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Topic: Muskogean

Napochi Indians

Napochi Tribe: If connected with Choctaw Napissa, as seems not unlikely, the name means “those who see,” or “those who look out,” probably equivalent to “frontiersmen.” Napochi Connection. They belonged to the southern division of the Muskhogean proper, and were seemingly nearest to the Choctaw. Napochi Location. Along Black Warrior River. Napochi History. The tribe appears first in the account of an attempt to colonize the Gulf States in 1559 under Don Tristan de Luna, part of his forces being sent inland from Pensacola Bay came to Coosa in 1560 and assisted its people against the Napochi, whom they claimed to have reduced to “allegiance” to the former. After this the Napochi seem to have left the Black Warrior River, and we know nothing certain of their fate, but the name was preserved down to very recent times among the Creeks as a war name, and it is probable that they are the Napissa spoken of by Iberville in 1699, as having recently joined the Chickasaw. Possibly the Acolapissa of  Pearl River and the Quinipissa of Louisiana were parts of the same tribe. Napochi Population. Unknown. Connection in which they have become noted. The only claim the Napochi have to distinction is their possible connection with the remarkable group of mounds at Moundville, Hale County,...

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Sawokli Indians

Sawokli Tribe: Possibly meaning “raccoon people,” in the Hitchiti language, and, while this is not absolutely certain, the okli undoubtedly means “people.” Sawokli Connections. The Sawokli belonged to the Muskhogean linguistic stock and to the subdivision called Atcik-hata. (See Apalachicola.) Sawokli Location. The best known historic location was on Chattahoochee River in the northeastern part of the present Barbour County, Ala. (See Florida and Georgia.) Sawokli Villages Hatchee tcaba, probably on or near Hatchechubbee Creek, in Russell County, Ala. Okawaigi, on Cowikee Creek, in Barbour County, Ala. Okiti-yagani, in Clay County, Ga., not far from Fort Gaines. Sawokli, several different locations, the best known of which is given above. Sawoklutci, on the east bank of the Chattahoochee River, in Stewart County, Ga. Teawokli, probably on Chattahoochee River in the northeastern part of Russell County, Ala. Sawokli History. When first known to the Spaniards the Sawokli were living on Chattahoochee River below the falls of Columbus, Georgia, on the Alabama side. A Spanish mission, Santa Cruz de Sabacola, was established in one section of the tribe by Bishop Calderón of Cuba in 1675, and missionaries were sent to a larger body among the Creeks in 1679 and again in 1681. Most of the Indians surrounding these latter, however, soon became hostile and those who were Christianized withdrew to the junction of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers, where they were settled...

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Tohome Indians

Tohome Tribe: Said by Iberville to mean “little chief,” but this is evidently an error. Tohome Connections. They belonged to the southern branch of the Muskhogean linguistic group, their closest relatives being the Mobile. Tohome Location. About MacIntosh’s Bluff on the west bank of Tombigbee River, some miles above its junction with the Alabama. Tohome Subdivisions. Anciently there were two main branches of this tribe, sometimes called the Big Tohome and Little Tohome, but the Little Tohome are known more often as Naniaba, “people dwelling on a hill,” or “people of the Forks;” the latter would be because they were where the Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers unite. Tohome Villages. No others are known than those which received their names from Tohome and its subdivisions. Tohome History. Cartographical evidence suggests that the Tohome may once have lived on a creek formerly known as Oke Thome, now contracted into Catoma, which flows into Alabama River a short distance below Montgomery. When first discovered by the Whites, however, they were living at the point above indicated. In the De Luna narratives (1559-60) the Tombigbee River is called “River of the Tome.” Iberville learned of this tribe in April 1700, and sent messengers who reached the Tohome village and returned in May. In 1702 he went to see them himself but seems not to have gone beyond the Naniaba. From this time on...

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Koasati Indians

Koasati Tribe: Meaning unknown; often given as Coosawda and Coushatta, and sometimes abbreviated to Shati. Koasati Connections. They belonged to the southern section of the Muskhogean linguistic group, and were particularly close to the Alabama. Koasati Location. The historic location of the Koasati was just below the junction of the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers to form the Alabama and on the east side of the latter, where Coosada Creek and Station still bear the name. (See also Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, and Oklahoma.) Koasati Villages. Two Koasati towns are mentioned as having existed in very early times, one of which may have been the Kaskinampo. (See Tennessee) At a later period a town known as Wetumpka on the east bank of Coosa River, in Elmore County, near the falls seems to have been occupied by Koasati Indians. During part of its existence Wetumpka was divided into two settlements, Big Wetumpka on the site of the modern town of the same name and Little Wetumpka above the falls of Coosa. Koasati History. It is probable that from about 1500 until well along in the seventeenth century, perhaps to its very close, the Koasati lived upon Tennessee River. There is good reason to think that they are the Coste, Acoste, or Costehe of De Soto’s chroniclers whose principal village was upon an island in the river, and in all probability this...

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Tuskegee Indians

Tuskegee Tribe: Meaning unknown, but apparently containing the Alabama term taska, “warrior.” Tuskegee Connections. The original Tuskegee language is unknown but it was probably affiliated with the Alabama, and hence with the southern branch of Muskhogean. Tuskegee Location. The later and best known location of this tribe was on the point of land between Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers, but in 1685 part of them were on the Chattahoochee River near modern Columbus and the rest were on the upper Tennessee near Long Island. (See also Oklahoma and Tennessee) Tuskegee Villages. None are known under any except the tribal name of Tuskegee. Tuskegee History. In 1540 De Soto passed through a town called Tasqui 2 days before he entered Coosa. In 1567 Vandera was informed that there were two places in this neighborhood near together called Tasqui and Tasquiqui, both of which probably belonged to the Tuskegee. By the close of the seventeenth century the Tuskegee appear to have divided into two bands one of which Coxe (1705) places on an island in Tennessee River. This band continued to live on or near the Tennessee for a considerable period but in course of time settled among the Cherokee on the south side of Little Tennessee River, just above the mouth of Tellico, in the present Monroe County, Tennessee. Sequoya lived there in his boyhood. Another place which retained this name,...

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Yamasee Indians

Yamasee Tribe. Meaning unknown, though it has been interpreted by Muskogee yamasi, “gentle.” The form given in some early writings, Yamiscaron, may have been derived from a Siouan dialect or from Timucua, as there is no r in any of the Muskhogean tongues. Yamasee Connections. The Yamasee town and chief names indicate plainly that they spoke a Muskhogean dialect and tradition affirms that it was connected most closely with Hitchiti, a contention which may be considered probable. Yamasee Location. The earliest references that we have place the Yamasee on Ocmulgee River not far above its junction with the Oconee. They seem to have ranged or extended northeastward of these rivers to or even slightly beyond the Savannah, but always inland. (See also Alabama, Florida, South Carolina) Yamasee Villages Immediately before the outbreak of the Yamasee War there were the following: Upper Towns: Huspaw, near Huspaw Creek between Combahee River and the Whale Branch. Pocotaligo, near Pocotaligo River. Sadkeche, probably near Salkehatchie, a hamlet at the Atlantic Coast Line crossing of the Combahee River. Tomatly, in the neighborhood of Tomatly, Beaufort County, S. C. Yoa, near Huspaw. Lower towns: Altamaha, location unknown. Chasee, location unknown. Oketee, probaly near one of the places so called on New River, in Jasper and Beaufort Counties, S. C. Pocasabo. Tulafina (?), perhaps near Tulafinny Creek, an estuary of the Coosawhatchie River in Jasper County. Other...

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Apalachicola Indians

Apalachicola Tribe. From Hitchiti “Apalachicoli” or Muskogee “Apalachicolo,” signifying apparently “People of the other side,” with reference probably to the Apalachicola River or some nearby stream. Also called: Talwa lako or Italwa lako, “big town,” name given by the Muskogee Indians. Palachicola or Parachukla, contractions of Apalachicola. Apalachicola Connections. This was one of those tribes of the Muskhogean linguistic stock which spoke the Atsik-hata or Hitchiti language, and which included in addition the Hitchiti, Okmulgee, Oconee, Sawokli, Tamali, Mikasuki, Chiaha, and possibly the Osochi. Apalachicola Location. The earliest known home of the Apalachicola was near the river which bears their name in the center of the Lower Creek country. Later they lived for a considerable period at the point where it comes into existence through the junction of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers. (See also Alabama and Florida.) Apalachicola  Subdivisions and Villages. The following names of towns or tribes were given by a Tawasa Indian, Lamhatty, to Robert Beverley (1722) and may well have belonged to the Apalachicola: Aulbdley, Ephtppick, Sonepáh, and perhaps Socsoóky (or Socsósky). The census of 1832 returned two distinct bodies of Indians under the synonyms Apalachicola and Tälw łåko. Apalachicola History. According to Muskogee legend, the ancestors of the Muskogee encountered the Apalachicola in the region above indicated, when they entered the country, and they were at first disposed to fight with them but soon...

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Yustaga Indians

Yustaga Tribe. Meaning unknown. Yustaga Connections. No words of the Yustaga language have been preserved but circumstantial evidence indicates they belonged to the Timucuan branch of the Muskhogean linguistic stock, although occasionally the provinces of Timucua and Yustaga are spoken of as if distinct. Yustaga Location. Approximately between Aucilla and Suwannee Rivers, somewhat toward the coast. Yustaga Villages. The Yustaga villages cannot be satisfactorily identified though the missions of Asile, San Marcos, Machaba, and San Pedro seem to have belonged to it. Yustaga History. The Yustaga are first mentioned by Biedma (in Bourne, 1904), one of the chroniclers of De Soto, who gives the title to a “province” through which the Spaniards marched just before coming to Apalachee. While the French Huguenots were on St. Johns River, some of them visited this tribe, and later it is again mentioned by the Spaniards but no mission bears the name. Its history is soon merged in that of the Timucuan peoples generally. The last mention of the name appears to be in 1659. It is of particular interest as the province from which the Osocbi Indians who settled among the Lower Creeks probably emigrated in 1656 or shortly afterward. Yustaga Population. In 1675, 40 Indians were reported in the mission of Asile and 300 in each of the others, giving a total very close to Mooney’s (1928) estimate of 1,000 as...

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Pawokti Indians

Pawokti Tribe. Meaning unknown. Pawokti Connections. They were probably affiliated either with the Tawasa or the Alabama. In any case there is no reason to doubt that they spoke a Muskhogean dialect, using Muskhogean in the extended sense. Pawokti Location. The earliest known location of the Pawokti seems to have been west of Choctawhatchee River, not far from the shores of the Gulf of Mexico. (See also Alabama) Pawokti History. Lamhatty (in Bushnell, 1908) assigns the Pawokti the above location before they were driven away by northern Indians, evidently Creeks, in 1706-7. Although the name does not appear in any French documents known to me, they probably settled near Mobile along with the Tawasa. At any rate we find them on Alabama River in 1799 a few miles below the present Montgomery and it is assumed they had been there from 1717, when Fort Toulouse was established. Their subsequent history is merged in that of the Alabama. Pawokti Population. (See...

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Pensacola Indians

Pensacola Tribe. Meaning “hair people,” probably from their own tongue, which in that case was very close to Choctaw. Pensacola Connections. The name itself, and other bits of circumstantial evidence, indicate that the Pensacola belonged to the Muskhogean stock and, as above noted, probably spoke a dialect close to Choctaw. Pensacola Location. In the neighborhood of Pensacola Bay. (See also Mississippi.) Pensacola History. In 1528 the survivors of the Narvaez expedition had an encounter with Indians near Pensacola Bay who probably belonged to this tribe. It is also probable that their territory constituted the province of Achuse or Ochus which Maldonado, the commander of De Soto’s fleet, visited in 1539 and whence he brought a remarkably fine “blanket of sable fur.” In 1559 a Spanish colony under Tristan de Luna landed in a port called “the Bay of Ichuse,” (or “Ychuse”) undoubtedly in the same province, but the enterprise was soon given up and the colonists returned to Mexico. The Pensacola tribe seems to be mentioned first by name in Spanish letters dated 1677. In 1686 we learn they were at war with the Mobile Indians. Twelve years afterward, when the Spanish post of Pensacola was established, it is claimed that the tribe had been exterminated by other peoples, but this is an error. It had merely moved farther inland and probably toward the west. They are noted from...

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Pohoy Indians

Pohoy Indians, Pooy, or Posoy. Meaning unknown. Pohoy Connections. They were evidently closely connected with the Timucuan division of the Muskhogean linguistic stock. (See Utina). Pohoy Location. On the south shore of Tampa Bay. Pohoy Towns. (See History.) Pohoy History. This tribe, or a part of the same, appears first in history under the names Oçita or Ucita as a “province” in the territory of which Hernando de Soto landed in 1539. He established his headquarters in the town of the head chief on June 1, and when he marched inland on July 15 he left a captain named Calder6n with a hundred men to hold this place pending further developments. These were withdrawn at the end of November to join the main army in the Apalachee country. In 1612 these Indians appear for the first time under the name Pohoy or Pooy in the account of an expedition to the southwest coast of Florida under an ensign named Cartaya. In 1675 Bishop Calder6n speaks of the “Pojoy River,” and in 1680 there is a passing reference to it. Some time before 1726 about 20 Indians of this tribe were placed in a mission called Santa Fe, 9 leagues south of St. Augustine, but they had already suffered from an epidemic and by 1728 the remainder returned to their former homes. (See Utina) Pohoy Population. In 1680 the Pohoy...

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Icafui Indians

Icafui Tribe. Meaning unknown. Icafui Connections. They were undoubtedly of the Timucuan group though they seem to have been confused at times with a tribe called Cascangue which may have been related to the Muskogee or Hitchiti. On the other hand, Cascangue may have been another name of this tribe, possibly one employed by Creeks or Hitchiti. Icafui Location. On the mainland and probably in southeastern Georgia near the border between the Timucua and the strictly Muskhogean populations. Icafui Villages. Seven or eight towns are said to have belonged to this tribe but the names of none of them are known with certainty. Icafui History. Icafui seems to be mentioned first by the Franciscan missionaries who occasionally passed through it on their way to or from interior peoples. It was a “visita” of the missionary at San Pedro (Cumberland Island). Otherwise its history differed in no respect from that of the other Timucuan tribes. (See Utina Indians) Icafui Population. Separate figures regarding this tribe are wanting. (See Utina...

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Fresh Water Indians

Fresh Water Tribe (“Agna Dulce”) Indians. A name applied to the people of seven to nine neighboring towns, and for which there is no native equivalent. Fresh Water Connections. The same as Acuera (q. v.). Fresh Water Location. In the coast district of eastern Florida between St. Augustine and Cape Canaveral. Fresh Water Villages The following towns are given in this province extending from north to south, but not all of the native names have been preserved: Anacape, said to have been 20 leagues south of St. Augustine. Antonico, another possible name is Tunsa. Equale, location uncertain. Filache, location uncertain. Maiaca, a few leagues north of Cape Canaveral and on St. Johns River. Moloa, south of the mouth of St. Johns River (omitted from later lists). San Julian, location uncertain. San Sebastian, on an arm of the sea near St. Augustine, destroyed in 1600 by a flood. Tocoy, given by one writer as 5 leagues from St. Augustine; by another as 24 leagues. The names Macaya and Maycoya, which appear in the neighborhood of the last of these are probably synonyms or corruptions of Maiaca, but there seems to have been a sister town of Maiaca at an early date which Fontaneda (1854) calls Mayajuaca or Mayjuaca. In addition to the preceding, a number of town names have been preserved which perhaps belong to places in this province. Some...

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Mikasuki Indians

Mikasuki Tribe – Meaning unknown. Mikasuki Connections. These Indians belonged to the Hitchiti-speaking branch of the Muskhogean linguistic family. They are said by some to have branched from the true Hitchiti, but those who claim that they were originally Chiaha are probably correct. Mikasuki Location. Their earliest known home was about Miccosukee Lake in Jefferson County. (See also Oklahoma.) Mikasuki Villages. Alachua Talofa or John Hick’s Town, in the Alachua Plains, Alachua County. New Mikasuki, near Greenville in Madison County. Old Mikasuki, near Miccosukee Lake. Mikasuki History. The name Mikasuki appears about 1778 and therefore we know that their independent status had been established by that date whether they had separated from the Hitchiti or the Chiaha. They lived first at Old Mikasuki and then appear to have divided, part going to New Mikasuki and part to the Alachua Plains. Some writers denounce them as the worst of all Seminole bands, but it is quite likely that, as a tribe differing in speech from themselves, the Muskogee element blamed them for sins they themselves had committed. Old Mikasuki was burned by Andrew Jackson in 1817. Most Mikasuki seem to have remained in Florida where they still constitute a distinct body, the Big Cypress band of Seminole. Those who went to Oklahoma retained a distinct Square Ground as late as 1912. Mikasuki Population. Morse (1822) quotes a certain Captain Young...

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Tequesta Indians

Tequesta Indians or Tekesta Indians – Meaning unknown. Tequesta Connections. The language of this tribe was probably connected with the languages of the other peoples of the southeast coast of Florida and with that of the Calusa, and may have been Muskhogean. Tequesta Location. In the neighborhood of Miami. Tequesta Villages. Besides Tekesta proper, the main town, four villages are mentioned between that and the next tribe to the north, the Jeaga, to whom some of the villages may have belonged. These were, in order from south to north: Tavuacio, Janar, Cabista, and Custegiyo. Tequesta History. The Tekesta do not appear in history much before the time of Fontaneda, who was a captive among the Calusa from 1551 to 1569. In 1566 we learn that they protected certain Spaniards from the Calusa chief, although the latter is sometimes regarded as their overlord. A post was established in their country in 1566 but abandoned 4 years later. Attempts made to convert them to Christianity at that time were without success. In 1573 they are said to have been converted by Pedro Menendez Marques, but later they returned to their primitive beliefs. It was these Indians who, according to Romans (1775), went to Cuba in 1763 along with some others from this coast. Tequesta Population. Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1650 there were 1,000 Indians on the southeast coast of Florida....

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