Topic: Fox

Governor Houston at His Trading Post on the Verdigris

In February, 1828, the vanguard of Creek immigrants arrived at the Creek Agency on the Verdigris, in charge of Colonel Brearley, and they and the following members of the McIntosh party were located on a section of land that the Government promised in the treaty of 1826 to purchase for them. By the treaty of May 6, 1828, the Government assigned the Cherokee a great tract of land, to which they at once began to remove from their homes in Arkansas. The movement had been under way for some months when there appeared among the Indians the remarkable figure of Samuel Houston. The biographers of Houston have told the world next to nothing of his sojourn of three or four years in the Indian country, an interesting period when he was changing the entire course of his life and preparing for the part he was to play in the drama of Texas.

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Establishment of Fort Gibson in 1824

By Act of Congress of March 2, 1819, Arkansas Territory was established July 4, embracing substantially all of what are now the states of Arkansas and Oklahoma; though the civil government of Arkansas Territory was limited to that section lying east of the Osage line, divided into counties, and embracing approximately the present state of Arkansas. That west of the Osage line was the Indian country, and in later years became known as Indian Territory. James Miller 1James Miller was born in Peterboro, N. H., April 25, 1776; entered the array as major in 1808, became Lieutenant-colonel in 1810,...

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Early Exploration and Native Americans

De Soto and his band gave to the Choctaws at Moma Binah and the Chickasaws at Chikasahha their first lesson in the white man’s modus operandi to civilize and Christianize North American Indians; so has the same lesson been continued to be given to that unfortunate people by his white successors from that day to this, all over this continent, but which to them, was as the tones of an alarm-bell at midnight. And one hundred and twenty-three years have passed since our forefathers declared all men of every nationality to be free and equal on the soil of the North American continent then under their jurisdiction, except the Africans whom they held in slavery, and the Native Americans against whom they decreed absolute extermination because they could not also enslave them; to prove which, they at once began to hold out flattering-inducements to the so-called oppressed people of all climes under the sun, to come to free America and assist them to oppress and kill off the Native Americans and in partnership take their lands and country, as this was more in accordance with their lust of wealth and speedy self-aggrandizement than the imagined slow process of educating, civilizing and Christianizing them, a work too con descending, too humiliating; and to demonstrate that it has been a grand and glorious success, we now point with vaunting pride and haughty...

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The Tribes West of the Mississippi – Indian Wars

By treaties concluded by the agents of the United State government at different periods, nearly all of the Indian tribes have been induced to remove west of the Mississippi. Those who remain in the haunts of their fathers are chiefly converts to Christianity, and in a half civilized state. Many of the tribes have dwindled into insignificance, yet the few who remain are proud to maintain their distinctive appellation, and support the independence of their old clan. The most powerful and numerous tribes in the northwest are the Sioux, or Dacotahs, the Blackfeet, Crows, and Pawnees. A few of the celebrated Delaware tribe still remain, and are a source of terror to their numerous enemies. The Blackfeet Indians occupy the whole of the country about the sources of the Missouri, from the mouth of the Yellow Stone to the Rocky Mountains. Their number is between forty and fifty thousand, and their general bearing is warlike and ferocious. Their enemies are numerous, yet they maintain their ascendancy. The Crows are a much smaller tribe than the Blackfeet, with whom they are always at war. They are fearless warriors, and seek their enemies wherever they are to be found. In number they are about six thousand. The following is an account of one of their battles with the Blackfeet Indians. Fight Between the Crow and the Blackfeet Indians In June, 1845, a...

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Black Hawk’s War – Indian Wars

We have now to record the events of a war “which brought one of the noblest of Indians to the notice and admiration of the people of the United States. Black Hawk was an able and patriotic chief. With the intelligence and power to plan a great project, and to execute it, he united the lofty spirit which secures the respect and confidence of a people. He was born about the year 1767, on Rock river, Illinois. At the age of fifteen he took a scalp from the enemy, and was in consequence promoted by his tribe to the...

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War Between the Colonies and The Western Indians – From 1763 To 1765

A struggle began in 1760, in which the English had to contend with a more powerful Indian enemy than any they had yet encountered. Pontiac, a chief renowned both in America and Europe, as a brave and skillful warrior, and a far-sighted and active ruler, was at the head of all the Indian tribes on the great lakes. Among these were the Ottawas, Miamis, Chippewas, Wyandott, Pottawatomie, Winnebago, Shawanese, Ottagamie, and Mississagas. After the capture of Quebec, in 1760, Major Rodgers was sent into the country of Pontiac to drive the French from it. Apprised of his approach, Pontiac...

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Treaty of September 14, 1815

A treaty of peace and friendship, made and concluded at Portage des Sioux between William Clark, Ninian Edwards, and Auguste Chouteau, Commissioners Plenipotentiary of the United States of America, on the part and behalf of the said States, of the one part; and the undersigned King, Chiefs, and Warriors, of the Fox Tribe or Nation, on the part and behalf of the said Tribe or nation, of the other part. The parties being desirous of re-establishing peace and friendship between the United States and the said tribe or nation, and of being placed in all things, and in every respect, on the same footing upon which they stood before the war, have agreed to the following articles: Article 1. Every injury or act of hostility by one or either of the contracting parties against the other, shall be mutually forgiven and forgot. Article 2. There shall be perpetual peace and friendship between the citizens of the United States of America and all the individuals composing the said Fox tribe or nation. Article 3. The contracting parties do hereby agree, promise, and oblige themselves, reciprocally, to deliver up all the prisoners now in their hands, (by what means so ever the same may have come into their possession,) to the officer commanding at Fort Clark, on the Illinois river, to be by him restored to their respective nations as soon...

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Treaty of October 11, 1842

1842, October 11. Treaty with the Confederated tribes of Sauk and Fox at the agency of the Sauk and Fox Indians in the Territory of Iowa. Schedule of debts annexed. Resolution of Senate, February 15, 1843. Ratification of President, March 23, 1843. The confederated tribes of Sacs and Foxes cede to the U. S. all the lands W. of the Mississippi river to which they have any claim or title. The Indians reserve a right to occupy for three years from the signing of this treaty all that part of the land above ceded which lies W. of a line running due N. and S. from the painted or red rocks on the White Breast fork of the Des Moines river, which rocks will be found about 8 miles in a straight line from the junction of the White Breast with the Des Moines. Upon ratification of this treaty the U. S. agree to assign a tract of land suitable and convenient for Indian purposes to the Sacs and Foxes for a permanent home for them and their descendants, which tract shall be upon the Missouri river or some of its waters.

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Treaty of August 4, 1824

To perpetuate peace and friendship between the United States and the Sock and Fox tribes or nations of Indians, and to remove all future cause of dissensions which may arise from undefined territorial boundaries, the President of the United States of America, by William Clark, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and sole Commissioner specially appointed for that purpose, of the one part, and the undersigned Chiefs and Head Men of the Sock and Fox tribes or nations, fully deputized to act for and in behalf of their said nations, of the other part, have entered into the following articles and conditions, viz: Article I. The Sock and Fox tribes or nations of Indians, by their deputations in council assembled, do hereby agree, in consideration of certain sums of money, &c. to be paid to the said Sock and Fox tribes, by the Government of the United States, as hereinafter stipulated, to cede and for ever quit claim, and do, in behalf of their said tribes or nations, hereby cede, relinquish, and forever quit claim, unto the United States, all right, title, interest, and claim, to the lands which the said Sock and Fox tribes have, or claim, within the limits of the state of Missouri, which are situated, lying, and being, between the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, and a line running from the Missouri, at the entrance of Kansas river,...

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Dawes Act

General Allotment Act or Dawes Act An Act to Provide for the Allotment of Lands in Severalty to Indians on the Various Reservations (General Allotment Act or Dawes Act), Statutes at Large 24, 388-91,      Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That in all cases where any tribe or band of Indians has been, or shall hereafter be, located upon any reservation created for their use, either by treaty stipulation or by virtue of an act of Congress or executive order setting apart the same for their use, the President of the United States be, and he hereby is, authorized, whenever in his opinion any reservation or any part thereof of such Indians is advantageous for agricultural and grazing purposes, to cause said reservation, or any part thereof, to be surveyed, or resurveyed if necessary, and to allot the lands in said reservation in severalty to any Indian located thereon in quantities as follows: To each head of a family, one-quarter of a section; To each single person over eighteen years of age, one-eighth of a section; To each orphan child under eighteen years of age, one-eighth of a section; and To each other single person under eighteen years now living, or who may be born prior to the date of the order of the President...

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House Document 64

To the honorable the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States in Congress assembled: The undersigned, chiefs, braves, warriors, and hunters, of the Sac and Fox tribes of Indians, beg leave respectfully to represent to your honorable body, that, under the existing law of Congress, regulating the payment of the annuities to our nation, by which they are to be paid to the chiefs, or to some person designated by them, they have been deprived of their just rights as individuals of those tribes, as they verily believe that it was the intention of Congress that every person belonging to our nation should receive an equal proportion of the annuities, and not all be given to a few individuals because they are chiefs, as it was the present year. They further state and declare that they have received no part of the annuities that were paid this year, either in money, clothing, or any thing else; and, as they are solely dependent upon them for a supply of clothing and hunting equipments, it has reduced them to great want. And they are informed by the chiefs themselves that they were sent for to St. Louis, which is about 250 miles from our villages, and 200 from the nearest part of our country, nearly or quite a month earlier than the usual time of paying the annuities, (which,...

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House Document 63

To the honorable the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States in Congress assembled: The undersigned, chiefs, braves, warriors, and hunters, of the Fox tribe of Indians, beg leave respectfully to represent to your honorable body, that, under the existing regulations respecting the payment of our annuities, we have again been deprived of our just rights as members of the Sac and Fox nation. And in as much as our tribe have always been on terms of peace and friendship with the Government and people of the United States, we make this appeal to your honorable body, in full confidence that our humble petition will be granted. By the last treaty made by the Sacs and Foxs with the Government of the United States, an annuity of twenty thousand dollars, for a term of years, is made and ceded to the Sacs and Foxes, in conjunction for the consideration therein specified; at which time it was distinctly understood by the undersigned that the same was to be equally divided among the whole nation. The undersigned further beg leave to represent, that the Fox tribe, of which they are chiefs, braves, hunters, and warriors, comprise two-thirds of the said nation of Sacs and Foxes; and that they have received but one-half of the said annuities since the treaty of eighteen hundred and thirty-two, (1832) which secures to all...

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Treaty of September 17, 1836

Articles of a treaty, made and concluded at Fort Leavenworth, on the Missouri river, between William Clark, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, on the part of the United States, of the one part, and the undersigned chiefs, warriors, and counsellors of the Ioway [Iowa] tribe and the band of Sacks [Sac] and Foxes of the Missouri, (residing west of the State of Missouri,) in behalf of their respective tribes, of the other part. Article 1. By the first article of the treaty of Prairie du Chien, held the fifteenth day of July eighteen hundred and thirty, with the confederated tribes of Sacks, Foxes, Ioways, Omahaws, Missourias, Ottoes, and Sioux, the country ceded to the United States by that treaty, is to be assigned and allotted under the direction of the President of the United States to the tribes living thereon, or to such other tribes as the President may locate thereon for hunting and other purpose.—And whereas it is further represented to us the chiefs, warriors, and counsellors of the Ioways and Sack and Fox band aforesaid, to be desirable that the lands lying between the State of Missouri and the Missouri river, should be attached to and become a part of said State, and the Indian title thereto, be entirely extinguished; but that notwithstanding, as these lands compose a part of the country embraced by the provisions of said...

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Sac and Fox Reservation

Report of Special Agent Reuben Sears on the Indians of the Sac and Fox tract or reservation, Sac and Fox agency, Tama County, Iowa. 2.5 miles from the town of Tama, September 1890. Names of Indian tribes or parts of tribes occupying said reservation: (a) Pottawatomie, Sac (Sauk) and Fox of the Mississippi, and Winnebago. The unallotted area of this tract is 1,258 acres, or 2 square miles. The tract has been surveyed and subdivided. It was established by purchase. (See act of Congress approved. March 2, 1867, 14 U. S. Stats, p. 507.) Deeds November 1870, and 1882 and 1883. Indian. population 1800: 397. Sac and Fox Reservation This reservation is one only in name, as the Sacs and Foxes own it in fee, the deed to the same being held in trust by the governor of Iowa. On this these Indians have lived surrounded by the whites for the last 30 years, and should now be in a fair state of civilization if white influence has much power in molding Indian character. In fact, this tribe shows but little civilized or Christianized results from such surroundings. Their physical condition is comparatively good; a few seem troubled with a cough and other evidences of chronic lung trouble, but then a majority give every indication of health. Their children are to all appearance healthy, and behave quite as well...

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Treaty of September 28, 1836

Articles of a treaty made and entered into at the treaty ground on the right bank of the Mississippi river in the county of Debuque and Territory of Wisconsin opposite Rock island, on the twenty-eighth day of September one thousand eight hundred and thirty-six, between Henry Dodge commissioner on the part of the United States, of the one part, and the confederated tribes of Sac and Fox Indians represented in general council by the undersigned chiefs, headmen and warriors of the said tribes, of the other part: Whereas by the second article of the treaty made between the United States and the confederate tribes of the Sac and Fox Indians on the twenty-first day of September one thousand eight hundred and thirty-two, a reservation of four hundred sections of land was made to the Sac and Fox Indians to be laid off under the directions of the President of the United States in conformity to the provisions of said article, and the same having been so subsequently laid out accordingly, and the confederated tribes of Sacs and Foxes being desirous of obtaining additional means of support, and to pay their just creditors, have entered into this treaty, and make the following cession of land. Article 1. The confederated tribes of Sacs and Foxes for the purposes above expressed, and for and in consideration of the stipulations and agreements hereinafter...

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