Topic: Muskogean

Choctaw Indians

Choctaw Tribe: Meaning unknown, though Halbert (1901) has suggested that they received their name from Pearl River, “Hachha”. Also called: Ani’-Tsa’ta, Cherokee name. Flat Heads, from their custom of flattening the heads of infants. Henne’sb, Arapaho name. Nabuggindebaig, probably the Chippewa name for this tribe, signifying “flat heads.” Pans falaya, “Long Hairs,” given by Adair. Sanakfwa, Cheyenne name, meaning “feathers sticking up above the ears.” Té-qta, Quapaw name. Tca-qtr£ an-ya-df, or Tea-qti ham-ya, Biloxi name. Tca-t a, Kansa name. Tetes Plates, French equivalent of “Flat Heads.” Tsah-tfl, Creek name. Choctaw Connections. This was the largest tribe belonging to the southern Muskhogean branch. Linguistically, but not physically, it was most closely allied with the Chickasaw and after them with the Alabama. Choctaw Location. Nearly all of the Choctaw towns were in the southeastern part of Mississippi though they controlled the adjoining territory in the present State of Alabama. The small tribes of Mobile were sometimes called Choctaw. (See also Louisiana, Texas, Oklahoma, Alabama, and Arkansas.) Choctaw Villages From the earliest times of which we have any knowledge the Choctaw villages were distributed into three divisions: a southern, a northeastern, and a western, though a central group may also be distinguished. The southern division is fairly well defined by our several informants, but there is considerable disagreement with reference to the others. One authority gives but two divisions, an eastern and...

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Muskogee Indians

Muskogee. Meaning unknown, but perhaps originally from Shawnee and having reference to swampy ground. To this tribe the name Creeks was ordinarily applied. Also called: Ani’-Gu’sa, by the Cherokee, meaning “Coosa people,” after an ancient and famous town on Coosa River. Ku-û’sha, by the Wyandot. Ochesee, by the Hitchiti. Sko’-ki han-ya, by the Biloxi. Muskogee Connections. The Muskogee language constitutes one division of the Muskhogean tongues proper, that which I call Northern. Muskogee Location. From the earliest times of which we have any record these people seem to have had towns all the way from the Atlantic coast of Georgia and the neighborhood of Savannah River to central Alabama. (See also Florida, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Tennessee, and Texas.) Muskogee Villages It is difficult to separate major divisions of the Muskogee from towns and towns from villages, but there were certainly several distinct Muskogee tribes at a very early period. The following subdivisional classification is perhaps as good as any: Abihka (in St. Clair, Calhoun, and Talladega Counties): Abihka-in-the-west, a late branch of Abihka in the western part of the Creek Nation, Okla. Abihkutci, on Tallassee Hatchee Creek, Talladega County, on the right bank 5 miles from Coosa River. Kan-tcati, on or near Chocolocko, or Choccolocco, Creek and probably not far from the present “Conchardee.” Kayomalgi, possibly settled by Shawnee or Chickasaw, probably near Sylacauga, Talladega County. Lun-ham-ga, location unknown. Talladega,...

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Linguistic Groups at the beginning of the Sixteenth Century

The groups of tribes continued to move, and by the beginning of the sixteenth century they were located approximately as indicated on tile last map. The Iroquoian tribes had moved far eastward, and some occupied the country south of the St. Lawrence. The Hurons had settled north of Niagara, and the Eries remained south of the lake that bears their name. The Cherokee had become established far south in the Alleghenies, with Uchean tribes to the west of them. The Siouan peoples had scattered far from their ancient homes in the valley of the Ohio Some had traversed the...

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Iroquoian and Muskhogean Tribes after arrival East of the Mississippi

The fertile valleys of Tennessee and Kentucky present more convincing evidence of having been occupied by a great number of tribes, at different times, than does any other section of the southeastern United States. Many of the tribes differed in manners and customs, as indicated by the great variety of archeological material recovered front the innumerable sites. During the migratory movements as theoretically expressed on the maps, the present States of Tennessee and Kentucky were crossed and re-crossed by many tribes, representing the historic Siouan, Uchean, Iroquoian, and Muskhogean stocks, while probably at an early time, and certainly at...

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Linguistic Stocks During the Earliest Period Migrations

Map Intended to Visualize the Position of the Several Linguistic Stocks During the Earliest Period Considered in this page. The Algonquian tribes are believed to have come from the far northwest and to have skirted the shores of the Great Lakes before reaching the country farther south. At their first coining, long before the Iroquoian peoples had arrived in the regions south of the St. Lawrence, some tribes of the Algonquian stock appear to have penetrated far south along the mountains into Tennessee or beyond, while others pushed onward into the piedmont sections of the present Virginia and of the Carolinas.

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