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Western Garrison Life

Grant Foreman describes the early life in a Western Garrison; providing insights on some of the traders in the region, the deaths of Seaton, Armstrong, Wheelock and Izard, all soldiers obviously familiar to him. But he also shares the story of the elopement of Miss Sarah Knox Taylor, daughter of General Taylor, to Lieutenant Jefferson Davis… yes, THAT Jefferson Davis.

An interesting section of the chapter are the references to the punishments inflicted upon the soldiers in the event of their disobedience.

Painted by Catlin in 1834, the picture attached is of Clermont, chief of the Osage Tribe. Clermont is painted in full length, wearing a fanciful dress, his leggings fringed with scalp-locks, and in his hand his favorite and valued war-club.

Establishment of Fort Gibson in 1824

By Act of Congress of March 2, 1819, Arkansas Territory was established July 4, embracing substantially all of what are now the states of Arkansas and Oklahoma; though the civil government of Arkansas Territory was limited to that section lying east of the Osage line,...

Use Of Tobacco Among North American Indians

Tobacco has been one of the most important gifts from the New World to the Old. In spite of the attempts of various authors to prove its Old World origin there can be no doubt that it was introduced into both Europe and Africa from America. Most species of Nicotiana are native to the New World, and there are only a few species which are undoubtedly extra- American. The custom of smoking is also characteristic of America. It was thoroughly established throughout eastern North and South America at the time of the discovery; and the early explorers, from Columbus on, speak of it as a strange and novel practice which they often find it hard to describe. It played an important part in many religious ceremonies, and the beliefs and observances connected with it are in themselves proof of its antiquity. Hundreds of pipes have been found in the pre-Columbian mounds and village sites of the eastern United States and, although these remains cannot be dated, some of them must be of considerable age. In the southwestern United States the Basket Makers, an ancient people whose remains are found below those of the prehistoric Cliff Dwellers, were smoking pipes at a time which could not have been much later than the beginning of our era.

Treaty of September 5, 1820

Articles of a convention made and concluded, between Benjamin Parke, a Commissioner on the part of the United States, for that purpose, of the one part, and the Chiefs, Warriors, and Head Men, of the Tribe of Kickapoos of the Vermilion, of the other part. Article I....

Treaty of July 19, 1820

A treaty made and concluded by, and between, Auguste Chouteau and Benjamin Stephenson, Commissioners of the United States of America, on the part and behalf of the said States, of the one part, and the undersigned Chiefs and Warriors, of the Kickapoo tribe of Indians,...

Treaty of August 30, 1819

A treaty made and concluded by Benjamin Parke, a commissioner on the part of the United States of America, of the one part, and the Chiefs, Warriors, and Head Men, of the tribe of Kickapoos of the Vermilion, of the other part. Article I. The Chiefs, Warriors, and Head...

Treaty of September 2, 1815

A treaty of peace and friendship, made and concluded between William Clark, Ninian Edwards, and Auguste Chouteau, Commissioners Plenipotentiary of the United States of America, on the part and behalf of the said States, of the one part; and the undersigned Chiefs,...

Treaty of June 4, 1816

Articles of a treaty made and entered into at Fort Harrison, in the Indiana Territory between Benjamin Parke, specially authorized thereto by the president of the United States, of the one part, and the tribes of Indians called the Weas and Kickapoos, by their chiefs...
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