Topic: Muskogean

The Migration of Alabama and Muscogee Indians East

It has been seen that the Indians living in that part of Alabama through which De Soto passed, were the Coosas, inhabiting the territory embraced in the present counties of Benton, Talladega, Coosa, and a portion of Cherokee; the Tallases, living upon the Tallapoosa and its tributary streams; the Mobilians extending from near the present city of Montgomery to the commercial emporium which now bears their name; the Pafallayas or Choctaws, inhabiting the territory of the modern counties of Green, Marengo, Tuscaloosa, Sumpter and Pickens; and, in the present State of Mississippi, the Chickasaws, in the valley of the...

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Treaty of May 26, 1837

Treaty with the Kioway, Ka-ta-ka and Ta-wa-ka-ro, Nations of Indians. Whereas a treaty of peace and friendship was made and signed on the 24th day of August 1835, between Montfort Stokes and Brigadier General Matthew Arbuckle, commissioners on behalf of the United States on the one part; and the chiefs, and head-men and representatives of the Comanche, Witchetaw, Cherokee Muscogee, Choctaw, Osage, Seneca and Quapaw nations or tribes of Indians on the other part: and whereas the said treaty has been duly ratified by the Government of the United States; now know all whom it may concern, that the President of the United States, by letter of appointment and instructions of the 7th day of April 1837, has authorized Col. A. P. Chouteau to make a convention or treaty between the United States and any of the nations or tribes of Indians of the Great Western Prairie; we the said Montfort Stokes, and A. P. Chouteau, commissioners of Indian treaties, have this day made and concluded a treaty of peace and friendship, between the United States of America, and the chiefs, headmen and representatives of the Kioway, Ka-ta-ka, and Ta-wa-ka-ro nations of Indians, on the following terms and conditions, that is to say: Article 1. There shall be perpetual peace and friendship between all the citizens of the United States of America and all the individuals composing the Kioway,...

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Treaty of February 14, 1833 – Creek

Articles of agreement and convention, made and concluded at Fort Gibson, between Montfort Stokes, Henry L. Ellsworth and John F. Schermerhorn, Commissioners on the part of the United States, and the undersigned Chiefs and Head-men of the Muskogee or Creek nation of Indians, this 14th day of February, A. D. 1833. WHEREAS, certain articles of a treaty were concluded at the City of Washington, on the 24th day of January one thousand eight hundred and twenty-six, by and between James Barbour, Secretary of War, on behalf of the United States, and the Chiefs and head-men of the Creek nation of Indians; by which it is agreed that the said Indians shall remove to a country west of the Mississippi river: and whereas the sixth article of said treaty provides as follows:–“that a deputation of five persons shall be sent by them, (the Creek nation) at the expense of the United States, immediately after the ratification of the treaty, to examine the country west of the Mississippi, not within the limits of the States or Territories, and not possessed by the Choctaws or Cherokees. And the United States agree to purchase for them, if the same can conveniently be done upon reasonable terms, wherever they may select, a country, whose extent shall in the opinion of the President, be proportioned to their numbers. And if such purchase can not be...

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Treaty of August 24, 1835

Treaty with the Comanche and Witchetaw Indians and their associated Bands. For the purpose of establishing and perpetuating peace and friendship between the United States of America and the Comanche and Witchetaw nations, and their associated bands or tribes of Indians, and between these nations or tribes, and the Cherokee, Muscogee, Choctaw, Osage, Seneca and Quapaw nations or tribes of Indians, the President of the United States has, to accomplish this desirable object, and to aid therein, appointed Governor M. Stokes, M. Arbuckle Brigdi.-Genl. United States army, and F. W. Armstrong, Actg. Supdt. Western Territory, commissioners on the part of the United States; and the said Governor M. Stokes and M. Arbuckle, Brigdi. Genl. United States army, with the chiefs and representatives of the Cherokee, Muscogee, Choctaw, Osage, Seneca, and Quapaw nations or tribes of Indians, have met the chiefs, warriors, and representatives of the tribes first above named at Camp Holmes, on the eastern border of the Grand Prairie, near the Canadian river, in the Muscogee nation, and after full deliberation, the said nations or tribes have agreed with the United States, and with one another upon the following articles: Article 1. There shall be perpetual peace and friendship between all the citizens of the United States of America, and all the individuals composing the Comanche and Witchetaw nations and their associated bands or tribes of Indians, and...

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Muskhogean Family

The Seventh Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 1885-1886, (based upon Muskhogees, Hitchittees, Seminoles), Pritchard, Phys. Hist. Mankind, v. 402, 1847 (includes Muskhogees, Seminoles, Hitchittees) Muskhogies, Berghaus (1845, Physik. Atlas, map 17, 1848) Ibid., 1852. Muscogee, Keane, App. Stanford’s comp. (Cent. And So. Am.), 460, 471, 1678 (includes Muscogees proper, and Seminoles, Chickasaws, Choctaws, Hitchittees, Coosadas or Coosas, Alibamous, Apalaches). Maskoki, Gatschet, Creek Mig. Legend, I, 50, 1884 (general account of family; four branches, Maskoki, Apalachian, Alibama, Chalita). Berghaus, Physik. Atlas, map 72, 1887. Choctaw Muskhogee, Gallatin in Trans. and Coll. Am. Antiq. Soc., II, 119, 1836. Chocta-Muskhog, Gallatin in Trans. Ant. Eth. Soc., II, pt. 1, xcix, 77, 1848. Gallatin in Schoolcraft, Ind, Tribes, in, 401, 1853. Chata-Muskoki, Hale in Am. Antiq., 108, April, 1883 (considered with reference to migration). Chahtas, Gallatin in Trans. and Coll. Am, Antiq. Soc., II, 100, 306, 1836 (or Choctaws). Chahtahs, Pritchard, Phys. Hist. Mankind, v. 403, 1847 (or Choktahs or Flatheads). Tschahtas, Berghans (1845), Physik. Atlas, map 17, 1848. Ibid., 1852. Choctah, Latham, Nat. Hist, Man, 337, 1850 (includes Choctahs, Muscogulges” Muskohges). Latham in Trans. Phil. Soc, Lond,, 103,, 1856, Latham, Opuscula, 366, 1860. Mobilian, Bancroft, Hist. U. S., 249, 1840. Flat-heads, Prichard, Phys. Hist, Mankind, v. 403, 1847 (Chahtahs or Choktahs). Coshattas, Latham, Nat. Hist. Man, 349, 1850 (net classified). Humus, Latham, Nat. Hist. Man, 341, 1850 (east of Mississippi...

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A Migration Legend of the Creek Indians

Writing more then just a book about an Indian legend, Samuel Gatschet’s classic ethnographic manuscript delves deeply into the enthnography of the Southern tribes of Creek Indians, providing a look into the linguistic groups of the Gulf States, the tribes which spoke those languages, the villages they lived in, and a more comprehensive study of Creek life. Finally, Gatschet provides an overall look at Indian migration legends, and then gives an English translation of the Creek migration legend.

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Cusabo Indians

Cusabo Tribe: Meaning perhaps “Coosawhatchie River (people).” Cusabo Connections. There is little doubt that the Cusabo belonged to the Muskhogean linguistic family. Their closest connections appear to have been with the Indians of the Georgia coast, the Guale. Cusabo Location.—In the southernmost part of South Carolina between Charleston Harbor and Savannah River and including most of the valleys of the Ashley, Edisto, Ashepoo, Combahee, Salkehatchie, and  Coosawhatchie Rivers. Cusabo Subdivisions. These people should be divided first into the Cusabo proper, who occupied all the coast, and the Coosa, who were inland upon the rivers above mentioned. The Cusabo proper seem to have consisted of a northern group of tribes or sub-tribes, including the Etiwaw (on Wando River), Wando (on Cooper River), Kiawa (on the lower vourse of Ashley River), and perhaps the Stone (about Stono Entrance); and a southern group including the Edisto (on Edisto Island), Ashepoo (on lower Ashepoo River), a Combahee (on lower combahee River), Wimbee (between the latter and the lower Coosawhatchie River), Escamacu (between St. Helena Sound and Broad River), and perhaps a few others.  Sometimes early writers erroneously include the Siouan Sewee and Santee as Cusabo. Cusabo Villages Ahoya or Hoya, on or near Broad River. Ahoyabi, near the preceding. Aluste, near Beaufort, possibly a form of Edisto. Awendaw, near Awendaw Creek; it may have been Sewee. Bohicket, near Rockville. Cambe, near Beaufort. Chatuache,...

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Tangipahoa Indians

Tangipahoa Tribe: Meaning probably “corncob gatherers,” or “corncob people.” Tangipahoa Connections. The name of this tribe and its affiliations with the Acolapissa indicate that it belonged to the southern division of the Muskhogean stock. Tangipahoa Location. Probably on the present Tangipahoa River, Tangipahoa Parish. Tangipahoa History. The original home of the Tangipahoa seems must have been as given above, and their relations with the Acolapissa must been very close, for Iberville was informed by some Indians that they constituted a seventh Acolapissa town. In 1682 La Salle’s party discovered a town on the eastern side of the Mississippi, 2 leagues  below the settlement of the Ouinipissa, which had recently been destroyed, and one of of his companions calls this “Tangibao” while others speak of it as Maheouala or Mahehoualaima. The last two terms may refer to the name of the town and the first to that of the tribe which occupied it. Probably a part of the Tangipahoa only settled here, but, as we hear little of them after this period, we must assume that they had been absorbed by some other people, most likely the Acolapissa. Tangipahoa Population. (See Acolapissa) Connection in which they have become noted. Tangipahoa Parish, Tangipahoa River, in Amite and Pike Counties, Miss., and Tangipahoa Parish, La., and the post town of Tangipahoa preserve the name of the...

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Taensa Indians

Taensa Tribe: Meaning unknown, but the name is evidently derived from that of one of the tribe’s constituent towns. Taensa Connections. They were one of the three known tribes of the Natchez division of the Muskhogean stock. Taensa Location. At the western end of Lake St. Joseph, in Tensas Parish. (See also Alabama.) Taensa Villages The only list of Taensa villages preserved was obtained by Iberville through the medium of the Mobilian trade language and it is uncertain how much of each name is a Mobilian translation. In four of them we recognize the Mobilian word for people, okla. These villages are: Chaoucoula Conchayon Couthaougoula Nyhougoulas Ohytoucoulas Taensas, Talaspa Gatschet has endeavored to interpret all but one of them: Chaoucoula from issi, “deer” or ha’tcbe, “river.” Conchayon from ko’nshak, “reed”; Couthaougoula from uk’ha’tax, “lake”; Ohytoucoulas from u’ti, “chestnut”; Taënsas by reference to tan’tci, “corn”; Talaspa from ta”lapi, “five” or ta’?lepa, “hundred”; Most of these seem in the highest degree doubtful. All of the towns were situated close together in the place above indicated. Taensa History It is altogether probable that the Spaniards under De Soto encountered the Taensa or bands afterward affiliated with them, and the probability is strengthened by the fact that La Salle in 1682 was shown some objects of Spanish origin by the chief of the Taensa. However, La Salle and his companions are the first...

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Quinipissa Indians

Quinipissa Tribe: Signifying “those who see,” perhaps meaning “scouts,” or “outpost.” Quinipissa Connections.  The Quinipissa belonged to the southern division of the Muskhogean stock and probably were very closely related to the Choctaw. Quinipissa Location. On the west bank of the Mississippi River and some distance above New Orleans. Quinipissa History. There may have been a connection between this tribe, the Acolapissa, and the Napissa or Napochi. (See Mississippi) They were met first by La Salle and his companions when the latter were on their way to the Gulf of Mexico in 1682. They treated the explorers in a hostile manner but made peace with Tonti in 1686. When Iberville ascended the river in 1699, no tribe of the name was to be found, but later it was learned that the chief of’ the Mugulasha tribe, the then forming one village with the Bayogo was the same chief who had had dealings with La Salle and Tonti. According to some writers, the Mugulasha were identical with the Quinipissa; according to others, the Mugulasha had absorbed the remains of the Quinipissa. In May 1700, the Bayogoula rose against the Mugulasha and destroyed them as a tribe, though they probably adopted many individuals. We hear nothing further regarding them. Quinipissa Population. There is no separate estimate of the number of the Quinipissa. (See Bayogoula Indians) Connection in which they have become...

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Okelousa Indians

Okelousa Tribe: Meaning “black water.” Okelousa Connections. The associations of this tribe were mainly with Muskhogean peoples and this fact, coupled with the Muskhogean name, indicates their linguistic affiliations with a fair degree of certainty. Okelousa Location. The Okelousa moved about considerably. The best determined location is the one mentioned by Le Page du Pratz (1758), on the west side of the Mississippi back of and above Pointe Coupee. (See Mississippi.) Okelousa History. After De Soto reached the principal Chickasaw town, the head chief came to him, January 3, 1541, “and promptly gave the Christians guides and interpreters to go to Caluça, a place of much repute among the Indians. Caluça is a province of more than 90 villages not subject to anyone, with a savage population, very warlike and much dreaded, and the soil is fertile in that section.” (See Bourne, 1904, 1922, vol. 2, p. 132.) There is every reason to think that Caluça is a shortened form of Okalousa and it is rather likely that the later Okelousa were descended from these people, but if so either De Soto’s informants had very much exaggerated their numbers or they suffered immense losses before we hear of them again. The name in De Soto’s time may, however, have been applied to a geographical region. Nicolas de la Salle, writing in 1682, quotes native informants to the effect that...

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Bayogoula Indians

Bayogoula Tribe: Meaning “bayou people,” either from their location or from the fact that their tribal emblem was the alligator. Bayogoula Connections. Their language was of the southern Muskhogean division, not far removed from Houma and Choctaw. Bayogoula Location. Near the present Bayou Goula, in Iberville Parish. Bayogoula History. Unless this tribe was the Pishenoa encountered by Tonti in 1686 and not mentioned subsequently, it was first visited by Iberville in 1699. It then occupied one town with the Mugulasha. In the winter of 1699-1700 the Bayogoula suffered severely from a surprise attack of the Houma. In the spring of 1700, for what cause we know not, the Bayogoula attacked their fellow townsmen, the Mugulasha, and destroyed them, but in 1706 they suffered a similar fate at the hands of the Taensa who had sought refuge with them. The remnant of the Bayogoula was given a place near New Orleans, but some time later they moved up the river to the present Ascension Parish, where they were found in 1739 between the Houma and Acolapissa. Yet our informant states that the three tribes were virtually one and the same, the distinction being kept up merely because the chief of each band was descended from the tribe mentioned. The subsequent history of the Bayogoula is identical with that of the Houma. (See Houma Indians) Bayogoula Population. Mooney (1928) estimates that...

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Avoyel Indians

Avoyel Tribe: The name signifies probably “people of the rocks,” referring to flint and very likely applied because they were middlemen in supplying the Gulf coast tribes with flint. Also called: Little Taensa, so-called from their relationship to the Taensa. Tassenocogoula, name in the Mobilian trade language, meaning “flint people.” Avoyel Connections. The testimony of early writers and circumstantial evidence render it almost certain that the Avoyel spoke a dialect of the Natchez group of the Muskhogean linguistic family. Avoyel Location. In the neighborhood of the present Marksville, La. Avoyel History. The Avoyel are mentioned first by Iberville in the account of his first expedition to Louisiana in 1699, where they appear under the Mobilian form of their name, Tassenocogoula. He did not meet any of the people, however, until the year following when he calls them “Little Taensas.” They were encountered by La Harpe in 1714, and Le Page du Pratz (1758) gives a short notice of them from which it appears that they acted as middlemen in disposing to the French of horses and cattle plundered from Spanish settlements. In 1764 they took part in an attack upon a British regiment ascending the Mississippi (see Ofo Indians), and they are mentioned by some later writers, but Sibley (1832) says they were extinct in 1805 except for two or three women “who did live among the French inhabitants...

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Acolapissa Indians

Acolapissa Tribe: Meaning “those who listen and see,” indicating possibly “borderers” or “scouts.” Also called: Aquelou pissas, by Le Page du Pratz (1758, 2: 219). Cenepisa, by La Salle (in Margry, 1875-86,1: 564). Colapissas, in 1699 by Penicaut (in French, 1869, p. 38). Coulapissas, in 1700 by Sauvole (in Margry 1875-86, 4: 462). Equinipichas, by Sauvole (in French, 1851, 3: 225). Kinipissa, by Tonti (in Margry, 1875-86; 1: 604). Kolapissas, in 1700 by Gravier (in French, 1875, p. 88). Acolapissa Connections. The Acolapissa belonged to the Muskhogean linguistic family and evidently spoke a language closely related to Choctaw and Chickasaw. They may have been more intimately connected with the Napissa who united with the Chickasaw and who were perhaps identical with the Napochi of De Luna, but their closest relatives were the Tangipahoa. Acolapissa Location. Their earliest known location was on Pearl River about 11 miles above its mouth. (See also Mississippi.) Acolapissa Villages. Iberville was told that they consisted of six villages and that the Tangipahoa constituted a seventh, but we treat the latter separately, and the names of the six are not given. Acolapissa History. The Acolapissa are not mentioned among the tribes that came to Iberville in 1699 to form an alliance with him, but after his departure for France, Bienville visited them and was well received, although at first they were terrified because of a...

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Houma Indians

Houma Tribe: Literally “red,” but evidently an abbreviation of saktcihomma, “red crawfish.” Houma Connections. They spoke a Muskhogean language very close to Choctaw, and it is practically certain from the fact that their emblem was the red crawfish that they had separated from the Chakchiuma. Houma Location. The earliest known location of the Houma was on the east side of the Mississippi River some miles inland and close to the Mississippi-Louisiana boundary line, perhaps near the present Pinckney, Miss. (See also Louisiana) Houma Villages. At one time the people of this tribe were distributed between a Little Houma village 2 leagues below the head of Bayou La Fourche and a Great Houma village half a league inland from it. This was after they had moved from their earlier home. Houma History. La Salle heard of the Houma in 1682, but be did not visit them. Tonti made an alliance with them 4 years later, and in 1699 their village was the highest on the Mississippi reached by Iberville before returning to his ships. In 1700 Iberville visited them again and left a missionary among them to build a church, which was an accomplished fact when Gravier reached the tribe in November of the same year. A few years later the Tunica, who had been impelled to leave their old town, were hospitably received by this tribe, but in 1706...

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