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Topic: Hidatsa

Use Of Tobacco Among North American Indians

Tobacco has been one of the most important gifts from the New World to the Old. In spite of the attempts of various authors to prove its Old World origin there can be no doubt that it was introduced into both Europe and Africa from America. Most species of Nicotiana are native to the New World, and there are only a few species which are undoubtedly extra- American. The custom of smoking is also characteristic of America. It was thoroughly established throughout eastern North and South America at the time of the discovery; and the early explorers, from Columbus on, speak of it as a strange and novel practice which they often find it hard to describe. It played an important part in many religious ceremonies, and the beliefs and observances connected with it are in themselves proof of its antiquity. Hundreds of pipes have been found in the pre-Columbian mounds and village sites of the eastern United States and, although these remains cannot be dated, some of them must be of considerable age. In the southwestern United States the Basket Makers, an ancient people whose remains are found below those of the prehistoric Cliff Dwellers, were smoking pipes at a time which could not have been much later than the beginning of our era.

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Transportation of Plains Indians

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Before the introduction of the horse, the Plains Indians traveled on foot. The tribes living along the Mississippi made some use of canoes, according to early accounts, while those of the Missouri and inland, used only crude tub-like affairs for ferry purpose. When first discovered, the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara had villages on the Missouri, in what is now North Dakota, but they have never been credited with canoes. For crossing the river, they used the bull-boat, a tub-shaped affair made by stretching buffalo skins over a wooden frame; but journeys up and down the bank were made on foot. Many of the Eastern Dakota used small canoes in gathering wild rice in the small lakes of Minnesota, though the Teton-Dakota have not been credited with the practice. It seems probable that the ease of travel in the open plains and the fact that the buffalo were often to be found inland, made the use of canoes impractical, whereas along the great lakes the broad expanse of water offered every advantage to their use. Since almost every Plains tribe used some form of the bull-boat for ferrying, and many of them came in contact with canoe-using Indians, the failure of those living along the Missouri to develop the canoe can scarcely be attributed to ignorance. When...

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Treaty of July 30, 1825

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Whereas acts of hostility have been committed, by some restless men of the Belantse-etea or Minnetaree tribe of Indians, upon some of the citazens of the United States: therefore, to put a stop to any further outrages of the sort, and to establish a more friendly understanding between the United States and the said Belantse-etea or Minnetaree tribe, the President of the United States, by Henry Atkinson, Brigadier-general of the United States’ army, and Major Benjamin O’Fallon, Indian Agent, commissioners duly appointed and commissioned to treat with the Indian tribes beyond the Mississippi river, forgive the offences which have been committed, the Chiefs and Warriors having first made satisfactory explanations touching the same. And, for the purpose of removing all future cause of misunderstanding, as respects trade and friendly intercourse, between the parties, the above-named Commissioners, on the part of the United States, and the undersigned chiefs and Warriors of the Belantse-etea or Minnetaree tribe of Indians, on the part of said tribe, have made and entered into the following Articles and Conditions; which, when ratified by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall be binding on both parties—to wit: Article 1. Henceforth there shall be a firm and lasting peace between the United States and...

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Fort Peck Reservation

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Fort Peck Agency Report of Special Agent Jere E. Stevens on the Indians of Port Peck reservation, Port Peck agency, Montana, December 1890, and January 1891. Names of Indian tribes or parts of tribes occupying said reservations: Assinaboine, Brule, Santee, Teton, Unkpapa, and Yanktonai Sioux. The unallotted area of this reservation is 1,776,000 acres, or 2,775 square miles. The reservation has not been surveyed, it was established, altered, or changed by treaty of October 17, 1855 (11 U. S. Stats., p. 657); unratified treaties of’ July 18, 1866, and of July 13 and 15 and September 1, 1868; executive orders, July 5, 1873, and August 19, 1874; act of Congress approved. April 15, 1874 (18 U. S. Stats., p. 28); executive orders, April 13, 1875, and July 13, 1880, and agreement made December 28, 1886, approved by Congress May 1, 1888 (25 U. S. Stats.,p. 113). Indian population 1890: Assinaboine Sioux, 719; Yankton or Dakota Sioux (including 110 Gros Ventres), 1,121; total, 1,840. Fort Peck Reservation Port Peck reservation is located in northeastern Montana, on the north bank of the Missouri River, and is crossed by the Great Northern Railroad. The agency is on the reservation. The name of the railroad station is Poplar, and the name of the post office is Poplar Creek Agency, making...

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Fort Belknap Reservation

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Fort Belknap Agency The report of Special Agent Jere E. Stevens on the Indians of Fort Belknap reservation, Fort Belknap agency, Montana, December 1800. Names of Indian tribes or parts of tribes occupying said reservation; (a) Assinaboine and Gros Ventre. The unallotted area of this reservation is 537,600 acres, or 840 square miles. This reservation has not been surveyed. It was established, altered, or changed, by treaty of October 17, 1855 (11 U. S. Stats., p.657); unratified treaties of July 18, 1866, and of July 13 and 15 and September 1,1868; executive orders, July 5, 1873, and August 19, 1874; act of Congress approved April 15, 1874 (18 U. S. State., p. 28); executive orders, April 13, 1875, and July 13, 1880, and agreement made January 21, 1887, approved by Congress May 1, 1888 (25 U. S. Stats. page 113). Indian population 1890: Assinaboine, 952;, Gros Ventre, 770; total, 1,722. Fort Belknap Reservation The agency of this reservation is located on the south bank of the Milk River, 4 miles south of Harlem, a station on the line of the Great Northern railway and the nearest post office. The agency has been located here about a year, having been removed from the old site when the reservation was reduced in size. The Assinaboine live principally along...

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Hidatsa Indians

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Hidatsa Indians. Derived from the name of a former village and said, on somewhat doubtful authority, to signify “willows.” Also called: A-gutch-a-ninne-wug, Chippewa name, meaning “the settled people.” A-me-she’, Crow name, meaning “people who live in earth houses.” Gi-aucth-in-in-e-wug, Chippewa name, meaning “men of the olden time.” Gros Ventres of the Missouri, traders’ name, probably derived from the sign for them in the sign language. Hewaktokto, Dakota name. Minitari, meaning “they crossed the water,” said to have been given to them by the Mandan, from the tradition of their first encounter with the tribe on the Missouri. Wa-nuk’-e-ye’-na, Arapaho name, meaning “lodges planted together.” Wetitsatn, Arikara name. Hidatsa Connections. The Hidatsa belonged to the Siouan linguistic stock, their closest relations within it being the Crow. Hidatsa Location. They lived at various points on the Missouri between the Heart and Little Missouri Rivers. (See also Montana) Hidatsa Villages Lewis and Clark (1804-5) give the following three names: Amahami or Mahaha, on the south bank of Knife River, formerly an independent but closely related tribe. Amatiha, on the south bank of Knife River. Hidatsa, on the north bank of Knife River. The band names given by Morgan are rather those of social divisions. Hidatsa History. According to tradition, the Hidatsa formerly lived by a lake northeast of their...

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Houses of the Hidatsa Tribe

The Hidatsa villages as seen by Catlin and Maximilian during the years 1832, 1833, and 1834 had probably changed little since the winter of 1804-05, when Lewis and Clark occupied Fort Mandan, their winter quarters, some 8 miles below the mouth of Knife River.

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Elahsa

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Elahsa (‘village of the great willows’). A former Hidatsa village on the north bank of Knife River, North Dakota, about 3 miles from Missouri River. Alternate Spellings: Biddahtsi-Awatiss – Maxmillian, Voy. dans l’int de l’Am. III, 3, 1843. Eláh-sá – Maxmillian, Trav., 178, 1843. Hidatsa – Matthews, Ethnog. Hidatsa, 38,...

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Hidatsa

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now There has been much confusion concerning the definition and designation of the Hidatsa Indians. They were formerly known as Minitari or Gros Ventres of the Missouri, in distinction from the Gros Ventres of the plains, who belong to another stock. The origin of the term Gros Ventres is somewhat obscure, and various observers have pointed out its inapplicability, especially to the well-formed Hidatsa tribesmen. According to Dorsey, the French pioneers probably translated a native term referring to a traditional buffalo paunch, which occupies a prominent place in the Hidatsa mythology and which, in early times, led to a dispute and the separation of the Crow from the main group some time in the eighteenth century. The earlier legends of the Hidatsa are vague, but there is a definite tradition of a migration northward, about 1765, from the neighborhood of Heart river, where they were associated with the Mandan, to Knife river. At least as early as 1796, according to Matthews, there were three villages belonging to this tribe on Knife river-one at the mouth, another half a mile above, and the third and largest 3 miles from the mouth. Here the people were found by Lewis and Clark in 1804, and here they remained until 1837, when the scourge of smallpox fell and many of the...

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Tipi and Earth Lodges of the Plains Tribes

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now One of the most characteristic features of Plains Indian culture was the tipi. All the tribes of the area, almost without exception, used it for a part of the year at least. Primarily, the tipi was a conical tent covered with dressed buffalo skins. A carefully mounted and equipped tipi from the Black-foot Indians stands in the center of the Plains exhibit. Everywhere the tipi was made, cared for, and set up by the women. First, a conical framework of long slender poles was erected and...

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Plains Indian Culture

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Museum collections cannot illustrate this important phase of culture; but since no comprehensive view of the subject can be had without its consideration, we must give it some space. It is customary to treat of all habits or customs having to do with the family organization, the community, and what we call the state, under the head of social organization. So, in order that the reader may form some general idea of social conditions in this area, we shall review some of the discussed points. Unfortunately,...

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Government and Societies of the Plains Tribes

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now The political organization of plains tribes was rather loose and in general quite democratic. Each band, gens, or clan informally recognized an indefinite number of men as head men, one or more of whom were formally vested with representative powers in the tribal council. Among the Dakota, there was a kind of society of older men, self-electing, who legislated on all important matters. They appointed four of their number to exercise the executive functions. The Omaha had a somewhat similar system. The Cheyenne had four chiefs...

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