Topic: Muskogean

Jeaga Indians

Jeaga Tribe – Meaning unknown. Connections. The Jeaga are classed on the basis of place names and location with the tribes of south Florida, which were perhaps of the Muskhogean division proper. Location. On the present Jupiter Inlet, on the east coast of Florida. Villages. Between this tribe and the Tequesta the names of several settlements are given which may have belonged to one or both of them, viz: Cabista, Custegiyo, Janar, Tavuacio. History. The Jeaga tribe is mentioned by Fontaneda (1854) and by many later Spanish writers but it was of minor importance. Near Jupiter Inlet the Quaker Dickenson (1803), one of our best informants regarding the ancient people of the east coast of Florida, was cast ashore in 1699. In the eighteenth century, this tribe was probably merged with the Ais, Tequesta, and other tribes of this coast, and removed with them to Cuba. Population. No separate enumeration is known. Mooney (1928) estimates the number of Indians on the southeastern coast of Florida in 1650, including this tribe, the Tekesta, Guacata, and Ais, to have been 1,000. As noted in their description, the Ais were the most important of these and undoubtedly the largest. We have no other estimates of population applying to the seventeenth century. In 1726, 88 “Costa” Indians were reported in a mission farther north and these may have been drawn from the southeast...

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Utina Indians

Utina Indians or Timucua Indians. The first name, which probably refers to the chief and means “powerful,” is perhaps originally from uti, “earth,” while the second name, Timucua, is that from which the linguistic stock, or rather this Muskhogean subdivision of it, has received its name. Utina Connections. As given above. Utina Location. The territory of the Utina seems to have extended from the Suwannee to the St. Johns and even eastward of the latter, though some of the subdivisions given should be rated as independent tribes. (See Timucua under Georgia.) Utina Towns Laudonniere (1586) states that there were more than 40 under the Utina chief, but among them he includes “Acquera” (Acuera) and Moquoso far to the south and entirely independent, so that we are uncertain regarding the status of the others he gives, which are as follows: Cadecha, Calanay, Chilili, Eclauou, Molona. Omittaqua, and Onachaquara. As the Utina, with the possible exception of the Potano, was the leading Timucua division and gave its name to the whole, and as the particular tribe to which each town mentioned in the documents belonged cannot be given, it will be well to enter all here, although those that can be placed more accurately will be inserted in their proper places. In De Soto’s time Aguacaleyquen or Caliquen seems to have been the principal town. In the mission period we are...

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Napochi Tribe

Napochi Indians. A tribe living near Coosa river, Alabama at war with the Coças (Creek) in 1560. They were probably a Muskhogean people, more nearly affiliated to the modern...

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Tangipahoa Tribe

Tangipahoa Indians (from tandshi,’maize’; apa, ‘stalk,’ ‘cob’; ava, ‘to gather’: ‘those who gather maize stalks or cobs.’ Wright. Pénicat explains the river name Tandgepao erroneously as ‘white wheat or corn’ ). An extinct tribe, supposed to be Muskhogean, formerly living on the lower Mississippi and on Tangipahoa river, which flows south into Lake Pontchartrain, south east Louisiana. Tonti mentions this people as residing, in 1682, on the Mississippi, 12 leagues from the. Quinipissa village; but, according to Iberville 1Iberville, Margry, Dec., iv, 168, 1880, the Bayogoula informed him that the Tangipahoa had never lived on the Mississippi; nevertheless both statements agree in making their town one of the 7 villages of the Acolapissa. When La Salle reached their village he found that it had recently been burned, and saw dead bodies lying on one another. According to the information given Iberville by the Bayogoula,, the village had been destroyed by the Huma. Nothing definite is known of the language and affinities of the tribe, but their apparent relations with the Acolapissa indicate Muskhogean affinity. Their village was one of those said to belong to the Acolapissa. Footnotes:   [ + ] 1. ↩ Iberville, Margry, Dec., iv, 168,...

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Tawasa Tribe

Tawasa Indians (Alibamu: Tawáha). A Muskhogean tribe first referred to by the De Soto chroniclers in the middle of the 16th century as Toasi and located in the neighborhood of Tallapoosa river. Subsequently they moved south east and constituted one of the tribes to which the name “Apalachicola” was given by the Spaniards. About 1705 attacks by the Alibamu and Creeks compelled them to leave this region also and to seek protection near the French fort at Mobile. In 1707 the Pascagoula declared war against them, but peace was made through the intervention of Bienville. From this time the tribe ceased to be noted by French chroniclers, and at the close of the century it reappears as one of the four Alibamu towns, from which it seems likely that the Tawasa had allied or re-allied themselves with the Alibamu after the disturbance just alluded to. Their subsequent history is probably the same as that of the...

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The Muskogean Peoples of French Louisiana

What is now the State of Alabama and the northwest corner of the State of Georgia had a very different ethnic pattern before and after 1763.  That was the year that Great Britain decisively defeated the Kingdom of France and established a claim on all North America, east of the Mississippi and north of the Great Lakes.  British Colonial leaders had promised the lands of France’s Creek, Koasati and Alabama Indian allies to the Cherokees and those Creek towns in Georgia and South Carolina that were allied with Great Britain.  With this change, Creek territory in Alabama changed from being a narrow band along the eastern edge of the future state’s boundaries to approximately 75% of its future area. The series of articles on French Louisiana will examine the colonial history of eastern Louisiana and how it impacted the Creek People. Early European Explorers Early Colonization of La Louisiane Queen Anne’s War...

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Origins of the Muskogee Branch of the Creek Indians

Muskogee or Mvskoke is generally translated as “people who have herbal medicine.” It nowadays is considered synonymous with “Creek Indian,” but did not appear on any maps until very, very late in the 18th Century. The most common name for the “Creek Indians” at that time was “Coweta.”

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Seminole Tribe

Seminole Indians, Seminole Nation (Creek: Sim-a-no’-le, or Isti simanóle, ‘separatist’, ‘runaway’ ). A Muskhogean tribe of Florida, originally made up of immigrants from the Lower Creek towns on Chattahoochee river, who moved down into Florida following the destruction of the Apalachee and other native tribes. They were at first classed with the Lower Creeks, but began to be known under their present name about 1775.  Those still residing in Florida call themselves Ikaniúksalgi, peninsula people’ (Gatschet). The Seminole, before the removal of the main body to Indian Territory, consisted chiefly of descendants of Muscogee (Creeks) and Hitchiti from the Lower Creek towns, with a considerable number of refugees from the Upper Creeks after the Creek War, together with remnants of Yamasee and other conquered tribes, Yuchi, and a large Negro element from runaway slaves. When Hawkins wrote, in 1799, they had 7 towns, which increased to 20 or more as they overran the peninsula. While still under Spanish rule the Seminole became involved in hostility with the United States, particularly in the War of 1812, and again in 1817-18, the latter being known as the first Seminole War. This war was quelled by Gen. Andrew Jackson, who invaded Florida with a force exceeding 3,000 men, as the result of which Spain ceded the territory to the United States in 1819. By treaty of Ft Moultrie in 1823, the Seminole ceded...

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Tohome Tribe

Tohome Indains. A former Muskhogean tribe of the Gulf coast, speaking a dialect of Choctaw. Their cabins stood 8 leagues north of the French settlement at Mobile, on the west side of Mobile river.

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Washa Tribe

Washa Indians. A small tribe, probably of Muskhogean stock, which, when first known to Europeans, inhabited the lower part of Bayou Lafourche, Louisiana, and hunted through the country between that river and the Mississippi. In 1699 Bienville made an unsuccessful attempt to open relations with them, but in 1718, after the close of the Chitimacha War, they were induced to settle on the Mississippi 3 leagues above New Orleans, and they appear to have remained near that place to the time of their extinction or their absorption by other tribes. They were always closely associated with another small tribe called Chaouacha, with which, they finally became united. In 1805 Sibley stated that there were only four individuals of this tribe living scattered among various French families. The name Ouacha is perpetuated in that of a lake near the Louisiana coast, and it also appears as all alternative name for Lake...

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Mobile Tribe

Mobile Indians (meaning doubtful). A Muskhogean tribe whose early home was probably Mauvila, or Mavilla, supposed to have been at or near Choctaw Bluff on Alabama river, Clark County, Alabama, where DeSoto, in 1540, met with fierce opposition on the part of the natives and engaged in the most obstinate contest of the expedition. The town was then under the control of Tascalusa  probably an Alibamu chief. If, as is probable, the Mobile tribe took part in this contest, they must later have moved farther south, as they are found on Mobile bay when the French began to plant a colony at that point about the year 1700. Wishing protection from their enemies, they obtained permission from the French, about 1708, to settle near Fort Louis, where space was allotted them and the Tohome for this purpose. Little is known of the history the tribe. In 1708 a large body of Alibamu, Cherokee, Abihka, and Catawba warriors descended Mobile river for to purpose of attacking the French and the Indian allies, but for some unknown reason contented themselves with destroying a few huts of the Mobilians. The latter, who were always friendly to to French, appear to have been Christianized soon after the French settled there. In 1741 Coxe wrote that the chief city of the once great province of Tascaluza, “Mouvilla, which the English call Maubela, and the...

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Muscogee Indian Chiefs and Leaders

Big Warrior, a man of much prudence and shrewdness, was a native of Alabama, and a pure-blood Indian. He was peaceably disposed towards the whites, and sided with them in the war of 1813. He died in Washington in 1825, while in attendance there with a delegation of his tribe.   Leclerc Milfort was a Frenchman who lived from 1776 to 1796 among the Muscogees. He married a sister of McGillivray, and often led the warriors of the nation against the Georgians. Returning to France, he was made a general of brigade by Napoleon, and wrote an account of his sojourn in Ia nation Creek.”   Opothleyoholo was born in Tookabatchee, and was the son of the half-breed Alexander Cornells, Weatherford’s brother-in-law, by an Indian woman. A brave man and influential chief, he was always friendly to the whites. He became wealthy, and removed with his people to the West, where he was residing in 1861, when he sided with the North in the war between the...

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Bayogoula Tribe

Bayogoula Indians (Choctaw: Báyuk-ókla ‘Bayou people’). A Muskhogean tribe which in 1700 lived with the Mugulasha in a village on the west bank of the Mississippi, about 64 leagues above its mouth and 30 leagues below the Huma town. Lemoyned’ Iberville 1Iberville, Margry, Dec., iv, 170-172, 1880 gives a brief description of their village, which he says contained 2 temples and 107 cabins; that a fire was kept constantly burning in the temples, and near the door were kept many figures of animals, as the bear, wolf, birds, and in particular the choucoüacha, or opossum, which appeared to be a chief deity or image to which offerings were made. At this time they numbered 200 to 250 men, probably including the Mugulasha.  Not long after the Bayogoula almost exterminated the Mugulasha as the result of a dispute between the chiefs of the two tribes, but the former soon fell victims to a similar act of treachery, since having received the Tonica into their village in 1706, they were surprised and almost all massacred by their perfidious guests 2La Harpe, Jour. Hist. La., 98, 1831. Smallpox destroyed most of the remainder, so that by 1721 not a family was known to exist. Footnotes:   [ + ] 1. ↩ Iberville, Margry, Dec., iv, 170-172, 1880 2. ↩ La Harpe, Jour. Hist. La., 98,...

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Hitchiti Tribe

Hitchiti Tribe, Hitchiti Indians (Creek: ahítchita, ‘to look upstream’). A Muskhogean tribe formerly residing chiefly in a town of the same name on the east bank of Chattahoochee River, 4 miles below Chiaha, and possessing a narrow strip of good land bordering on the river, in west Georgia. When Hawkins visited them in 1799 they had spread out into two branch settlements, one, the Hitchitudshi, or Little Hitchiti, on both sides of Flint river below the junction of Kinchafoonee Creek, which passes through a country named after it; the other, Tutalosi, on a branch of Kinchafoonee creek , 20 miles west of Hitchitudshi. The tribe is not often mentioned in history, and appears for the first time in 1733, when two of its delegates, with the Lower Creek chiefs, met Gov. Oglethorpe at Savannah. The Hitchiti language appears to have extended beyond the limits of the tribe as here defined, as it was spoken not only in the towns on the Chattahoochee, as Chiaha, Chiahudshi, Hitchiti, Oconee, Sawokli, Sawokliudshi, and Apalachicola, and in those on Flint river, but by the Mikasuki, and, as traceable by the local names, over considerable portions of Georgia and Florida. The Seminole are also said to have been a half Creek and half Hitchiti speaking people, although their language is now almost identical with Creek; and it is supposed that the Yamasi likewise spoke...

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