Topic: Flathead

The Tribes West of the Mississippi – Indian Wars

By treaties concluded by the agents of the United State government at different periods, nearly all of the Indian tribes have been induced to remove west of the Mississippi. Those who remain in the haunts of their fathers are chiefly converts to Christianity, and in a half civilized state. Many of the tribes have dwindled into insignificance, yet the few who remain are proud to maintain their distinctive appellation, and support the independence of their old clan. The most powerful and numerous tribes in the northwest are the Sioux, or Dacotahs, the Blackfeet, Crows, and Pawnees. A few of the celebrated Delaware tribe still remain, and are a source of terror to their numerous enemies. The Blackfeet Indians occupy the whole of the country about the sources of the Missouri, from the mouth of the Yellow Stone to the Rocky Mountains. Their number is between forty and fifty thousand, and their general bearing is warlike and ferocious. Their enemies are numerous, yet they maintain their ascendancy. The Crows are a much smaller tribe than the Blackfeet, with whom they are always at war. They are fearless warriors, and seek their enemies wherever they are to be found. In number they are about six thousand. The following is an account of one of their battles with the Blackfeet Indians. Fight Between the Crow and the Blackfeet Indians In June, 1845, a...

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Indians of the Great Western Prairies

Upon the Yellowstone, and about the headwaters of the Missouri, the most noted tribes are the Crows and Blackfeet. Bordering upon them at the north and northeast are their enemies, the Ojibbeways, Knisteneaux, and Assinaboins, of some of whom brief mention has been made in former chapters. In 1834 the Blackfeet were computed to number over thirty thousand, but when the small-pox swept over the western country, in 1838, they were frightfully reduced. By the returns of 1850, they were represented as amounting to about thirteen thousand. As these Indians are among the farthest removed from the contaminating influence...

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Treaty of October 17, 1855

Articles of agreement and convention made and concluded at the council-ground on the Upper Missouri, near the mouth of the Judith River, in the Territory of Nebraska, this seventeenth day of October, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-five, by and between A. Cumming and Isaac I. Stevens, commissioners duly appointed and authorized, on the part of the United States, and the undersigned chiefs, headmen, and delegates of the following nations and tribes of Indians, who occupy, for the purposes of hunting, the territory on the Upper Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers, and who have permanent homes as follows: East of the Rocky Mountains, the Blackfoot Nation, consisting of the Piegan, Blood, Blackfoot, and Gros Ventres tribes of Indians. West of the Rocky Mountains, the Flathead Nation, consisting of the Flathead, Upper Pend d’Oreille, and Kootenay tribes of Indians, and the Nez Percé tribe of Indians, the said chiefs, headmen and delegates, in behalf of and acting for said nations and tribes, and being duly authorized thereto by them. Article 1. Peace, friendship and amity shall hereafter exist between the United States and the aforesaid nations and tribes of Indians, parties to this treaty, and the same shall be perpetual. Article 2. The aforesaid nations and tribes of Indians, parties to this treaty, do hereby jointly and severally covenant that peaceful relations shall likewise be maintained among themselves...

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Treaty of July 16, 1855

Articles of agreement and convention made and concluded at the treaty-ground at Hell Gate, in the Bitter Root Valley, this sixteenth day of July, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-five, by and between Isaac I. Stevens, governor and superintendent of Indian affairs for the Territory of Washington, on the part of the United States, and the undersigned chiefs, head-men, and delegates of the confederated tribes of the Flathead, Kootenay, and Upper Pend d’ Oreilles Indians, on behalf of and acting for said confederated tribes, and being duly authorized thereto by them. It being understood and agreed that the said confederated tribes do hereby constitute a nation, under the name of the Flathead Nation, with Victor, the head chief of the Flathead tribe, as the head chief of the said nation, and that the several chiefs, head-men, and delegates, whose names are signed to this treaty, do hereby, in behalf of their respective tribes, recognize Victor as said head chief. Article 1. The said confederated tribe of Indians hereby cede, relinquish, and convey to the United States all their right, title, and interest in and to the country occupied or claimed by them, bounded and described as follows, to wit: Commencing on the main ridge of the Rocky Mountains at the forty-ninth (49th) parallel of latitude, thence westwardly on that parallel to the divide between the Flat-bow...

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Jocko Reservation

Flathead Agency Report of Special Agent Horatio L. Seward on the Indians of the Jocko reservation, Flathead agency, Montana, December 1890, and January 1891. Names of Indian tribes or parts of tribes occupying said reservation: 1The statements giving tribes, areas, and laws for agencies are from the Report of the Commissioner or Indian Affairs, 1800, pages 434-445. The population is a result of the census. Bitter Root, Carlos band, Flathead, Kutenay, Lower Kalispal, and Pend d’Oreille. The unallotted area of this reservation is 1,433,600 acres, or 2,240 square miles. The reservation has been partly surveyed. It was established, altered,...

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Carlos Agreement

Articles of agreement, made this 3rd day of November, A.D. 1889, between Henry B. Carrington, “special disbursing agent in the field,” designated by the Secretary of the Interior to secure the several “consents” of certain of the Flathead Indians to whom patents were issued for lands assigned to them in the Bitter Root Valley, Montana Territory, under the provisions of an act of Congress, approved June 15, A.D. 1872, entitled “An Act to provide for the removal of the Flathead and other Indians from the Bitter Root Valley, in the Territory of Montana, or the heirs-at-law of said Indians,” to the appraisement and sale of said lands, under the provisions of an act of Congress, approved March 2, 1889. Of the first part, and the hereditary chief, Charles Victor, sole surviving chief of said Flathead Indians, who alone of the three chiefs then living, viz, Charles, first chief; Arlee, second chief; and Adolph, third chief, did not sign the contract called the Garfield agreement, dated at Jocko Reservation, Flathead Indian Agency, August 27, 1872. Witnesseth, that for himself and his heirs, and as the heir of his father, Eneos Victor, hereditary chief of the Flathead tribe of Indians, deceased, he does hereby consent to the appraisal and sale under the direction of the Secretary of the Interior of the lands assigned to his father, Chief Victor, and to himself,...

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Certification of Michael Revais

UNITED STATES INDIAN SERVICE FLATHEAD INDIAN AGENCY, Arlee P.O., Mont., December, 1889. The undersigned, a Flathead Indian patentee of land in Bitter Root Valley, now living near the agency, on the Jocko Reservation, Mont., do certify that I acted as guide for General Henry B. Carrington, special agent of the Interior Department, during his negotiations with Chief Carlos and other Indian patentees of lands in Bitter Root Valley, Montana; that I accompanied him to the lands under examination, and upon examination of the “consents” secured to the appraisement and sale of fifty-three tracts, do state as my best conviction and belief that the parties signing the same are the true heirs and representatives of the deceased patentees who said signers answer for is said executed “consents”. MICHAEL (his x mark) REVAIS (Seal) Witnesses: Henry B. Carrington, U.S. Army, Special Agent. Peter Ronan, U.S. Indian...

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Certification of J. D’Aste, S. J.

UNITED STATES INDIAN SERVICE FLATHEAD INDIAN AGENCY, Dated Arlee P.O., Mont., December 13, 1889. The undersigned principal of the St. Ignatius Mission School, and for more than twenty years spiritual advisor and pastor of the Flathead Indians in bitter Root Valley, acquainted with their families and their language, hereby certify that I was present at interviews between General Henry B. Carrington, “special disbursing agent in the field” (who has been acting under the orders of the Secretary of the Interior to obtain the consent of Flathead Indian patentees of lands in Bitter Root Valley to the appraisement and sale of said lands), and many of those Indians, including Chief Carlos and the widow of Chief Adolph, and upon examination of the “consents” secured to the appraisement and sale of fifty-three tracts, do state as my best conviction and belief that the parties signing the same are the true heirs and representatives of the deceased patentees whom said signers answer for in said executed “consents”. J. D’ASTE, S.J. (Seal) Witnesses: Henry B. Carrington (Seal) J. Paquin, S.J....

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Transfer of Power of Attorney

Know all men by these presents that I have appointed my brother, Alexander Matte, of the Flathead Indians, living on the reservation of said tribe known as the Jocko Reservation, my good and lawful attorney in fact to transact business for me and my name during my absence, and especially to execute any and all legal papers that may be necessary with view to the appraisal and sale of my landing Bitter Root Valley derived by patent from the United States, viz., E ½ NW ¼ and W ½ NE ¼, Sec. 26, T 9 R 20 W., containing 160 acres, more of less, hereby confirming whatever my said attorney may do for me and in my name, the same as if I were personally present and did the same. BATTISE (his x mark) MATTE. (Seal) Witnesses: Thos. E. Adams (Seal) Peter Ronan, U.S. Indian Agent Jocko Reservation, October,...

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Second supplemental order

On the relation of the United States, by Henry B. Carrington, its agent and attorney for certain Flathead Indians-Before district court of Missoula County, Mont. It appearing that Henry B. Carrington, relater on behalf of the United States respecting guardians for minor heirs of certain Flathead Indians, has filed a second certificate, such was directed by order of this court in such case provided, showing the designation and action of Chief Carlos Victor of said tribe of Indians, as guardian of his minor son Victor, the grandson of Widow Pallicino, by his first wife Margarite, since deceased, it is ordered that the action in said behalf, as set forth in said certificate, be confirmed, the same to have full force and effect, which belongs to the original order in this case made respecting guardians and minors therein set forth, December 20, 1889. C.S. MARSHALL, Judge of fourth Judicial District court, State of Montana. STATE OF MONTANA, County of Missoula, ss: I do hereby certify the above and foregoing to be a full, true and complete copy of a petition filled, and the order of said district court thereon, made and entered in the order book of said court on the 20th day of December, 1889. Given under my hand and the seal of said curt this 20th day of December, 1889. (Seal) JNO. L. SLOCUM, Clerk. By William Landers,...

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Second certificate supplemental to order of court

On the relation of the United States, by Henry B. Carrington, agent, attorney, etc;-in the district court, Missoula county.- Pursuant to an order of court entered December 7, 1889, I do hereby certify that Chief Carlos Victor, of the Flathead tribe of Indians, the grandfather of Victor, minor son of said Charles Victor, by Margret Pallicino, only daughter of widow Pallicino, a Flathead Indian patentee, deceased, has acted as guardian of said minor and executed his consent to the sale of the lands patented to the grandmother aforesaid, the mother of said Victor having also deceased. HENRY B. CARRINGTON, Agent and Attorney for the United States And for the Flathead Indians...

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Certificate supplemental to order of court

On the relation of the United States, by Henry B. Carrington, agent, attorney, etc.,-on the district court, Missoula County. Pursuant to an order of court entered December 7, 1889, touching guardians for certain Indians theretofore appointed and thereafter to be appointed, I do hereby certify that Rev. J. D’Aste, of St. Ignaius Mission, by virtue of said order, has acted as guardian for Moses and Narcisse (Delaware minor children of Delaware Jim, deceased), as a guardian of Anna, John, and Julia Curren, grandchildren of Widow Maltius, and Indian allotee of Indian land, deceased; also as guardian of Louis, who also signed, although a minor of mature years. Also that Mary Arlee, widow of Chief Arlee, acted as guardian for her minor grandchildren, Joseph and Mary. Also that Thomas Adams, father of Eneos and Louise, great-grandchildren of Chief Adoph, and Indian patentee, acted as guardian for his said children. Also that Madaline, widow of Enous, son f Chief Adolph, acted as guardian for her daughter Katherine. Also that Aurietta, widow of Bapttise Merengo, Indian patentee, deceased, acted as guardian for Luc and Battice, minor children of said patentee. Also that Sophie Merango, mother of Louis (Nishan) Merango acted as guardian for heirs, as for her step-son Frank, son of her deceased husband by a former wife. And said action made is hereby filled pursuant to the order of court aforesaid....

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June 5, 1872 Act

Chapter 308 June 5, 1872. 17 Stat., 226. An act to provide for the removal of the Flathead and other Indians from the Bitter-Root Valley, in the Territory of Montana. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That it shall be the duty of the President, as soon as practicable, to remove the Flathead Indians, (whether of full or mixed bloods,) and all other Indians connected with said tribe, and recognized as members thereof, from Bitter-Root Valley, in the Territory of Montana, to the general reservation in said Territory, (commonly known as the Jocko reservation,) which by a treaty concluded at Hell Gate, in the Bitter-Root Valley, July sixteenth, eighteen hundred and fifty-five, and ratified by the Senate March eighth, eighteen hundred and fifty-nine, between the United States and the confederated tribes of Flathead, Kootenai, and Pend d’Oreille Indians, was set apart and reserved for the use and occupation of said confederated tribes. SEC. 2 That as soon as practicable after the passage of this act, the surveyor-general of Montana Territory shall cause to be surveyed, as other public lands of the United States are surveyed, the lands in the Bitter-Root Valley lying above the Lo-Lo Fork of the Bitter-Root River; and said lands shall be open to settlement, and shall be sold in legal subdivisions to...

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Feb. 11, 1874 Act

Chapter 25 Feb. 11, 1874. 18 Stat., 15. An act to amend the act entitled “An act to provide for the removal of the Flathead and other Indians from the Bitter-Root Valley, in the Territory of Montana,” approved June fifth, eighteen hundred and seventy-two. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the time of sale and payment of pre-empted lands in the Bitter-Root Valley, in the Territory of Montana, is hereby extended for the period of two years from the expiration of the time allotted in the act entitled “An act to provide for the removal of the Flathead and other Indians from the Bitter-Root Valley, in the Territory of Montana,” approved June fifth, eighteen hundred and seventy-two. SEC. 2 That the benefit of the homestead act is hereby extended to all the settlers on said lands who may desire to take advantage of the same. Approved, February 11, 1874. NOTE.—The time allotted by the act of 1872 was within twenty-one months from the date of settlement or of passage of the act of June 5,...

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