Topic: Nez Perce

Pierce City Gold Camp

Pierce City Gold Camp is now attracting considerable attention from capitalists. Ohio parties have purchased an interest in the Golden Gate Mining Company’s property, and are now carrying on work there. The Milling & Mining Company also have a five-stamp mill on their property three miles from Pierce City, have begun the milling of ore, and good results have been obtained. Some sixty thousand dollars in gold has been extracted by a three-stamp mill owned by the Dunn Brothers on adjoining property. The character of the ore in this camp is mostly free milling gold quartz. The Chapman group of gold-quartz claims on the Oro Grande creek, fifteen miles northeast of Pierce City will be worked in 1890. The showing is one hundred thousand tons of ore in sight, free milling, with assays, from seven dollars and forty-five cents to fifty-six dollars per ton. A contemporary publication in an article headed “The Free Milling Gold Belt of Idaho.” gives the following: “The Western Mining World’s correspondents in Idaho exhibit a well founded enthusiasm over the mineral outlook in that state. In writing from Pierce City one gentleman refers to the fact that mining men seeking investment have a natural preference for free-milling propositions, the great advantage being that the ore requires no shipment from the mine, but is milled on the ground by stamp mills. An-other advantage is that the...

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Fort Walla Walla

We reached Fort Walla Walla July 19th, after a march of twelve and a half days. The fort is almost on the ground of the Walla Walla Council which I attended three years ago, when those tribes we are now to fight were all represented, and their, great leader, Kamiaken, was himself present. It is in a beautiful spot of the Walla Walla valley, well wooded and with plenty of water. Ten miles distant is seen the range of the Blue Mountains, forming the south-eastern boundary of the great plains along the Columbia, whose waters it divides from those of Lewis river. It stretches away along the horizon until it is lost in the dim distance, where the chain unites with the Snake River Mountains. At this post are stationed four companies of the First Dragoons and two of the Ninth Infantry. The Dragoon officers are Major Grier, Lieutenants Davidson, Pender, Gregg and Wheeler. The Infantry officers are Colonel Steptoe, Captains Dent and Winder, Lieutenants Fleming and Harvie. Besides these, are Captain Kirkham, Quarter-master, and Dr. Randolph, Surgeon. The dragoon cantonment and the infantry post are about a mile apart, and we are encamped between them. The two companies of the Fourth Infantry, which were lately ordered up here, have had their orders changed and go to Simcoe. A command, consisting of three hundred men, leaves there on the 15th...

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Coeur d’Alene War

A matter to be remarked is the variation in designations of the names of Indian wars of the Pacific Northwest. In some cases there is complete acceptance of a single designation. In those instances the fighting was entirely between the whites and a single tribe, or tribes which were blood relatives. Under other conditions the transition from one to another was not clearly defined, the blending of one series of hostilities often being overlaid by periods of inactivity or witnessing the passing of the warfare from the initiating tribe to some other tribe or combination of tribes. Hence it has been rather common practice to call the final phase of the Yakima War, the Coeur d’Alene War. Actually it might just as readily have been known as the Palouse War or the Spokane War because the first major engagement was precipitated by Indian allies in which the Palouse predominated numerically and the more important battles were fought in the country of the Spokane. It is true that the Coeur d’Alenes were always among the warring Indian allies and were probably the most reluctant to treat for peace and that much of the diplomatic strategy hinged upon bringing the Coeur d’Alenes under treaty. So it is this author’s opinion that the so-called Coeur d’Alene War was, in fact, the final phase of the Yakima War, as shown in the chapter...

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Biography of Chief Lawyer – Nez Perce

A biography with photos of the Nez Percé chief, Lawyer. With the exception of the Joseph war of 1877, the Nez Percé have almost uniformly been the friends of the Whites. Even in that conflict they were humane enough to abstain from scalping their captives, and even went so far as to give them water to drink when they found them wounded and alone.

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Biography of Chief Joseph – Nez Percé

Chief Joseph. Hinmaton-yalatkit. The leader of the Nez Percé in the hostilities of 1877. His mother was a Nez Percé, his father a Cayuse, who re­ceived the name Joseph from his teacher, the missionary Spalding, who was with Dr. A. Whitman and who went to the Idaho country in the late thirties of the 19th century. Chief Joseph’s native name was Hinmaton-yalatkit (Hinmaton, `thunder’; yalatkit, ‘coming from the water up over the land.’ – Miss McBeth), but both he and his brother Ollicot were often called Joseph, as if it were a family name. Joseph was a man of fine presence and impressive features, and was one of the most remarkable Indians within the borders of the Union.

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Biographical Sketch of Mark Arthur – Nez Percé

A full-blood Nez Percé, born in 1873. His mother being captured with Chief Joseph’s band in 1877, Mark became a wanderer among strange tribes until about 1880, when he found his way back to the Nez Percé Reservation, Idaho, where he entered the mission school of Miss McBeth and soon began to prepare for the ministry. When the Nez Percé captives sent to the Indian Territory were returned to their northern home, Mark found his mother among them and cared for her until her death. About 1900 he was ordained by the Walla Walla presbytery and became pastor, at...

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Indians of the Great Western Prairies

Upon the Yellowstone, and about the headwaters of the Missouri, the most noted tribes are the Crows and Blackfeet. Bordering upon them at the north and northeast are their enemies, the Ojibbeways, Knisteneaux, and Assinaboins, of some of whom brief mention has been made in former chapters. In 1834 the Blackfeet were computed to number over thirty thousand, but when the small-pox swept over the western country, in 1838, they were frightfully reduced. By the returns of 1850, they were represented as amounting to about thirteen thousand. As these Indians are among the farthest removed from the contaminating influence...

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Preliminary Treaty of 23 September 1858

Preliminary Articles of a Treaty of Peace and Friendship Between the United States and the Spokane Nation of Indians Article 1. Hostilities shall cease between the United States and the Spokane nation of Indians from and after this date. Article 2. The chiefs and headmen of the Spokane Indians, for and in behalf of the whole nation, promise to deliver up to the United States all property in their possession belonging either to the government or to individual white persons. Article 3. The chiefs and headmen of the Spokane Indians, for and in behalf of the whole nation, promise and agree to deliver to the officers in command of the United States troops the men who commenced the attack upon Lieutenant Colonel Steptoe, contrary to the orders of their chiefs, and further to deliver as aforesaid at least one chief and four men with their families as hostages for their future good conduct. Article 4. The chiefs and headmen of the Spokane nation of Indians promise, for and in behalf of the whole tribe, that all white persons shall at all times and places pass through their country unmolested, and further, that no Indians hostile to the United States shall be allowed to pass through or remain in their country. Article 5. The foregoing conditions being fully complied with by the Spokane nation, the officer in command of the...

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Retribution for Previous Losses

Headquarters Expedition against Northern Indians, Camp on the Spokane River, W. T., 16 miles above the ‘Falls’ September 9, 1858. Sir: I remained during the 6th at my camp, three miles below the falls, as my troops required rest after the long march and battle of the previous day. No hostile demonstrations were made by the enemy during the day; they approached the opposite bank of the river in very small parties and intimated a desire to talk, but no direct communication was held with them, as the distance was too great and the river deep and rapid. Early on the morning of the 7th I advanced along the left bank of the Spokane, and soon the Indians were seen on the opposite side, and a talk began with our friendly Nez Perces and interpreters. They said that they wanted to come and see me with the chief Garey, who was nearby. I told them to meet me at the ford, two miles above the falls. I halted at the ford and encamped; soon after Garry crossed over and came to me; he said that he had always been opposed to fighting, but that the young men and many of the chiefs were against him, and he could not control them. I then told him to go back and say to all Indians and chiefs, ‘I have met you...

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Measuring Strength with the Northern Indians

Having crossed the river and being now properly in the land of the enemy, a final inspection of the different branches of the command and equipment was made before moving forward. Ominous signs had for several days appeared in the north. Smoke arising at various points during the day and the illuminated horizon at night indicated that the grass was being burned over a broad front, plainly denoting also that Indian scouting parties were vigilantly covering every nook and corner of that vast region. But few doubted that somewhere beyond that fire line the hostiles were preparing to the...

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Wright’s Order 6

Orders No. 6. Headquarters Expedition against Northern Indians Camp on Snake River, at Mouth of the Tucanon August 19, 1858 The field work erected at this place will be called “Fort Taylor. 1Named in honor of Captain Taylor, who fell in Colonel Steptoe’s engagement with the Northern Indians. Captain Keys, commanding the battalion of the 3rd artillery, will designate a garrison for Fort Taylor, of one company, or at least sixty-five rank and file, exclusive of officers. The two six-pounders will be mounted in Fort Taylor. The two mountain howitzers, with ammunition, &c., complete for field service, will be turned over to an officer to be designated by Captain Keys. Assistant Surgeon Brown is assigned to duty with the garrison of Fort Taylor. The troops of all arms will be held in readiness to cross the river as soon as the fort is completed. By order of Colonel Wright P. A. OWEN, First Lieutenant 9th Infantry, A. A. A. G.” Headquarters Expedition against Northern Indians Camp on Snake River, at Mouth of Tucanon August 19, 1858 Sir: I reached this point yesterday, and Captain Kirkham, with the pack train and residue of the supplies, arrived this morning. The field work at this place is progressing rapidly, and will be ready for occupancy within four days. On my march from Fort Walla Walla the weather was in tensely hot, and...

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Wright’s Order 5

On the return of Lieutenant Davidson to Walla Walla with the supply train, as directed in Orders No. 3, Colonel Wright, being in readiness, moved forward with but brief delay. While yet at Walla Walla he issued the following orders for the government of the command throughout the coming campaign. Orders No. 5. Headquarters Expedition against Northern Indians Camp Near Fort Walla Walla, W. T. August 14, 1858 The residue of the troops for the northern expedition will march from Fort Walla Walla tomorrow, and unite with the advance at the Snake River. Marching from Snake River, the order will be as follows: The dragoons The mountain howitzer company The battalion of artillery serving as infantry The rifle battalion of 9th infantry Pack train of corps and headquarters One company of infantry as rear guard General trains of quartermaster and commissary. The mounted troops will not precede the howitzer company more than four hundred yards, and on approaching canons or defiles where dragoons cannot operate on the flanks, they will be halted and the rifles advanced. No firearms of any description will be dis charged, either on the march or in camp, except in the line of duty, without the special authority of the commanding officer. No person except the employees of the staff departments and officers’ servants will be allowed to accompany the troops or to encamp with...

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Wright’s Order 3

Chief Timothy was proud of his own record of friendly relationship with the whites, and his counsel to his people was ever to preserve a spirit of good feeling between the two races. He possessed an old flint-lock gun which, he said, was given to his father by the explorers, Lewis and Clark, and which he valued highly as an heirloom. He himself remembered the visit of the explorers, and in his declining years loved to recount the events which clustered around the coming and going of the first party of federal officials that ever traveled across the continent. Colonel Wright did not accompany the column from The Dalles to Walla Walla, the command for that movement probably having been given to Captain Erasmus D. Keys of the Third artillery. The colonel, with a suitable escort, reached Walla Walla a few days after the arrival of the force. Immediately after the arrival all arms of the command were put through rigorous drills which were continued daily by way of preparing for the exigencies of the northward movement. The Third artillery companies, with the exception of Major Wyse’s company, drilled twice a day at light infantry tactics. Major Wyse practiced his company in the regular artillery drill, using mules for the mounted battery instead of horses, as had there to fore been the custom. Some unusual interest was observable among...

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Treaty Of Peace and Friendship Between the United States and the Nez Perces Tribe

While Wright’s force was encamped at Willow Creek, a point about half way between The Dalles and Walla Walla, Colonel Steptoe, Captain Kirkham and Lieutenant Davidson, with an escort of fifteen dragoons, passed on the way to Walla Walla. Colonel Steptoe was returning from, a trip to headquarters at Vancouver; Captain Kirkham was to attend Colonel Wright’s expedition as assistant quartermaster, and Lieutenant Davidson had been ordered to take command of Lieutenant Gaston‘s company, which was still at Walla Walla. One of the important objects which it was desired to have accomplished before Colonel Wright should start upon the campaign was that of entering into a treaty of peace and alliance with the strong and friendly disposed Nez Perces. Colonel Steptoe was entrusted by General Clarke with the duty of conducting the negotiations with this tribe, but apprehending from certain remarks he had heard from the Nez Perces that they supposed him to entertain different views from those held by Colonel Wright, and knowing, too, that any negotiations had with other tribes, or any portion of the Nez Perces met in the field during the campaign, would be had under the direction of Colonel Wright, Colonel Steptoe suggested the advisability of placing the matter of this treaty also in the hands of Colonel Wright. Accordingly, after calling together the principal men of the tribe, so far as they could...

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