Topic: Geography

B- California Indian Villages, Towns and Settlements

A complete listing of all the Indian villages, towns and settlements in California, beginning with B, and as listed in Handbook of Americans North of Mexico. Badwisha. A Mariposan tribe on Kaweah River, California, said to have lived near the Wikchamni. Mentioned by Hoffman in 1886 as formerly on Kaweah River, but then at Tule Agency. Bamom (salt water). A former Maidu village at the site of the present Shingle, Eldorado Colorado, California. (R. B. D.) Bankalachi (Yokuts name). A small Shoshonean tribe on upper Deer Creek, which drains into Tulare lake, south California. With the Tubatulabal they form one of the four major linguistic divisions of the family. Their own name is unknown. (A. L. K. ) Bantas. A village of the Cholovone east of the San Joaquin and north of the Tuolumne River, California. 1Pinart, Cholovone MS., B. A. E., 1880. Batawat. A division of the Wishosk formerly living about the lower course of Mad River, northwest California. In 1851 McKee said of them: “This band has been permitted to live at their present rancheria only upon condition that they confine themselves to the immediate neighborhood of the mouth of the river, and not come into the town.” Bauka. A former Maidu village on the right bank of Feather River, near Gridley, Butte County, California. (R. B. D.) Bayu. A former  Maidu village at Sandy gulch, Butte...

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Mohawk Indian Villages and Towns

There are but three villages in the Mohawk territory which can be called prehistoric,— one each for the Turtle, Bear, and Wolf clans. All these show signs of a knowledge of Europeans prior to 1642; and one, at least, of direct but slight contact. Being refugees, and in fear of their enemies, they placed their first villages quite remote from the Mohawk River,— from four to ten miles. As soon as they possessed firearms, and the power secured by these, they built their dwellings along the river. All the early Mohawk towns of the historic period in New York are in Montgomery county, three earlier ones lying north and west. The Mahican boundary line followed the hilltops east of Schoharie creek and near the line of Albany county, and at one time the western Mohawk boundary was at Little Falls. The sites of the towns were often changed, and several names might be given to one, or some small village might have none on record. In a few instances the name followed the town in its removals. The Mohawks, the first and the most easterly situated of the Five Nations, at the time of Father Jogues’ visit in 1642, had three large villages located in the beautiful valley of the Mohawk, on the south bank of the Mohawk River, and west of the Schoharie River. Ossernenon was situated on an eminence...

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Mikasuki Tribe

Mikasuki Indians, Mikasuki Tribe. A former Seminole town in Leon County, Florida, on the west shore of Miccosukee lake, on or near the site of the present Miccosukee. The name has been applied also to the inhabitants as a division of the Seminole. They spoke the Hitchiti dialect, and, as appears from the title of B. Smith’s vocabulary of their language, were partly or wholly emigrants from the Sawokli towns on lower Chattahoochee River, Alabama. The former town appears to have been one of the ‘red’ or ‘bloody’ towns, for at the beginning of the Seminole troubles of 1817 its inhabitants stood at the head of the hostile element and figured conspicuously as “Red Sticks,” or “Batons Rouges,” having painted high poles, the color denoting war and blood. At this time they had 300 houses, which were burned by Gen. Jackson. There were then several villages near the lake, known also as Mikasuki towns, which were occupied almost wholly by Negroes. In the Seminole war of 1835-42 the people of this town became noted for their courage, dash, and...

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Michilimackinac Indians (Mǐshǐma‛kǐnung, ‘place of the big wounded person,’ or ‘place of the big lame person.’ – W. J). A name applied at various times to Mackinac Island in Mackinac County, Michigan; to the village on this island; to the village and fort at Pt St Ignace on the opposite mainland, and at an early period to a considerable extent of territory in the upper part of the lower peninsula of Michigan. It is derived from the name of a supposed extinct Algonquian tribe, the Mishinimaki or Mishinimakinagog. According to Indian tradition and the Jesuit Relations, the Mishinimaki formerly had their headquarters at Mackinac Island and occupied all the adjacent territory in Michigan. They are said to have been at one time numerous and to have had 30 villages, but in retaliation for an invasion of the Mohawk country they were destroyed by the Iroquois. This must have occurred previous to the occupancy of the country by the Chippewa on their first appearance in this region. A few were still there in 1671, but in Charlevoix’s time (1744) none of them remained. When the Chippewa appeared in this section they made Michilimackinac island one of their chief centers, and it retained its importance for a long period. In 1761 their village was said to contain 100 warriors. In 1827 the Catholic part of the inhabitants, to the number of...

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Physical Geography of the Indian Country

Geographical Memorandum Respecting The Progress Of The Discovery Of The Mississippi River, With A Map Of Its Source. 1The connection of these papers with the past and present history and condition of the Indian tribes, who are the immediate subject of these inquiries, will be recognised. 1. It appears, from the archaeological collections of Ternoux Campan, that the mouth of the Mississippi was discovered by the Spanish from Cuba, under M. Narvaez, the contemporary and antagonist of Cortes, in the month of November 1527, during an expedition made with boats to trace the Floridian coasts of the Gulf westwardly 2This fact is not, however, specially stated in the loose translations of Ternoux, which are without maps of the journey. The inference is plain. . Mexico had fallen into their hands but six years before an event by which a period was put to the Aztec empire, and a spirit of conquest and discovery awakened, which soon left no part of the continent unexplored, or unvisited. Expeditions, by land and water, were made far and wide, and it is only a matter of surprise that, while the Panuco and other minor streams were carefully searched, the Mississippi, which pours out its vast alluvion, and carries more water into the Gulf than any other stream, if not a volume equal to all the rest united, should not have been identified even...

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Mineralogical and Geographical Notices

Mineralogical And Geographical Notices, Denoting The Value Of Aboriginal Territory. 1. Wisconsin and Iowa Lead Ore A correspondent, engaged in the practical working of these ores, remarks: “By the box of specimens transmitted, you will be able to judge of the character of these valuable ores. The square broken mineral is taken from east and west leads; which is of the softest temperature and most easy to smelt; it also produces the most lead, yielding about 50 per cent, from the log, and about 15 from the ash furnaces. The dark smooth pieces are taken from deep clay digging hi the vicinity of Menomonie River. This mineral is less productive than the other, yielding only from 40 to 45 per cent. It is supposed to contain some silver. The thin flat pieces or what is termed sheet mineral are taken from north and south leads. It is usually found in rocky diggings, where the sheet stands perpendicular, and is struck in sinking from six to ten feet. The sheet varies in its thickness, it being in some places six or eight inches, and at other places not more than one inch thick. The average yield of the country is from 45 to 58 per cent; of which the log furnace yields 43, and the ash furnace 15 per cent.” 2. Black Oxyde Of Copper Ore Of Lake Superior This...

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Portland Oregon Geographical Position and Topography

The western side of North America is laid out on a large scale, a land of the “Jotuns,” a region of magnificent distances. It fronts the largest ocean; it has the most ample harbors, it is built out of the most continuous mountain ranges, and is watered by great rivers. It has large valleys and immense plateaus. Its geographical sections, the portions naturally connected by a coast, river, or mountain system, are wide and long, but the points which command natural ingress and egress to and from any one such section are comparatively few. Thus, on the whole of California’s coast line of six hundred miles or more, there is but one natural exit to the sea, and but one point from which the whole region may be touched direct. But that point, San Francisco, commands the situation perfectly. The mountain formation of the region north of California, giving character to the whole of Oregon and Washington, possesses a similar integrity. It has a geometrical precision which all the variations of lateral ranges, lone peaks and inter-ranges, do not materially modify. Upon the eastern boundary the Rocky Mountains, which form the crest of the continent, set off by itself the Valley of the Columbia. The Cascade Mountains lying two hundred to three hundred miles westward of the Rocky range form the opposite rim of the basin making space for...

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Natural Advantages of Portland Oregon

The term “advantages” is relative, being always used with reference to the purpose in view. The advantages of a city relate to its adaptation to the uses of commerce, manufacturing and residence. Under the head of commerce, facility for both water and land communication is to be regarded, together with the extent and variety of commodities available for exchange. Under manufacturing advantages, power, labor, and availability of raw material, fall into the account. As to residence one must consider salubrity, beauty of natural surroundings and contiguity to his business operations, together with social, educational and religious privileges. The geographical position of Portland, which has already been described, gives her superior advantages as a commercial center. That will be a commanding commercial point which readily effects exchanges of commodities and equates supply and demand. Chicago is a center of lumber trade, controlling this great branch of business throughout the Lake basin and the Mississippi valley, for the reason that she can most readily reach the lumber manufacturing districts of Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota and Canada, and can keep in supply millions of feet of seasoned and assorted lumber, ready for the greatest number of places in the surrounding regions. Her control of this trade is sometimes spoken of as due to the superior enterprise of her merchants. But this is true only in a secondary degree. From the circumstance of her...

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Position and Advantages of Portland

Although of a different order, the history of the modern city should be no less interesting than that of an ancient metropolis like Jerusalem or Athens. It treats no less of human endeavor, and no less segregates and epitomizes human life. If that in which men busy themselves, and that which they produce is anywhere, or at any time, calculated to attract attention and demand investigation and analysis, why not here in Oregon, on the banks of the Willamette, as well as five to ten thousand miles away, in Spain or in Turkey? Unlike the ancient or medieval city, it does not embrace within its walls-in fact, boasting no walls-the whole life and history of a people. The Roman Empire without Rome would be like Hamlet without Hamlet. But America without New York City would still be America, lacking only some million and a half of people. In our modern life the process of civil and social organization has gone so far that the center of supreme interest is in the whole confederation, in the whole national life, or broadly, in the people themselves, and not restricted to any one locality, individual or race. It would, therefore, be impossible to discover in any one American city a civil or political principle apart from that of the surrounding country. Furthermore, the motives or inducements that led to the building of...

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Geographical Position of Portland Oregon

To define her position in more particular terms, she is located in latitude forty-five degrees and thirty minutes north; longitude one hundred and twenty-two degrees and twenty-seven minutes west on the left bank of the Willamette River, twelve miles below the Falls of that stream at Oregon City, and ten miles above its confluence with the Columbia. It is one hundred and ten miles from the city by the Willamette and Columbia Rivers to the debouchure of the latter stream into the Pacific. As for distance to other well known points, it is about seven hundred miles to San Francisco by water, six hundred by rail; to the Cascades of the Columbia it is sixty miles; to the Dalles, ninety miles; to Walla Walla, two hundred and forty-five miles; to Spokane Falls, three hundred and seventy; to Lewiston, three hundred and fifty; to Salt Lake City, nine hundred; to Helena, Montana, seven hundred and fifty; to Chicago, two thousand four hundred; to New York, three thousand three hundred. On the north to Olympia by rail it is one hundred and twenty miles; to Tacoma, one hundred and fifty; to Seattle, one hundred and eighty; to Port Townsend, two hundred and fifty; to Victoria, three hundred; to Vancouver, B. C., four hundred; to Sitka, nine hundred; On the south to Salem, the capital of Oregon, it is fifty miles; to...

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Geography of Todd County, Kentucky

The county thus organized and named is situated in the southern part of the State, on the Tennessee line, and in the eastern border of that section of Kentucky arbitrarily called the Southwest. It is bounded on the north by Muhlenburg County, east by Logan, south by Montgomery, in State of Tennessee, and west by Christian, and contains about 330 square miles. The county lies partly in the Green River Val- ley, and partly in that of the Cumberland River, and represents the characteristics of both valleys. The dividing line between these valleys passes in a northwesterly direction through Todd several miles above Elkton, throwing the northern portion into the ” Green River Country,” and the southern in the Cumberland Valley. Curiously enough, in this county, the characteristics of these valleys are transposed; the Green River portion is broken and underlaid by freestone, and lies within the mineral belt, while the lower part belongs to the cavernous limestone’ formation, and possesses those rich agricultural characteristics which have made the Green River Country famous as the great wheat producing area of the State. The Russellville and Hopkinsville road, passing northwesterly through Elkton, forms the general dividing line between these two sections. South from this the surface is a gently rolling expanse of arable country, with little timber and much lowland, ‘which for the lack of good artificial drainage is much...

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