Topic: Munsee

An Account of the Sufferings of Mercy Harbison – Indian Captivities

On the 4th of November, 1791, a force of Americans under General Arthur St. Clair was attacked, near the present Ohio-Indiana boundary line, by about the same number of Indians led by Blue Jacket, Little Turtle, and the white renegade Simon Girty. Their defeat was the most disastrous that ever has been suffered by our arms when engaged against a savage foe on anything like even terms. Out of 86 officers and about 1400 regular and militia soldiers, St. Clair lost 70 officers killed or wounded, and 845 men killed, wounded, or missing. The survivors fled in panic, throwing away their weapons and accoutrements. Such was “St. Clair’s defeat.”

The utter incompetency of the officers commanding this expedition may be judged from the single fact that a great number of women were allowed to accompany the troops into a wilderness known to be infested with the worst kind of savages. There were about 250 of these women with the “army” on the day of the battle. Of these, 56 were killed on the spot, many being pinned to the earth by stakes driven through their bodies. Few of the others escaped captivity.

After this unprecedented victory, the Indians became more troublesome than ever along the frontier. No settler’s home was safe, and many were destroyed in the year of terror that followed. The awful fate of one of those households is told in the following touching narrative of Mercy Harbison, wife of one of the survivors of St. Clair’s defeat. How two of her little children were slaughtered before her eyes, how she was dragged through the wilderness with a babe at her breast, how cruelly maltreated, and how she finally escaped, barefooted and carrying her infant through days and nights of almost superhuman exertion, she has left record in a deposition before the magistrates at Pittsburgh and in the statement here reprinted.

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Treaty of September 3, 1839

Articles of a treaty made at Stockbridge in the Territory of Wisconsin, on the third day of September in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-nine, between the United States of America, by their commissioner Albert Gallup, and the Stockbridge and Munsee tribes of Indians, who reside upon Lake Winnebago in the territory of Wisconsin. Article I. The Stockbridge and Munsee tribes of Indians (formerly of New York) hereby cede and relinquish to the United States, the east half of the tract of forty-six thousand and eighty acres of land, which was laid off for their use, on the east side of Lake Winnebago, in pursuance of the treaty made by George B. Porter commissioner on the part of the United States, and the Menominee nation of Indians, on the twenty-seventh day of October eighteen hundred and thirty-two. The said east half hereby ceded, to contain twenty-three thousand and forty acres of land; to be of equal width at the north and south ends, and to be divided from the west half of said tract of forty-six thousand and eighty acres, by a line to be run parallel to the east line of said tract. The United States to pay therefore, one dollar per acre at the time and in the manner hereinafter provided. Article II. Whereas a portion of said tribes, according to a...

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Treaty of February 5, 1856

Whereas by Senate amendment to the treaty with the Menomonees of February [twenty] eighth, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-one, two townships of land on the east side of Winnebago Lake, Territory of Wisconsin, were set aside for the use of the Stockbridge and Munsee tribes of Indians, all formerly of the State of New York, but a part of whom had already removed to Wisconsin; and Whereas said Indianstook possession of said lands, but dissensions existing among them led to the treaty of September third, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-nine, by which the east half of said two townships was retroceded to the United States, and in conformity to which a part of said Stockbridges and Munsees emigrated west of the Mississippi; and Whereas to relieve them from dissensions still existing by “An act for the relief of the Stockbridge tribe of Indians in the Territory of Wisconsin,” approved March third, one thousand eight hundred and forty-three, it was provided, that the remaining townships of land should be divided into lots and allotted between the individual members of said tribe; and Whereas a part of said tribe refused to be governed by the provisions of said act, and a subsequent act was passed on the sixth day of August, one thousand eight hundred and forty-six, repealing the aforementioned act, but without making provision for bona fide purchasers...

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Treaty of Sept. 3, 1839

Articles of a treaty made at Stockbridge in the Territory of Wisconsin, on the third day of September in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-nine, between the United States of America, by their commissioner Albert Gallup, and the Stockbridge and Munsee tribes of Indians, who reside upon Lake Winnebago in the territory of Wisconsin. Article I.The Stockbridge and Munsee tribes of Indians (formerly of New York) hereby cede and relinquish to the United States, the east half of the tract of forty-six thousand and eighty acres of land, which was laid off for their use, on the east side of Lake Winnebago, in pursuance of the treaty made by George B. Porter commissioner on the part of the United States, and the Menominee nation of Indians, on the twenty-seventh day of October eighteen hundred and thirty-two. The said east half hereby ceded, to contain twenty-three thousand and forty acres of land; to be of equal width at the north and south ends, and to be divided from the west half of said tract of forty-six thousand and eighty acres, by a line to be run parallel to the east line of said tract. The United States to pay therefore, one dollar per acre at the time and in the manner hereinafter provided. Article II.Whereas a portion of said tribes, according to a census or...

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Treaty of January 15, 1838

Treaty with the New York Indians as amended by the Senate, and assented to by the several Tribes 1838. Articles of a treaty made and concluded at Buffalo Creek in the State of New York, the fifteenth day of January in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-eight, by Ransom H. Gillet, a commissioner on the part of the United States, and the chiefs, head men and warriors of the several tribes of New York Indians assembled in council witnesseth: Whereas, the six nations of New York Indians not long after the close of the war of the Revolution, became convinced from the rapid increase of the white settlements around, that the time was not far distant when their true interest must lead them to seek a new home among their red brethren in the West: And whereas this subject was agitated in a general council of the Six nations as early as 1810, and resulted in sending a memorial to the President of the United States, inquiring whether the Government would consent to their leaving their habitations and their removing into the neighborhood of their western brethren, and if they could procure a home there, by gift or purchase, whether the Government would acknowledge their title to the lands so obtained in the same manner it had acknowledged it in those from whom they...

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Potawatomi Reservation

Pottawatomie and Great Nemaha Agency Report, of Special Agent Reuben Sears on the Indians of the Pottawatomie, Kickapoo, Iowa, and Chippewa and Munsee reservations, Kansas, August and September 1890. Names of Indian tribes or parts of tribes occupying said reservations :(a) Prairie band of Pottawatomi, Kickapoo, [Iowa], Chippewa, and Munsee. The unallotted areas of these reservations are: Pottawatomi, 77,358 acres, or 120.75 square miles; treaties of June 5, 1846, 9 U. S. Stats, p. 853; of November 15, 1861 (12 U. S. Stats, p. 1191); treaty of relinquishment, February 27, 1867 (15 U. S. Stats, p. 531). Kickapoo, 20,273 acres, or 31.75 square miles; treaty of June 28, 1862 (13 U. S. Stats, p. 623). Iowa, 16,000 acres, or 25 square miles (5,120 acres in Kansas); treaties of May 17, 1854 (10 U. S. Stats., p. 1069, and of March 6, 1861; 12 U. S. Stats., p. 1171). Chippewa and Munsi, 4,395 acres, or 5.75 square miles; treaty of July 16, 1859 (12 U. S. Stats., p. 1105). Indian population 1890: Pottawatomies, 402; Kickapoos, 237; Iowas, 165; Chippewas and Munsees, 75; total, 939. Pottawatomie Reservation The returns had been made of the enumeration of the Prairie band of Pottawatomie, Indians, as well as of their school schedule, before my arrival. I examined the census methods, and have no doubt but that they were carefully and correctly taken. These Indians...

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Chippewa And Munsee Reservation

The Chippewa, and Munsee (Christian) Indians have almost ceased to be Indians in the ordinary acceptation of the term. They are quite equal to the average white pioneers in mental capacity. They read, write, and speak the English language at all times. Their physical condition is as good as that of the average whites about them. They have no constitutional diseases nor any results of vicious habits. They dress like the whites, cultivate the soil, and raise corn, wheat, and other crops. Nearly all of the older members of these tribes have thrifty orchards of the apple, peach, cherry, and plum, and receive a considerable income from them. The majority of these Indians’ are industrious and good citizens, while a few are shiftless and lazy. They live in comfortable houses built of logs nicely hewed, with the interstices well chinked up and pointed with lime mortar, which are very neat and tidy. Some live in frame houses, while some of the houses are frame and log combined. Inside their dwellings are neat and tidy. They cook on kitchen stoves, have cupboards and dishes, eat on tables, and sleep in comfortable beds and upon fair looking bedsteads. They have knives and forks and spoons; in fact, if there were no Indians near, one would think he was in a white man’s house. The upward progress of these people has been...

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Treaty of July 16, 1859

Articles of agreement and convention made and concluded at the Sac and Fox agency on this sixteenth day of July, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-nine, by David Crawford, commissioner on the part of the United States, and the following-named delegates representing the Swan Creek and Black River Chippewas and the Munsee or Christian Indians, they being duly authorized thereto by said Indians, viz: Eshton-quit, or Francis McCoonse, Edward McCoonse, William Turner, Antwine Gokey, Henry Donohue, Ignatius Caleb, and John Williams. Whereas the Swan Creek and Black River band of Chippewas, of Kansas Territory, who were parties to the treaty of May 9, 1836, claim to be entitled to participate in the beneficial provisions of the subsequent treaty of August 2, 1855, under a misapprehension of the terms and conditions of said instrument, the provisions of which were only designed to embrace the Chippewas of Saginaw and that portion of the Chippewas of Swan Creek and Black River who were then residing in Michigan; and whereas a reservation of eight thousand three hundred and twenty acres, or thirteen sections of land, was set apart in Kansas Territory for the use of the Swan Creek and Black River band of Chippewas, in consideration of the cession and relinquishment of certain lands in the State of Michigan which were reserved for said band of Indians by the 6th article of the...

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Treaty of July 4, 1805

A treaty between the United States of America, and the sachems, chiefs, and warriers of the Wyandot, Ottawa, Chipawa, Munsee and Delaware, Shawanee, and Pottawatami nations, holden at Fort Industry, on the Miami of the lake, on the fourth day of July, Anno Domini, one thousand eight hundred and five. ARTICLE I. The said Indian nations do again acknowledge themselves and all their tribes, to be in friendship with, and under the protection of the United States. ARTICLE II. The boundary line between the United States, and the nations aforesaid, shall in future be a meridian line drawn north and south, through a boundary to be erected on the south shore of lake Erie, one hundred and twenty miles due west of the west boundary line of the state of Pennsylvania, extending north until it intersects the boundary line of the United States, and extending south it intersects a line heretofore established by the treaty of Grenville. ARTICLE III. The Indian nations aforesaid, for the consideration of friendship to the United States, and the sums of money hereinafter mentioned, to be paid annually to the Wyandot, Shawanee, Munsee and Delaware nations, have ceded and do hereby cede and relinquish to said United States for ever, all the lands belonging to said United States, lying east of the aforesaid line, bounded southerly and easterly by the line established by said...

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Munsee Tribe

Munsee Indians, Munsee People, Munsee First Nation (Min-asin-ink, ‘at the place where stones are gathered together. Hewitt). One of the three principal divisions of the Delaware, the others being the Unami and Unalachtigo, from whom their dialect differed so much that they have frequently been regarded as a distinct tribe. According to Morgan they have the same three gentes as the Delaware proper, viz, Wolf (Tookseat ), Turtle (Pokekooungo), and Turkey (Pullaook). Brinton says these were totemic designations for the three geographic divisions of the Delaware and had no reference to gentes. However this may be, the Wolf has commonly been regarded as the totem of the Munsee, who have frequently been called the Wolf tribe of the Delaware. The Munsee originally occupied the headwaters of Delaware river in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, extending south to Lehigh river, and also held the west bank of the Hudson from the Catskill mountains nearly to the New Jersey line. They had the Mahican and Wappinger on the north and east, and the Delaware on the south and southeast, and were regarded as the protecting barrier between the latter tribe and the Iroquois. Their council village was Minisink, probably in Sussex county, N. J. According to Ruttenber they were divided into the Minisink, Waoranec, Warranawonkong, Mamekoting, Wawarsink, and Catskill. The Minisink formed the principal division of the Munsee, and the...

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Indian Territory Under the Curtis Act and Subsequent Legislation

Education. Under the Government supervision which has been exercised for three years great improvements have been made in the schools among the Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, and Chickasaws and the antagonism with which Government oversight was at first received is growing less. Normal schools and examinations have raised the grade of teachers, manual training has been encouraged, school funds have been honestly and fairly disbursed, and better schools have cost less per capita than under the old regime. A few towns have been able to raise funds by taxation to support public schools, but as a rule the 119,000 white children in the Indian Territory are without any chance for schooling. Mineral leases. Under seventy-one leases approved by the Department coal is being mined in the Choctaw and Chickasaw nations, and the royalties collected during the year, at the rate of 8 cents per ton, have amounted to $198,449. There are also ten other companies operating under contracts made directly with the tribes before the passage of the Curtis Act. A small amount of asphalt is also being mined there. Some coal, under temporary permission, is being mined on Cherokee lands. Town sites are being surveyed and platted in all the nations except the Seminole. Timber and stone are being taken out by contract from the Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Creek nations. Seminoles. The roll of the Seminoles has been made,...

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