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Topic: Miami

Miami Indians

Miami is thought to be derived from the Chippewa word Omaumeg, signifying “people on the peninsula,” but according to their own traditions, it came from the word for pigeon. The name used by themselves, as recorded and often used by early writers, is Twigbtwees, derived from the cry of a crane. Also called: Naked Indians, a common appellation used by the colonists, from a confusion of twanh, twanh, the cry of a crane, with tawa, “naked.” Pkíwi-léni, by the Shawnee, meaning “dust or ashes people.” Sänshkiá-a-rúnû, by the Wyandot, meaning “people dressing finely, or fantastically.” Tawatawas, meaning “naked.” (See Naked Indians above.) Wa-yä-tä-no’-ke, cited by Morgan (1851). The Miami belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock, their nearest immediate connections being with the Illinois. Location of the Miami Indians For territory occupied in Indiana, see History. (See also Illinois, Kansas, Michigan, Ohio, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin.) Miami Villages and Subdivisions French writers divided the Miami into the following five bands: Atchatchakangouen Kilatika Mengakonkia Pepicokia Piankashaw Wea The last two later became recognized as independent tribes, the Pepicokia may have been absorbed by the Piankashaw but this and the other three divisions are no longer recognized. The following villages are: Chicago, on the site of the present city, probably occupied by Wea. Chippekawkay (Piankashaw), perhaps containing originally the Pepicokia band, on the site of Vincennes, Knox County, Indiana. Choppatee’s Village, on the west...

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Moravian Massacre at Gnadenbrutten

In the early part of the year 1763 two Moravian missionaries, Post and Heckewelder, established a mission among the Tuscarawa Indians, and in a few years they had three nourishing missionary stations, viz: Shoenbrun, Gnadenbrutten and Salem, which were about five miles apart and fifty miles west of the present town of Steubenville, Ohio. During our Revolutionary War their position being midway between the hostile Indians (allies of the British) on the Sandusky River, and our frontier settlements, and therefore on the direct route of the war parties of both the British Indian allies and the frontier settlers, they...

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Early Exploration and Native Americans

De Soto and his band gave to the Choctaws at Moma Binah and the Chickasaws at Chikasahha their first lesson in the white man’s modus operandi to civilize and Christianize North American Indians; so has the same lesson been continued to be given to that unfortunate people by his white successors from that day to this, all over this continent, but which to them, was as the tones of an alarm-bell at midnight. And one hundred and twenty-three years have passed since our forefathers declared all men of every nationality to be free and equal on the soil of the North American continent then under their jurisdiction, except the Africans whom they held in slavery, and the Native Americans against whom they decreed absolute extermination because they could not also enslave them; to prove which, they at once began to hold out flattering-inducements to the so-called oppressed people of all climes under the sun, to come to free America and assist them to oppress and kill off the Native Americans and in partnership take their lands and country, as this was more in accordance with their lust of wealth and speedy self-aggrandizement than the imagined slow process of educating, civilizing and Christianizing them, a work too con descending, too humiliating; and to demonstrate that it has been a grand and glorious success, we now point with vaunting pride and haughty...

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The War with the Indians of the West during Washington’s Administration

After the termination of the Revolutionary War, the hardy settlers of the west had still a contest to maintain, which often threatened their extermination. The Indian tribes of the west refused to bury the hatchet when Great Britain withdrew her armies, and they continued their terrible devastation. The vicinity of the Ohio River, especially, was the scene of their operations.

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War Between the Colonies and The Western Indians – From 1763 To 1765

A struggle began in 1760, in which the English had to contend with a more powerful Indian enemy than any they had yet encountered. Pontiac, a chief renowned both in America and Europe, as a brave and skillful warrior, and a far-sighted and active ruler, was at the head of all the Indian tribes on the great lakes. Among these were the Ottawas, Miamis, Chippewas, Wyandott, Pottawatomie, Winnebago, Shawanese, Ottagamie, and Mississagas. After the capture of Quebec, in 1760, Major Rodgers was sent into the country of Pontiac to drive the French from it. Apprised of his approach, Pontiac...

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Treaty of November 28, 1840

Articles of a treaty made and concluded at the Forks of the Wabash, in the State of Indiana, this twenty-eighth day of November in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty, between Samuel Milroy and Allen Hamilton, acting (unofficially) as commissioners on the part of the United States, and the chiefs, warriors and headmen of the Miami tribe of Indians. Article I. The Miami tribe of Indians, do hereby cede to the United States all that tract of land on the south side of the Wabash river, not heretofore ceded, and commonly known as “the residue of the Big Reserve.” Being all of their remaining lands in Indiana. Article II. For and in consideration of the cession aforesaid, the United States agree to pay to the Miami tribe of Indians the sum of five hundred and fifty thousand dollars. Three hundred thousand dollars of which sum to be set apart, and applied immediately after the ratification of this treaty and an appropriation is made by Congress to carry its provisions into effect, to the payment of the debts of the tribe, as hereinafter stipulated. And the residue, two hundred and fifty thousand dollars, to be paid in twenty equal yearly installments. Article III. The Miamies, being desirous that their just debts shall be fully paid; it is hereby, at their request stipulated, that immediately on...

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Treaty of February 11, 1828

The Eel river or Thorntown party of Miami Indians cede to the U.S. all claim to a reservation of land about 10 miles square at their village on Sugar Tree creek in Indiana, reserved to them by article 2, of the treaty of Oct. 6, 1818.

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Treaty of July 22, 1814

A treaty of peace and friendship between the United States of America, and the tribes of Indians called the Wyandots, Delawares, Shawanoese, Senecas, and Miamies. The said United States of America, by William Henry Harrison, late a major general in the army of the United States, and Lewis Cass, governor of the Michigan territory, duly authorized and appointed commissioners for the purpose, and the said tribes, by their head men, chiefs, and warriors, assembled at Greenville, in the state of Ohio, have agreed to the following articles, which, when ratified by the president of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, shall be binding upon them and the said tribes. Article 1. The United States and the Wyandots, Delawares, Shawanoese, and Senecas, give peace to the Miamie nation of Indians, formerly designated as the Miamie Eel River and Weea tribes; they extend this indulgence also to the bands of the Putawatimies, which adhere to the Grand Sachem Tobinipee, and to the chief Onoxa, to the Ottawas of Blanchard’s creek, who have attached themselves to the Shawanoese tribe, and to such of the said tribe as adhere to the chief called the Wing, in the neighborhood of Detroit, and to the Kickapoos, under the direction of their chiefs who sign this treaty. Article II. The tribes and bands abovementioned, engage to give their...

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Dawes Act

General Allotment Act or Dawes Act An Act to Provide for the Allotment of Lands in Severalty to Indians on the Various Reservations (General Allotment Act or Dawes Act), Statutes at Large 24, 388-91,      Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That in all cases where any tribe or band of Indians has been, or shall hereafter be, located upon any reservation created for their use, either by treaty stipulation or by virtue of an act of Congress or executive order setting apart the same for their use, the President of the United States be, and he hereby is, authorized, whenever in his opinion any reservation or any part thereof of such Indians is advantageous for agricultural and grazing purposes, to cause said reservation, or any part thereof, to be surveyed, or resurveyed if necessary, and to allot the lands in said reservation in severalty to any Indian located thereon in quantities as follows: To each head of a family, one-quarter of a section; To each single person over eighteen years of age, one-eighth of a section; To each orphan child under eighteen years of age, one-eighth of a section; and To each other single person under eighteen years now living, or who may be born prior to the date of the order of the President...

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Treaty of June 5, 1854

Articles of agreement and convention made and concluded at the city of Washington, this fifth day of June, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-four, between George W. Manypenny, commissioner on the part of the United States, and the following-named delegates representing the Miami tribe of Indians, viz: Nah-we-lan-quah, or Big Legs; Ma-cat-a-chin-quah, or Little Doctor; Lan-a-pin-cha, or Jack Hackley; So-ne-lan-gish-eah, or John Bowrie; and Wan-zop-e-ah; they being thereto duly authorized by said tribe—and Me-shin-go-me-zia, Po-con-ge-ah, Pim-yi-oh-te-mah, Wop-pop-pe-tah, or Bondy, and Ke-ah-cot-woh, or Buffalo, Miami Indians, residents of the State of Indiana, being present, and assenting, approving, agreeing to, and confirming said articles of agreement and convention. Article 1. The said Miami Indians hereby cede and convey to the United States, all that certain tract of country set apart and assigned to the said tribe, by the article added by the Senate of the United States, by resolution of the date of February twenty-fifth, one thousand eight hundred and forty-one, to the treaty of November twenty-eighth, one thousand eight hundred and forty, and denominated among the amendments of the Senate as “Article 12,” which was assented to by said Indians, on the fifteenth day of May, one thousand eight hundred and forty-one; which tract is designated in said article as “bounded on the east by the State of Missouri, and on the north by the country of the Weas and...

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Treaty of October 23, 1826

Articles of a treaty made and concluded, near the mouth of the Mississinewa, upon the Wabash, in the State of Indiana, this twenty-third day of October, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and twenty-six, between Lewis Cass, James B. Ray, and John Tipton, Commissioners on the part of the United States, and the Chiefs and Warriors of the Miami Tribe of Indians. Article I. The Miami Tribe of Indians cede to the United States all their claim to land in the State of Indiana, north and west of the Wabash and Miami rivers, and of the cession made by the said tribe to the United States, by the treaty concluded at St. Mary’s October 6, 1818. Article II. From the cession aforesaid, the following reservations, for the use of the said tribe, shall be made: Fourteen sections of Land at Seek’s village; Five sections for the Beaver, below and adjoining the preceding reservation; Thirty-six sections at Flat Belly’s village; Five sections for Little Charley, above the old village, on the North side of Eel river; One sections for Laventure’s daughter, opposite the Islands, about fifteen miles below Fort Wayne; One section for Chapine, above, and adjoining Seek’s village; Ten sections at the White Raccoon’s village; Ten sections at the mouth of Mud Creek, on Eel river, at the old village; Ten sections at the forks...

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Treaty of October 6, 1818

Articles of a treaty made and concluded, at St. Mary’s, in the State of Ohio, between Jonathan Jennings, Lewis Cass, and Benjamin Parke, Commissioners of the United States, and the Miami nation of Indians. Article I.The Miami nation of Indians cede to the United States the following tract of country: Beginning at the Wabash river, where the present Indian boundary line crosses the same, near the mouth of Raccoon creek; thence, up the Wabash river, to the reserve at its head, near Fort Wayne; thence, to the reserve at Fort Wayne; thence, with the lines thereof, to the St. Mary’s river; thence, up the St. Mary’s river, to the reservation at the portage; thence, with the line of the cession made by the Wyandot nation of Indians to the United States, at the foot of the Rapids of the Miami of Lake Erie, on the 29th day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventeen, to the reservation at Loramie’s store; thence, with the present Indian boundary line, to Fort Recovery; and, with the line, following the courses thereof, to the place of beginning. Article II. From the cession aforesaid the following reservations, for the use of the Miami nation of Indians, shall be made; one reservation, extending along the Wabash river, from the mouth of Salamanie river to the mouth of Eel...

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Treaty of August 7, 1803

At a council holden at Vincennes on the seventh day of August, one thousand eight hundred and three, under the direction of William Henry Harrison, governor of the Indiana territory, superintendent of Indian affairs, and commissioner plenipotentiary of the United States for concluding any treaty or treaties which may be found necessary with any of the Indian nations north west of the river Ohio, at which were present the chiefs and warriors of the Eel River, Wyandot, Piankashaw and Kaskaskia nations, and also the tribe of the Kikapoes, by their representatives, the chiefs of the Eel River nation. The fourth article of the treaty holden and concluded at Fort Wayne, on the seventh day of June, one thousand eight hundred and three, being considered, the chiefs and warriors of the said nations give their free and full consent to the same, and they do hereby relinquish and confirm to the United States the privilege and right of locating three several tracts of land of one mile square each, on the road leading from Vincennes to Kaskaskia, and also one other tract of land of one mile square on the road leading from Vincennes to Clarksville; which locations shall be made in such places on the aforesaid roads as shall best comport with the convenience and interest of the United States in the establishment of houses of entertainment for the...

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