Topic: Kaskaskia

Indians about Prairie du Rocher Illinois

By the time the early French arrived, the Mississippi had laid layer upon layer of rich silt on the land for decades. They copied the Indian way of planting corn in the spring, forgetting about it, and harvesting it in the fall. Since there was no need to till the soil, the populace had leisure time. Why the Indians did not build a great culture can be explained partially through the humid climate. The American Bottom is humid and moist which produces a lassitude and inertia that hangs heavy over the valley. Consequently, creative work is to a large extent inhibited. Visitors to Prairie du Rocher who sleep in the bottoms often comment how difficult they find it to rise in the morning, and how this sluggishness increases with the heat of noon. Exhaustion from this languor is soon dispersed with as the visitor returns homeward. The climate is partially responsible for the preservation of many old interesting buildings; moreover, for the calmness, and peacefulness which is characteristic of its inhabitants. Strangely enough the French settled at Prairie du Rocher before the Metchigamias Indians with whom we associate this area. Illinois consisted of at this time five basic Indian tribes known as the “Illinois Confederacy”: The habitat of the Metchigamis was originally west of the Mississippi and they really became a part of the confederacy by adoption when they...

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Moravian Massacre at Gnadenbrutten

In the early part of the year 1763 two Moravian missionaries, Post and Heckewelder, established a mission among the Tuscarawa Indians, and in a few years they had three nourishing missionary stations, viz: Shoenbrun, Gnadenbrutten and Salem, which were about five miles apart and fifty miles west of the present town of Steubenville, Ohio. During our Revolutionary War their position being midway between the hostile Indians (allies of the British) on the Sandusky River, and our frontier settlements, and therefore on the direct route of the war parties of both the British Indian allies and the frontier settlers, they...

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Early Indian Wars in Florida

Previous to the permanent establishment of the English in North America, the French and Spaniards made many attempts to get possession of various parts of the country. The coasts were carefully explored, and colonies planted, but they were soon given up as expensive, and involving too much hardship and danger. The first expedition to the coast of Florida was made in 1512, by Juan Ponce de Leon, renowned for his courage and warlike abilities. Ponce de Leon, becoming governor of Porto Rico (Puerto Rico), and hearing from the Indians that there existed a beautiful and fertile country to the...

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Treaty of May 30, 1854

Articles of agreement and convention made and concluded at the city of Washington, this thirtieth day of May, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-four, by George W. Manypenny, commissioner on the part of the United States, and the following-named delegates representing the united tribes of Kaskaskia and Peoria, Piankeshaw and Wea Indians, viz: Kio-kaw-mo-zan, David Lykins; Sa-wa-ne-ke-ah, or Wilson; Sha-cah-quah, or Andrew Chick; Ta-ko-nah, or Mitchel; Che-swa-wa, or Rogers; and Yellow Beaver, they being duly authorized thereto by the said Indians. Article 1. The tribes of Kaskaskia and Peoria Indians, and of Piankeshaw and Wea Indians, parties to the two treaties made with them respectively by William Clark, Frank J. Allen, and Nathan Kouns, commissioners on the part of the United States, at Castor Hill, on the twenty-seventh and twenty-ninth days of October, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-two, having recently in joint council assembled, united themselves into a single tribe, and having expressed a desire to be recognized and regarded as such, the United States hereby assent to the action of said joint council to this end, and now recognize the delegates who sign and seal this instrument as the authorized representatives of said consolidated tribe. Article 2. The said Kaskaskias and Peorias, and the said Piankeshaws and Weas, hereby cede and convey to the United States, all their right, title, and interest in and to the tracts...

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Treaty of September 25, 1818 – Peoria

A treaty made and concluded by, and between, Ninian Edwards and Auguste Chouteau, Commissioners on the part and behalf of the United States of America, of the one part, and the undersigned, principal chiefs and warriors of the Peoria, Kaskaskia, Mitchigamia, Cahokia, and Tamarois, tribes of the Illinois nation of Indians, on the part and behalf of the said tribes, of the other part. Whereas, by the treaty made at Vincennes, on the thirteenth day of August, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and three, between the United States, of the one part, and the head chiefs and warriors of the tribe of Indians commonly called the Kaskaskia tribe, but which was composed of, and rightfully represented, the Kaskaskia, Mitchigamia, Cahokia, and Tamarois, tribes of the Illinois nation of Indians, of the other part, a certain tract of land was ceded to the United States, which was supposed to include all the land claimed by those respective tribes, but which did not include, and was not intended to include, the land which was rightfully claimed by the Peoria Indians, a tribe of the Illinois nation, who then did, and still do, live separate and apart from the tribes abovementioned, and who were not represented in the treaty referred to above, nor ever received any part of the consideration given for the cession of land therein...

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Treaty of August 13, 1803

A treaty between the United States of America and the Kaskaskia Tribe of Indians. Articles of a treaty made at Vincennes in the Indiana territory, between William Henry Harrison, governor of the said territory, superintendent of Indian affairs and commissioner plenipotentiary of the United States for concluding any treaty or treaties which may be found necessary with any of the Indian tribes north west of the river Ohio of the one part, and the head chiefs and warriors of the Kaskaskia tribe of Indians so called, but which tribe is the remains and rightfully represent all the tribes of the Illinois Indians, originally called the Kaskaskia, Mitchigamia, Cahokia and Tamaroi of the other part: Article 1. Whereas from a variety of unfortunate circumstances the several tribes of Illinois Indians are reduced to a very small number, the remains of which have been long consolidated and known by the name of the Kaskaskia tribe, and finding themselves unable to occupy the extensive tract of country which of right belongs to them and which was possessed by their ancestors for many generations, the chiefs and warriors of the said tribe being also desirous of procuring the means of improvement in the arts of civilized life, and a more certain and effectual support for their women and children, have, for the considerations hereinafter mentioned, relinquished and by these presents do relinquish and...

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Treaty of August 7, 1803

At a council holden at Vincennes on the seventh day of August, one thousand eight hundred and three, under the direction of William Henry Harrison, governor of the Indiana territory, superintendent of Indian affairs, and commissioner plenipotentiary of the United States for concluding any treaty or treaties which may be found necessary with any of the Indian nations north west of the river Ohio, at which were present the chiefs and warriors of the Eel River, Wyandot, Piankashaw and Kaskaskia nations, and also the tribe of the Kikapoes, by their representatives, the chiefs of the Eel River nation. The fourth article of the treaty holden and concluded at Fort Wayne, on the seventh day of June, one thousand eight hundred and three, being considered, the chiefs and warriors of the said nations give their free and full consent to the same, and they do hereby relinquish and confirm to the United States the privilege and right of locating three several tracts of land of one mile square each, on the road leading from Vincennes to Kaskaskia, and also one other tract of land of one mile square on the road leading from Vincennes to Clarksville; which locations shall be made in such places on the aforesaid roads as shall best comport with the convenience and interest of the United States in the establishment of houses of entertainment for the...

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Treaty of October 27, 1832 – Kaskaskia

Articles of a treaty made and entered into at Castor Hill, in the county of St. Louis in the State of Missouri, this twenty-seventh day of October, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-two, between William Clark, Frank J. Allen and Nathan Kouns, Commissioners on the part of the United States, of the one part; and the Kaskaskia and Peoria tribes, which, with the Michigamia, Cahokia and Tamarois bands, now united with the two first named tribes, formerly composed the Illinois nation of Indians, of the other part. Whereas, the Kaskaskia tribe of Indians and the bands aforesaid united therewith, are desirous of uniting with the Peorias, (composed as aforesaid) on lands west of the State of Missouri, they have therefore for that purpose agreed with the commissioners aforesaid, upon the following stipulations: Article 1.The Kaskaskia tribe of Indians and the several bands united with them as aforesaid, in consideration of the stipulations herein made on the part of the United States, do forever cede and release to the United States the lands granted to them forever by the first section of the treaty of Vincennes of 13th August 1803, reserving however to Ellen Decoigne the daughter of their late Chief who has married a white man, the tract of land of about three hundred and fifty acres near the town of Kaskaskia, which was secured to said tribe by...

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Treaty of February 23, 1867

Articles of agreement, concluded at Washington, D. C., the twenty-third day of February, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven, between the United States, represented by Lewis V. Bogy, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, W. H. Watson, special commissioner, Thomas Murphy, superintendent of Indian Affairs, George C. Snow, and G. A. Colton, U. S. Indian agents, duly authorized, and the Senecas, represented by George Spicer and John Mush; the Mixed Senecas and Shawnees, by John Whitetree, John Young, and Lewis Davis; the Quapaws, by S. G. Vallier and Ka-zhe-cah; the Confederated Peorias, Kaskaskias, Weas, and Piankeshaws, by Baptiste Peoria, John Mitchell, and Edward Black; the Miamies, by Thomas Metosenyah and Thomas Richardville, and the Ottawas of Blanchard’s Fork and Roche de Boeuf, by John White and J. T. Jones, and including certain Wyandott[e]s, represented by Tauromee, or John Hat, and John Karaho. Whereas it is desirable that arrangements should be made by which portions of certain tribes, parties hereto, now residing in Kansas, should be enabled to remove to other lands in the Indian country south of that State, while other portions of said tribes desire to dissolve their tribal relations, and become citizens; and whereas it is necessary to provide certain tribes, parties hereto, now residing in the Indian country, with means of rebuilding their houses, re-opening their farms, and supporting their families, they having been driven from their reservations...

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Treaty of June 7, 1803

Articles of a treaty between the United States of America, and the Delaware, Shawanoe, Putawatimie, Miamie, Eel River, Weea, Kickapoo, Piankashaw, and Kaskaskia nations of Indians. Articles of a treaty made at Fort Wayne on the Miami of the Lake, between William Henry Harrison, governor of the Indiana territory, superintendent of Indian affairs and commissioner plenipotentiary of the United States for concluding any treaty or treaties which may be found necessary with any of the Indian tribes north west of the Ohio, of the one part, and the tribes of Indians called the Delawares, Shawanoe, Putawatimie, Miami and Kickapoo, by their chiefs and head warriors, and those of the Eel River, Weea, Piankashaw and Kaskaskia by their agents and representatives Tuthinipee, Winnemac, Richerville and Little Turtle (who are properly authorized by the said tribes) of the other part. Article 1. Whereas it is declared by the fourth article of the treaty of Greenville, that the United States reserve for their use the post of St. Vincennes and all the lands adjacent to which the Indian titles had been extinguished: And whereas, it has been found difficult to determine the precise limits of the said tract as held by the French and British governments: it is hereby agreed, that the boundaries of the said tract shall be as follow: Beginning at Point Coupee on the Wabash, and running thence by...

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Kaskaskia Tribe

Kaskaskia Indians (perhaps akin to kāskāskahamwa, ‘ he scrapes it off by means of a tool.’ The Foxes have always held the Peoria in low esteem, and in their traditions claim to have destroyed most of them on a rocky island in a river. – Wm. Jones). Once the leading tribe of the Illinois confederacy, and perhaps rightly to be considered as the elder brother of the group. Although the first knowledge of this confederacy obtained by the whites related, in all probability, to the Peoria while they yet resided on the Mississippi, it is probable that the references to them in the Jesuit Relations of 1670 and 1671, from the reports of Father Allouez, apply to the Kaskaskia on upper Illinois river and possibly to some minor tribes or bands connected therewith whose names have not been preserved. Although it has been asserted that earlier visits than that of Marquette in 1673 were made to this people by the whites, there is no satisfactory evidence to justify this conclusion. Their chief village, which had the same name as that of the tribe, is supposed to have been situated about the present site of Utica, LaSalle county, Illinois. Marquette states that at the time of his first visit the village was composed of 74 cabins. He returned again in the spring of 1674 and established the mission of Immaculate...

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Medicine Bag of my Forefathers

I now fell heir to the great medicine bag of my forefathers, which had belonged to my father. I took it, buried our dead, and returned with my party, sad and sorrowful, to our village, in consequence of the loss of my father. Owing to this misfortune I blacked my face, fasted and prayed to the Great Spirit for five years, during which time I remained in a civil capacity, hunting and fishing. The Osages having again commenced aggressions on our people, and the Great Spirit having taken pity on me, I took a small party and went against them. I could only find six of them, and their forces being so weak, I thought it would be cowardly to kill them, but took them prisoners and carried them to our Spanish father at St. Louis, gave them up to him and then returned to our village. Determined on the final and complete extermination of the dastardly Osages, in punishment for the injuries our people had received from them, I commenced recruiting a strong force, immediately on my return, and stated in the third moon, with five hundred Sacs and Foxes, and one hundred Iowas, and marched against the enemy. We continued our march for many days before we came upon their trail, which was discovered late in the day. We encamped for the night, made an early start next...

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