Topic: Illinois

An Historical Sketch of the Tionontates or Dinondadies, now called Wyandots

The tribe which, from the time of Washington’s visit to the Ohio, in 1753, down to their removal to the West, played so important a part under the name of Wyandots, but who were previously known by a name which French write Tionontates; and Dutch, Dinondadies, have a history not uneventful, and worthy of being traced clearly to distinguish them from the Hurons or Wyandots proper, of whom they absorbed one remnant, leaving what were later only a few families near Quebec, to represent the more powerful nation.

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Illinois Burial Customs

The term Illinois Indians as used by some early writers was intended to include the various Algonquian tribes, encountered in the “Illinois country,” in addition to those usually recognized as forming the Illinois confederacy. Thus, in the following quotation from Joutel will be found a reference to the Chahouanous – i. e., Shawnee – as being of the Islinois, and in the same note Accancea referred to the Quapaw, a Siouan tribe living on the right bank of the Mississippi, not far north of the mouth of the Arkansas. Describing the burial customs of the Illinois, as witnessed by him during the latter years of the seventeenth century, Joutel wrote: ” They pay a Respect to their Dead, as appears by their special Care of burying them, and even of putting into lofty Coffins the Bodies of such as are considerable among them, as their Chiefs and others, which is also practised among the Accancea’s, but they differ in this Particular, that the Accancea’s weep and make their Complaints for some Days, where as the Chahoaanous, and other People of the Islinois Nation do just the Contrary; for when any of them die, they wrap them up in Skins, and then put them into Coffins made of the Barks of Trees, then sing and dance about them for twenty four Hours. Those Dancers take Care to tie Calabashes, or...

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Treaty of October 27, 1832 – Kaskaskia

Articles of a treaty made and entered into at Castor Hill, in the county of St. Louis in the State of Missouri, this twenty-seventh day of October, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-two, between William Clark, Frank J. Allen and Nathan Kouns, Commissioners on the part of the United States, of the one part; and the Kaskaskia and Peoria tribes, which, with the Michigamia, Cahokia and Tamarois bands, now united with the two first named tribes, formerly composed the Illinois nation of Indians, of the other part. Whereas, the Kaskaskia tribe of Indians and the bands aforesaid united therewith, are desirous of uniting with the Peorias, (composed as aforesaid) on lands west of the State of Missouri, they have therefore for that purpose agreed with the commissioners aforesaid, upon the following stipulations: Article 1.The Kaskaskia tribe of Indians and the several bands united with them as aforesaid, in consideration of the stipulations herein made on the part of the United States, do forever cede and release to the United States the lands granted to them forever by the first section of the treaty of Vincennes of 13th August 1803, reserving however to Ellen Decoigne the daughter of their late Chief who has married a white man, the tract of land of about three hundred and fifty acres near the town of Kaskaskia, which was secured to said tribe by...

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Houses of the Illinois Confederacy

Although the tribes of the loosely constituted Illinois confederacy claimed and occupied a wide region east of the Mississippi, in later years centering in the valley of the Illinois River, nevertheless certain villages are known to have crossed and re-crossed the great river. Thus, in the early summer of 1673, Père Marquette arrived at a village of the Peoria then standing on the right Mississippi, at or near the or west bank of the later it had removed to the upper Illinois. Two months passing the Peoria, Marquette discovered another of  the Illinois tribes, the Michigamea, living near the northeastern corner of the present State of Arkansas, and consequently west of the Mississippi. On the map of Pierre van der Aa, circa 1720 two small streams are shown flowing into the Mississippi from the west, a short distance south of the Missouri. The more northerly of the two is probably intended to represent the Meramec and a dot at the north side of the mouth of the stream bears the legend: “Village des Ilinois et des Caskoukia “probably the Cahokia. This stream forms the boundary between Jefferson and St. Louis Counties, Missouri, and a short distance above its junction with the Mississippi are traces of a large villages with many stone-lined graves, probably indicating the position of the Illinois village of two centuries ago. Also on the d’Anville map,...

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Tamaroa Tribe

Tamaroa Indians. (Tamaroa – Illinois: Tamaro´wa, said to mean ‘cut tail,’ or, lit., ‘he has a cut tail,’ probably relating to some totemic animal, such as a bear or the wildcat; cognate with Abnaki tĕmaruwé. – Gerard.) A tribe of the Illinois Confederacy. In 1680 they occupied the country on both sides of the Mississippi about the mouths of the Illinois and Missouri Rivers. They were always friendly to the French, who made their village a stopping place on journeys between Canada and Louisiana. Their enemies were the Chickasaw, who attacked them continually, and the Shawnee. They disappeared as a tribe before the beginning of the 19th century. Hennepin estimated them about 1680 at 200 families. Alternate Spellings Camaroura – Neill, Hist. Minn., 173, 1858. Mahoras – Hennepin, New Discov., 255, 1698. Maroa – La Salle (1679) in Margry, Déc., I, 479, 1875. Marohans – Hennepin, op. cit., 186. Tabaroas – Barcia, Ensayo, 247, 1723. Tamarais – Chauvignerie (1736) quoted by Schoolcraft, Indian Tribes, III, 555, 1853. Tamarcas – La Tour, map, 1782 (misprint). Tamaroa – La Salle (1679) in Margry, Déc., I, 479, 1875. Tamarohas – Tailhan in Perrot, Mém., 221, note, 1869. Tamarois – Chauvignerie (1736)  in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., IX, 1057, 1855. Tamarojas – Iberville (1700) in Margry, Déc., IV, 404, 1880. Tamaronas – Drake, Book of Indians, xi, 1848. Tamarones – Domenech, Deserts...

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Moingwena Tribe

Moingwena Indians. The name (the etymology of which is doubtful) of a small tribe of the Illinois confederacy, closely affiliated with the Peoria.  The name was applied also to the villages in which they resided.  The first recorded notice of the tribe is by Marquette in the account of his descent of the Mississippi with Joliet in 1673, when he found them residing in the vicinity of the Peoria village on the west side of the Mississippi near the mouth of the Des Moines.  Franquelin’s map of 1688 gives the name of the river as “Mingana,” and marks the Indian village of “Moingoana” on it.  When Marquette returned from the south in 1674, he passed up Illinois river and found the Peoria in the vicinity of  Lake Peoria, the tribe having removed hither after his descent the previous year.  He does not mention the Moingwena in this connection, but from the fact that Gravier found them with the Peoria in this locality in 1700, it is presumed that they migrated thither with the latter tribe.  As no mention is made of them after this time they probably were incorporated with the Peoria, thus losing their tribal...

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Peoria Tribe

Peoria Indians (through French Peouarea, from Peoria Piwarea, ‘he comes carrying a pack on his back’: a personal name. Gerard). One of the principal tribes of the Illinois confederacy. Franquelin in his map of 1688 locates them and the Tapouaro on a river west of the Mississippi above the mouth of Wisconsin River, probably the upper Iowa River. Early references to the Illinois which place them on the Mississippi, although some of the tribes were on Rock and Illinois rivers, must relate to the Peoria and locate them near the mouth of the Wisconsin. When Marquette and Joliet descended the Mississippi in 1673, they found them and the Moingwena on the west side of the Mississippi near the mouth of a river supposed to be the Des Moines, though it may have been one farther north. When Marquette returned from the south, he found that the Peoria had removed and were near the lower end of the expansion of Illinois river, near the present Peoria. At the close of the war carried on by the Sauk and Foxes and other northern tribes against the Illinois, about 1768, the Kickapoo took possession of this village and made it their principal settlement. About the same time a large part of the Peoria crossed over into Missouri, where they remained, building their village on Blackwater fork, until they removed to Kansas. One...

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Cahokia Tribe

Cahokia Indians. A tribe of the Illinois confederacy, usually noted as associated with the kindred Tamaroa. Like all the confederate Illinois tribes they were of roving habit until they and the Tamaroa were gathered into a mission settlement about the year 1698 by the Jesuit Pinet. This mission, first known as Tamaroa, but later as Cahokia, was about the site of the present Cahokia, Illinois, on the east bank of the Mississippi, nearly opposite the present St Louis. In 1721 it was the second town among the Illinois in importance. On the withdrawal of the Jesuits the tribe declined rapidly, chiefly from the demoralizing influence of the neighboring French garrison, and was nearly extinct by 1800. With the other remnant tribes of the confederacy they removed, about 1820, to the west, where the name was kept up until very recently, but the whole body is now officially consolidated under the name...

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Chepoussa Tribe

Chepoussa Indians. A name applied by La Salle and Allouez to a band of Illinois Indians, probably from a chief or leader of a portion of those collected at Kaskaskia by La Salle’s invitation; on the other hand it may have been given to those Indians from a river (apparently Kaskaskia River), in southwest Illinois, to which the name Chepoussa was sometimes applied by early explorers. These people were probably connected with the...

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The Illinois

When the French explorers and missionaries first came into the region about the southern end of Lake Michigan, it was occupied by a tribe, or confederation of tribes, who called themselves Iliniwek (“men”), which seems, and was apparently meant to be, derogatory to their neighbors. The French early changed this name to Illinois, the name by which the state is known at present. These people belonged to the great Algonkian speech family, and at the time of their discovery formed a confederacy of the Cahokia, Kaskaskia, Michigamea, Moingwena, Peoria, and Tamaroa tribes. On the authority of General Harrison it has been stated that the Miami were a branch tribe of the Illinois. Bearing on this question, the De Gannes manuscript of 1721 contains the following statements: “I was told that the languages of the Illinois and of the Miami were the same, and this is true, there being no difference except that the accent of the Illinois is very short and that of the Miami very long. During four consecutive years that I remained with the Aouciatenons at Chicagoua, which is the most considerable village of the Miami, who have been settled there ten or twelve years, I have found no difference between their manners and those of the Illinois, nor in their language. The only difference is that they [the Miami] remain settled in one place only a...

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History of the Chicago Tribes

Such were the three tribes that we know once occupied the territory where the city of Chicago now stands, but in order to understand their coming and going, the history of this part of the Great Lakes region must be briefly considered. When the accounts of the great French explorers and priests such as Champlain, La Salle, and Marquette first describe the state of the tribes, we find the Iroquois Confederacy, located in what is now the State of New York, to be the dominant military power. Archaeologists are inclined to believe that the Iroquois came to New York...

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Indians of The Chicago Region

The region around the southern end of Lake Michigan where the city of Chicago now stands has been the home of many peoples and the scene of much conflict in historic and probably in prehistoric times. It is the purpose of this essay to give in a brief outline the sequence of those peoples in so far as they are known, and to depict the background from which emerges the great commercial city of today. The history of the region as it pertains to the white man is well known, but before his advent and during the stirring conflicts of colonial tunes the various Indian tribes of the Great Lakes played a large part, and it is with the Indians that this article is mainly concerned.

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