Topic: Missions

A Sad Winter.

The winter of 1882 was a sad time. There was great mortality all through the country, and our Homes did not escape. Our kind friend, Mrs. Fauquier, who, though a constant invalid, had done very much to promote the interests and welfare of our Girls’ Home, was called away to the Heavenly Rest on the 4th of November, 1881. During the last few years of her life she had made the Wawanosh Home her special care, her work for Christ. Those girls were always in her thoughts: she it was who devised their uniform dress of blue serge trimmed with scarlet, and got friends in England to supply them; she chose the furniture for the Home and fitted the lady superintendent’s rooms so prettily and tastefully. Many were the kind words of counsel that the girls received from her, and it used to be her delight to have them to visit her in the afternoon at the See House. Only a month had passed after we heard of Mrs. Fauquier’s death,–she died in New York,–when the appalling tidings reached us that the Bishop, too, was gone. He had died suddenly in Toronto on December 7th. In the same mail bag which brought the sad news was a letter to me from him, written only an hour or two before he died. “The sad void,” he wrote, “which my dear...

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Education Families

I give this name to those bodies which have been commonly denominated Mission Families, because it seems better to describe their character, and may less offend the opposers of Missions. By an Education Family I mean, an association of individual families, formed of one or more men regularly qualified to preach the Gospel, to be at the head of such a family; of schoolmasters and mistresses; of farmers, blacksmiths, carpenters, cabinetmakers, millwrights, and other mechanics-of women capable of teaching the use of the needle, the spinning wheel, the loom, and all kinds of domestic manufactures, cookery, &c. common in civilized families. This family to consist of men and women in a married state, with their children, all possessing talents for their respective offices, with a missionary spirit, devoted to their work; contented to labor without salary, receiving simply support. The size of these families to be proportioned to the importance of their respective stations, and to the number of Indians around them, who are to be educated. Such families have been established, and may be seen in actual operation, and accompanied with their fruits, among the Cherokee, Choctaw and Osage Indians. These bodies are to be the great instruments in the hands of the government, for educating and civilizing the Indians. 1* See Appendix. Improvements in Education Families and New Establishments Recommended My instructions are “to report my opinion...

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The Fort Coffee Mission

At the preceding session of the Arkansas conference, which had been held at Helena, Rev. John M. Steele had been appointed to labor in the Choctaw nation, within the limits of the Moshulatubbee district. There were no societies or Churches at the time, and probably not one in the district who enjoyed the comforts of religion or that had ever been a member of There had been occasional preaching years before by Baptist ministers, but with so little encouragement that the efforts had been discontinued and the district abandoned. In all that region of country, it is believed, there was not one living Christian, not one who knew and loved the Savior. At the period of our arrival Mr. Steele had been in the country several months, traveling extensively and laboring faithfully. He preached at different points, but usually to very small congregations. His principal preaching places Were the Choctaw Agency, Pheasant Bluff’s, Ayakniachukma, Sugarloaf Mountain, and James’s Fork. He had organized no classes, and, up to that date, had witnessed no conversions. After our arrival he preached occasionally at Fort Coffee. He was an earnest, plain, and faithful minister of Christ, who felt his responsibility and labored zealously to do the work of an evangelist. He is probably still laboring in the vineyard of the Lord. Since we last met he has been somewhat prominent as the presiding...

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Indian Missions of the Southern States

All of this region, and even as far north as Virginia, was loosely designated as Florida in the earlier period, and was entirely within the sphere of Spanish influence until about the end of the seventeenth century. The beginning of definite mission work in the Gulf territory was made in 1544 when the Catholic Franciscan Father Andrés de Olmos, a veteran in the Mexican field, struck northward into the Texas wilderness, and after getting about him a considerable body of converts led them back into Tamaulipas, where, under the name of Olives, they were organized into a regular mission town. In 1549 the Dominican Father Luis Cancer with several companions attempted a beginning on the west coast of Florida, but was murdered by the Indians almost as soon as his feet touched the land. In 1565 St Augustine (San Agustin) was founded and the work of Christianizing the natives was actively taken up, first by the Jesuits, but later, probably in 1573, by the Franciscans, who continued with it to the end. Within twenty years they had established a chain of flourishing missions along the coast from St Augustine to St Helena, in South Carolina, besides several others on the west Florida coast. In 1597 a portion of the Guale tribe (possibly the Yamasi) on the lower Georgia coast, under the leadership of a rival claimant for the chieftainship,...

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History of Santa Cruz Mission

(Holy Cross). The twelfth Franciscan mission established in California. The proposed site was personally examined by Fr. Lasuen, who found the natives friendly and ready to help. Supplies and native assistants were sent from the neighboring missions, especially Santa Clara, and the mission was formally founded Sept. 25, 1791, at the place where is now situated the town of Santa Cruz, Santa Clara County. At the end of the year there were 84 neophytes. In 1792 there were 224, and the highest number, 523, was reached in 1796. In 1800 there were 492. At this time the mission had 2,354 head of cattle and horses, and 2,083 of small stock, while the crop for the year amounted to 4,300 bushels. The church, 30 by 112 ft and 25 ft high, with stone front, was completed and dedicated in 1794. In 1797 a number of colonists arrived from Mexico and settled just across the river Lorenzo from the mission. This settlement caused the missionaries much trouble, and seems to have demoralized the Indians. In 1798 the padre in charge was much discouraged with the outlook and reported that 138 neophytes had deserted. He protested against the settlement, but without effect. The number of neophytes remained about the same for the next 20 years, being 507 in 1810, and 461 in 1820. The livestock increased and the crops continued good. In...

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History of Santa Ines Mission

(Saint Agnes). The nineteenth Franciscan mission established in California; founded Sept. 17, 1804, at a place called by the natives Alajulapu, about 25 miles from Santa Barbara, and nearly as far from Purísima. A large number of neophytes from Santa Barbara and Purisima attended the opening ceremony, and many remained at the new mission. On the same day 27 children were baptized. By the end of the first year there were 225 neophytes, in 1810 there were 628, while the highest number, 768, was reached in 1816. In material things the mission prospered, having 7,720 head of large stock in 1820, 5,100 of small stock, and an average annual crop for the preceding decade of 4,340 bushels. The stock increased and the crops continued good for another decade, between 1822 and 1827 supplies to the value of $10,767 being furnished the presidio at Santa Barbara. The first church was seriously injured by an earthquake in 1812, and a new one of adobe lined with brick, which still stands, was completed in 1817. In 1824 there was a revolt of the neophytes at Santa Inés, and a conflict between them and the soldiers, a large part of the mission buildings being burned, and the hostile Indians fleeing, apparently to Purísima (q. v.). In 1830 there were 408 neophytes, but the number decreased to 344 in 1834. Up to that time...

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History of San Pedro y San Pablo Mission

(Saint Peter and Saint Paul). A mission established by Fray Francisco Garcés in 1780 among the Yuma on the west bank of Colorado River, near the site of modern Fort Defiance (Pilot Knob), 8 or 10 miles below Yuma, in extreme south east California. On July 17-19, 1781, the mission was sacked and burned by the natives, about 50 Spaniards, including Garcés, three other friars, and Capt. Rivera y Moncada were killed, and the women and children made...

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History of San Rafael Mission

The next to the last Franciscan mission established in California; founded as an asistencia or branch of San Francisco (Dolores). The mortality among the Indians in San Francisco had become so great that a panic was feared, and a transfer of a portion of the survivors to some situation on the north side of the bay was proposed. At first they were sent over without a priest, but after several had died it was determined to found a new establishment; this was done, Dec. 14, 1817, the new mission being dedicated to San Rafael Arcángel. The native name of the place was Nanaguami. About 230 neophytes were transferred from San Francisco, most of whom, however, originally came from the north side of the bay. An adobe building, 87 by 42 ft, divided into rooms for chapel, dwelling rooms, etc., was finished in 1818. Two years later there were 590 neophytes, and 1,140, the highest number reached, in 1828. By 1823 the establishment was recognized as a separate mission. Its wealth was never very great, though it was prosperous, having in 1830, 1,548 large stock and 1,852 sheep, with an average crop for the preceding decade of 2,454 bushels. In 1830 there were 970 neophytes, the number decreasing about 50 percent in the next four years. At the time of secularization considerable property was distributed among the Indians; but in...

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History of Santa Barbara Mission

The tenth Franciscan mission founded in California. The presidio of Santa Barbara was established in 1782, soon after the founding of San Buenaventura mission, and it was the intention to found a mission at Santa Barbara also, but owing to lack of agreement between the civil authorities and the padres as to the method of organization of the proposed seat, it was not founded till several years later. Finally, on Dec. 4, 1786, the cross was raised and blessed by Fr. Lasuen at a place called Taynayan by the natives, a mile or so from the presidio. Owing to it being the rainy season, buildings were not begun until later. By 1790 there were 438 neophytes. A church 18×90 ft, and numerous other buildings, all roofed with tiles, had been completed. In the next 10 years the number of neophytes increased to only 864, though 1,237 were baptized and only 624 had died. Probably some of the others had been allowed to live in their own villages away from the mission. A new church was finished in 1794, and by 1800 quite a number of new buildings had been erected. At that time there were 60 neophytes engaged in making and weaving cloth, while a carpenter and a tanner were regularly employed to teach the natives those trade. Within the next few years 234 adobe houses were erected for...

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History of Santa Clara Mission

The eighth Franciscan mission established in California. The site first chosen was near Guadalupe River, not far from the head of San Francisco bay, and about 3 miles from its present position. This site was called Thamien by the natives. Here the mission was founded, Jan. 12, 1777, and dedicated to Santa Clara de Asis. Cattle and supplies arrived from Monterey and San Francisco, and work on the buildings was immediately begun. The Indians were at first friendly, but soon began to steal cattle, and did not entirely desist even after 3 were killed and several flogged. By the end of the year there had been 67 baptisms, mostly children. In 1779 the mission was twice flooded, and it was decided to rebuild at another site on higher ground. A new church was begun in 1781 and finished in 1784, the finest erected in California up to that time. This church was considerably damaged by earthquakes in 1812 and later, and a new one was finally built on the present site in 1825-26. Shortly after 1800 there was considerable trouble with the natives. Many of the neophytes seem to have run away at different times, and the expeditions sent out to bring them back were attacked in a few cases. The wealth of the mission increased rapidly. In 1790 the large stock numbered 2,817, small stock 836; in 1800...

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History of San Luis Obispo Mission

The fifth Franciscan mission established in California, on a site, called Tixlini by the natives, now included in the city of the same name. The mission, dedicated to San Luis Obispo de Tolosa, was founded by Fr. Junípero Serra on Sept. 1, 1772, the place being near the Canada de los Osos, where Fages had earlier in the year spent three months hunting bears to supply the northern establishments with food. The natives were well disposed, willing to work, and offered their children for baptism, although the number of neophytes increased slowly. There was no rancheria near the mission, and the natives being well supplied with food, such as deer, rabbits, fish, and seeds, were not particularly desirous of settling at the mission. Crops seem to have been fairly successful from the first. In 1776 all the buildings except the church and the granary were burned by Indians who were enemies of those attached to the mission, the tule roofs of the buildings being fired by means of burning arrows. This led to the general adoption of tiles for roofing. In 1794 an unsuccessful attempt was made by outside Indians to cause the converts to revolt, but it ended with the imprisonment of five of the leaders. There were 492 neophytes in 1780, and 605 in 1790, while the highest number, 946, was reached in 1794. Want of water...

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History of San Luis Rey de Francia Mission

(Saint Louis, King of France, commonly contracted to San Luis Rey). A Franciscan mission founded June 13, 1798, in San Diego County, California. It was the last mission established in California south of Santa Barbara, and the last one by Fr. Lasuen, who was aided by Frs. Santiago and Peyri. The native name of the site was Tacayne. Occupying an intermediate position between San Juan Capistrano and San Diego, it seems to have been chosen chiefly because of the great number of docile natives in the neighborhood. On the day of the founding, 54 children were baptized, and the number of baptisms by the end of the year reached 214. Fr. Peyri, the head of the new mission, was most zealous and energetic, the natives were willing to work, and by July 1, 6,000 adobes were made for the new church, which was completed in 1802. Other buildings also were constructed, and neophytes rapidly gathered in, so that by 1810 the number reached 1,519, a more rapid growth than in any other mission, while the death rate was the lowest. The mission also prospered materially, having in 1810, 10,576 large stock, 9,710 small stock, and an average crop for the preceding decade of 5,250 bushels. During the next decade the mission continued to prosper, the population reaching 2,603 in 1820, while the large stock numbered 11,852, the small stock...

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History of San Miguel Mission

(Saint Michael) The sixteenth Franciscan mission established in California. The site chosen was at a place called by the natives Vahia, in the upper Salinas valley, between San Antonio and San Luis Obispo, in the north part of the present San Luis Obispo County. Taylor (Cal. Farmer, Apr. 27, 1860) says the name of the rancheria at the site of the mission was Chulam, or Chalomi. At this place Fr. Lasuen, on July 25, 1797, “in the presence of a great multitude of gentiles of both sexes and of all ages,” formally founded the mission. The natives were very friendly, and 15 children Were offered for baptism the sane day. The mission grew rapidly in population and wealth. By 1800 there were 362 neophytes, and 973 in 1810, while the greatest number, 1,076, was reached in 1814. At the end of the first three years the mission had 372 horses and cattle, and 1,582 small stock, while the crops for that year (1800) were 1,900 bushels. In 1810 there were 5,281 cattle and horses, 11,160 small stock, with an average crop for the preceding decade of 3,468 bushels. During the next decade the stock increased considerably, but the crops began and continued to decline. In 1806 the mission lost a number of its buildings and a large quantity of supplies by fire, but the roof only of the church...

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History of San Juan Bautista Mission

(Saint John the Baptist). The fifteenth Franciscan mission established in California. The site was chosen between San Carlos and Santa Clara, about 6 miles from the present town of Sargent, Santa Clara County. The native name was Popelout, or Popeloutchom. Here some buildings had already been erected by men from Monterey, and on June 24, 1797, President Lasuen founded the new mission. By the end of the year there had been 85 baptisms, and in 1800 the neophytes numbered 516. These increased to 702 in 1810, 843 in 1820, and 1,248 in 1823, after which the decline began. The stock and crops prospered from the beginning. In 1810 there were 6,175 large stock and 9,720 small stock; in 1820, 11,700 and 9,530 respectively. The average crop for the decade ending 1810 was 3,700 bushels; for that ending 1820, 3,300 bushels. In 1830 there was a considerable decrease in stock, but the crops remained good. For the first two or three years after its founding the mission had considerable trouble with the Ansaime, who lived in the mountains about 25 miles to the east. These were finally defeated and a number of captives brought to the mission. A new mission church, begun in 1803, was dedicated in 1812. In 1832 there were 916 neophytes. The total number of baptisms from the time of its founding was 3,913, of whorl 2,015...

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History of San Juan Capistrano Mission

A Franciscan mission established by Fr. Junfpero Serra, Nov. 10, 1776, at a place called in the native tongue Sajirit, or Quanis-Savit, at the present San Juan, Orange County, Cal. As soon as Franciscan missionaries, who were superseded by Dominicans in Lower California, arrived in San Diego, the ardent apostle to Alta California sent two friars to institute a mission at a roadstead 26 leagues north of San Diego. They raised a cross on Oct. 30, 1775, but hastily returned when they learned that in the absence of the soldiers the natives had burned San Diego mission. No sooner was it rebuilt than Fr. Junípero proceeded to inaugurate the projected second mission, then hurried to San Gabriel and brought down the requisite stock of cattle escorted by a single soldier, and when a band of yelling, painted Indians threatened his life he won their confidence and friendship. The natives of this coast, well supplied by prolific nature, were not covetous of food or gifts, but remarkably eager for baptism. The inhabitants of the valley came from the other side of the Santa Ana Mountains, where they had a large rancheria called Sejat. About 2 miles from the mission they had one called Putuidem, and in its immediate vicinity they settled at Acagchemem 1Geronimo Boscana in California Farmer, Oct. 11, 1861 . The fruitful plain soon yielded an exchangeable surplus...

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