John Whitetree, John Young, and Lewis Davis; the Quapaws, by S. G. Vallier and Ka-zhe-cah; the Confederated Peorias, Kaskaskias, Weas, and Piankeshaws, by Baptiste Peoria, John Mitchell, and Edward Black; the Miamies, by Thomas Metosenyah and Thomas Richardville, and the Ottawas of Blanchard’s Fork and Roche de Boeuf, by John White and J. T. Jones, and including certain Wyandott[e]s, represented by Tauromee, or John Hat, and John Karaho. Whereas it is desirable that arrangements should be made by which portions of certain tribes, parties hereto, now residing in Kansas, should be enabled to remove to other lands in the Indian country south of that State, while other portions of said tribes desire to dissolve their tribal relations, and become citizens; and whereas it is necessary to provide certain tribes, parties hereto, now residing in the Indian country, with means of rebuilding their houses, re-opening their farms, and supporting their families, they having been driven from their reservations...

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Peoria Tribe

Peoria Indians (through French Peouarea, from Peoria Piwarea, ‘he comes carrying a pack on his back’: a personal name. Gerard). One of the principal tribes of the Illinois confederacy. Franquelin in his map of 1688 locates them and the Tapouaro on a river west of the Mississippi above the mouth of Wisconsin River, probably the upper Iowa River. Early references to the Illinois which place them on the Mississippi, although some of the tribes were on Rock and Illinois rivers, must relate to the Peoria and locate them near the mouth of the Wisconsin. When Marquette and Joliet descended the Mississippi in 1673, they found them and the Moingwena on the west side of the Mississippi near the mouth of a river supposed to be the Des Moines, though it may have been one farther north. When Marquette returned from the south, he found that the Peoria had removed and were near the lower end of the expansion of Illinois river, near the present Peoria. At the close of the war carried on by the Sauk and Foxes and other northern tribes against the Illinois, about 1768, the Kickapoo took possession of this village and made it their principal settlement. About the same time a large part of the Peoria crossed over into Missouri, where they remained, building their village on Blackwater fork, until they removed to Kansas. One...

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The Delaware in Kansas

In 1682, the seat of the Delaware government was at Shackamaxon, now Germantown, Pennsylvania. There Penn found them and made his famous treaty with them. Although extremely warlike, they had surrendered their sovereignty to the Iroquois about 1720. They were pledged to make no war, and they were forbidden to sell land. All the causes of this step were not known. Because of it the Iroquois claimed to have made women of the Delaware. They freed themselves of this opprobrium in the French and Indian War. The steady increase of the whites drove the Delaware from their ancient seat. They were...

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Early Native American Gardening

What proportion of the prairies of the West may be assigned as falling under the inference of having been abandoned fields, may constitute a subject of general speculation. It appears to be clear that the great area of the prairies proper is independent of that cause. Fire is the evident cause of the denudation of trees and shrubs in a large part of the area between the Rocky and the Allegheny mountains. Water comes in for a share of the denudation in valleys and moist prairies, which may be supposed to be the result of a more recent emergence from its...

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Potawatomi’s Secure All Illinois Tribe Territory

This great event in Indian history secured to the Pottawatomie all the territory then belonging to the Illinois, and the exclusive right to which was undisputed by other tribes. It extended their possessions to the lands of the Peoria on Peoria Lake. They occupied to the Wabash as far south as Danville and even beyond. On the other side they occupied to the Hock River, though their right to a strip of land on the east side of that river was disputed by the Sac and Fox Indians who ranged the prairies west of there and beyond the Mississippi....

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