Topic: Hainai

The Hainai Tribe and the Mission of Conce’pión

On the east bank of the Angelina River, a little north of a direct west line from the Nacogdoche village, was that of the Hainai. 1I follow the spelling of Mooney which has been adopted by the Bureau of American Ethnology. The more common Spanish forms were Aynay and Ainai. English writers frequently spell it Ioni. This tribe, whose lands lay on both sides of the Angelina, 2Espinosa, Crónica Apostólica, 425; Diario, 1716; MS. entry for July 12; Mezières, Carta, Mem. de Nueva España, XXVIII, 241. was the head of the Hasinai confederacy, and for that reason was sometimes called Hasinai. It is to this tribe, also, that the name Texas was usually applied when it was restricted to a single one. Within its territory was the chief temple of the group, presided over by the great Xinesi, or high priest. 3Jesus Maria, Relación; Espinosa, Crónica Apostólica, 423. At its main village the mission of La Puríssima Conce’pión was founded in 1716. After the Relación of Jesus Maria, our first sources of specific information on the location of this village are the diaries. Ramon tells us that he entered the “Pueblo de los Ainai” just east of the Angelina River, and that nine leagues east-south-east of this village he reached the “Pueblo de los Nacogdoches.” 4Derrotero, entries for July 7 and 8. Original in the Archive General y Pãblico,...

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Hainai Tribe

Hainai Indians. A tribe of the Caddo confederacy, otherwise known as Inie, or Ioni. After the Spanish occupancy their village was situated 3 leagues west of the mission of Nacogdoches, in east Texas; it contained 80 warriors, the same number assigned to the Hainai by Sibley in 1805, who perhaps obtained his information from the same sources. Sibley places their village 20 miles from Natchitoches, Louisiana. In manners, customs, and social organization the Hainai do not appear to have differed from the other tribes of the Caddo confederacy, whose subsequent fate they have shared. By Sibley and others they are called “Tachies or Texas”, as if that term applied to them particularly. The “great nation called Ayano or Cannohatinno,” according to the narrative of the La Salle expedition in 1687, were not the Hainai, as has been sometimes supposed, or any tribe at all, properly speaking. Ayano, or hayano, is merely the Caddo word for people,’ while Kano-hatino, is the Caddo equivalent for ‘Red river,’ presumably the same stream now so called. The Indians simply informed the explorer that many people lived on Red river, a statement which the French, in their ignorance of the language, construed to contain the definite name and synonym of a powerful...

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