Topic: Delaware

The War with the Indians of the West during Washington’s Administration

After the termination of the Revolutionary War, the hardy settlers of the west had still a contest to maintain, which often threatened their extermination. The Indian tribes of the west refused to bury the hatchet when Great Britain withdrew her armies, and they continued their terrible devastation. The vicinity of the Ohio River, especially, was the scene of their operations.

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War Between the Colonies and The Western Indians – From 1763 To 1765

A struggle began in 1760, in which the English had to contend with a more powerful Indian enemy than any they had yet encountered. Pontiac, a chief renowned both in America and Europe, as a brave and skillful warrior, and a far-sighted and active ruler, was at the head of all the Indian tribes on the great lakes. Among these were the Ottawas, Miamis, Chippewas, Wyandott, Pottawatomie, Winnebago, Shawanese, Ottagamie, and Mississagas. After the capture of Quebec, in 1760, Major Rodgers was sent into the country of Pontiac to drive the French from it. Apprised of his approach, Pontiac...

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Native Americans in the Revolutionary War

At the commencement of the American struggle for independence, the Native Americans in the Revolutionary War stood in a peculiar position. Their friendship became a matter of importance to both parties. To secure this, the English took particular care, and had many advantages, of which the colonists were deprived. The expulsion of the French from Canada had given the Indians a high opinion of the valor and power of British forces. They also had the means of supplying the wants of the Indians by presents of articles, which could only be obtained from Europe, and which the American Congress...

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Red Jacket and the Wyandot Claim to Supremacy

At a great council of the western tribes, assembled near Detroit, prior to the late war, the celebrated Seneca orator, Red Jacket, was present, when the question of the right of the Wyandots to light the council fire, was brought up. This claim he strenuously resisted, and administered a rebuke to this nation in the following terms: “Have the Quatoghies forgotten themselves? Or do they suppose we have forgotten them? Who gave you the right in the west or east, to light the general council fire? You must have fallen asleep, and dreamt that the Six Nations were dead! Who permitted you to escape from the lower country? Had you any heart left to speak a word for yourselves? Remember how you hung on by the bushes. You had not even a place to land on. You have not yet done p___g for fear of the Konoshioni. High claim, indeed, for a tribe who had to run away from the Kadarakwa. 1Hon. Albert H. Tracy. “As for you, my nephews,” he continued, turning to the Lenapees, or Delawares,” it is fit you should let another light your fire. Before Miqùon came, we had put out your fire and poured water on it; it would not burn. Could you hunt or plant without our leave? Could you sell a foot of land? Did not the voice of the Long House...

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Treaty of July 4, 1866

Articles of agreement between the United States and the chiefs and councilors of the Delaware Indians, on behalf of said tribe, made at the Delaware Agency, Kansas, on the fourth day of July, eighteen hundred and sixty-six. Whereas Congress has by law made it the duty of the President of the United States to provide by treaty for the removal of the Indian tribes from the State of Kansas; and whereas the Delaware Indians have expressed a wish to remove from their present reservation in said State to the Indian country, located between the States of Kansas and Texas; and whereas the United States have, by treaties negotiated with the Choctaws and Chickasaws, with the Creeks, and with the Seminoles, Indian tribes residing in said Indian country, acquired the right to locate other Indian tribes within the limits of the same; and whereas the Missouri River Railroad Company, a corporation existing in the State of Kansas by the laws thereof, and which company has built a railroad connecting with the Pacific Railroad, from near the mouth of the Kaw River to Leavenworth, in aid of which road the Delawares, by treaty in eighteen hundred and sixty-four, agreed to dispose of their lands, has expressed a desire to purchase the present Delaware Indian reservation in the said State, in a body, at a fair price: It is hereby agreed between...

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Treaty of July 2, 1861

Whereas a treaty or agreement was made and concluded at Leavenworth City, Kansas, on the second day of July, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-one, between the United States of America and the Delaware tribe of Indians, relative to certain lands of that tribe conveyed to the Leavenworth, Pawnee, and Western Railroad Company, and to bonds executed to the United States by the said company for the payment of the said Indians, which treaty or agreement, with the preliminary and incidental papers necessary to the full understanding of the same, is in the following words, to wit: Whereas, by the treaty of May 30, 1860, between the United States and the Delaware tribe of Indians, it is provided that the surplus lands of said Delawares, not included in their “home reserve,” should be surveyed and appraised under direction of the Secretary of the Interior; and that in order to aid in the construction of a railroad near and through their said “home reserve,” the Leavenworth, Pawnee, and Western Railroad Company of Kansas, duly organized and incorporated under the laws of said Territory, should have the right to purchase such surplus lands at such appraised value—on condition, however, that after paying for said lands, said company should only receive title to one-half of them on completing and equipping, within a reasonable time, twenty-five (25) miles of said railroad from Leavenworth...

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Treaty of May 30, 1860

Articles of agreement and convention made and concluded at Sarcoxieville, on the Delaware Reservation, this thirtieth day of May, one thousand eight hundred and sixty, by Thomas B. Sykes, as a commissioner on the part of the United States, and following named chiefs of the Delaware tribe of Indians, viz: John Conner, head chief of the whole tribe; Sar-cox-ie, chief of the Turtle band; Ne-con-he-con, chief of the Wolf band; Rock-a-to-wha, chief of the Turkey band, and assistants to the said head chief, chosen and appointed by the people, and James Conner, chosen by the said chief as delegate. Article 1. By the first article of the treaty made and concluded at the city of Washington, on the sixth day of May, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-four, between George W. Manypenny, commissioner on the part of the United States, and certain delegates of the Delaware tribe of Indians, which treaty was ratified by the Senate of the United States on the eleventh day of July, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-four, there was reserved, as a permanent home for the said tribe, that part of their country lying east and south of a line beginning at a point on the line between the Delawares and Half-breed Kansas, forty miles in a direct line west of the boundary between the Delawares and Wyandottes; thence north ten miles: thence in...

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Treaty of May 6, 1854

Articles of agreement and convention made and concluded at the city of Washington this sixth day of May, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-four, by George W. Manypenny, as commissioner on the part of the United States, and the following-named delegates of the Delaware tribe of Indians, viz: Sarcoxey; Ne-con-he-cond; Kock-ka-to-wha; Qua-cor-now-ha, or James Segondyne; Ne-sha-pa-na-cumin, or Charles Journeycake; Que-sha-to-wha, or John Ketchem; Pondoxy, or George Bullet; Kock-kock-quas, or James Ketchem; Ah-lah-a-chick, or James Conner, they being thereto duly authorized by said tribe. Article 1. The Delaware tribe of Indians hereby cede, relinquish, and quit-claim to the United States all their right, title, and interest in and to their country lying west of the State of Missouri, and situate in the fork of the Missouri and Kansas Rivers, which is described in the article supplementary to the treaty of October third, one thousand eight hundred and eighteen, concluded, in part, on the twenty-fourth September, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-nine, at Council Camp, on James’ Fork of White River, in the State of Missouri; and finally concluded at Council Camp, in the fork of the Kansas and Missouri Rivers, on the nineteenth October, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-nine; and also their right, title, and interest in and to the “outlet” mentioned and described in said supplementary article, excepting that portion of said country sold to the Wyandot tribe...

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Treaty of August 3, 1829

Articles of agreement made between John M’Elvain, thereto specially authorized by the President of the United States, and the band of Delaware Indians, upon the Sandusky River, in the State of Ohio, for the cession of a certain reservation of land in the said State. Article I. The said band of Delaware Indians cede to the United States the tract of three miles square, adjoining the Wyandot Reservation upon the Sandusky River, reserved for their use by the treaty of the Rapids of the Maumee, concluded between the United States and the Wyandots, Seneca, Delaware, Shawnees, Potawatamies, Ottawas, and Chippiwa tribes of Indians, on the twenty-ninth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventeen, and the said tribe of Delawares engage to remove to and join their nation on the west side of the Mississippi, on the land allotted to them, on or before the first day of January next, at which time peaceable possession of said reservation is to be given to the United States. Article II.In consideration of the stipulations aforesaid, it is agreed, that the United States shall pay to the said band the sum of three thousand dollars: two thousand dollars in hand, the receipt of which is hereby acknowledged by the undersigned Chiefs of said tribe, and the remaining balance of one thousand dollars to be appropriated...

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Treaty of September 17, 1778

Articles of agreement and confederation, made and entered into by Andrew and Thomas Lewis, Esquires, Commissioners for, and in Behalf of the United States of North-America of the one Part, and Capt. White Eyes, Capt. John Kill Buck, Junior, and Capt. Pipe, Deputies and Chief Men of the Delaware Nation of the other Part. Article 1. That all offences or acts of hostilities by one, or either of the contracting parties against the other, be mutually forgiven, and buried in the depth of oblivion, never more to be had in remembrance. Article 2. That a perpetual peace and friendship shall from henceforth take place, and subsist between the contracting parties aforesaid, through all succeeding generations: and if either of the parties are engaged in a just and necessary war with any other nation or nations, that then each shall assist the other in due proportion to their abilities, till their enemies are brought to reasonable terms of accommodation: and that if either of them shall discover any hostile designs forming against the other, they shall give the earliest notice thereof, that timeous measures may be taken to prevent their ill effect. Article 3. And whereas the United States are engaged in a just and necessary war, in defence and support of life, liberty and independence, against the King of England and his adherents, and as said King is yet...

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Treaty of October 3, 1818

Articles of a treaty made and concluded at St. Mary’s, in the state of Ohio, between Jonathan Jennings, Lewis Cass, and Benjamin Parke, commissioners of the United States, and the Delaware nation of Indians. Article I. The Delaware nation of Indians cede to the United States all their claim to land in the state of Indiana. Article II. In consideration of the aforesaid cession, the United States agree to provide for the Delawares a country to reside in, upon the west side of the Mississippi, and to guaranty to them the peaceable possession of the same. Article III. The United States also agree to pay the Delawares the full value of their improvements in the country hereby ceded: which valuation shall be made by persons to be appointed for that purpose by the President of the United States; and to furnish the Delawares with one hundred and twenty horses, not to exceed in value forty dollars each, and a sufficient number of perogues, to aid in transporting them to the west side of the Mississippi; and a quantity of provisions, proportioned to their numbers, and the extent of their journey. Article IV. The Delawares shall be allowed the use and occupation of their improvements, for the term of three years from the date of this treaty if they so long require it. Article V. The United States agree to...

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Treaty of July 22, 1814

A treaty of peace and friendship between the United States of America, and the tribes of Indians called the Wyandots, Delawares, Shawanoese, Senecas, and Miamies. The said United States of America, by William Henry Harrison, late a major general in the army of the United States, and Lewis Cass, governor of the Michigan territory, duly authorized and appointed commissioners for the purpose, and the said tribes, by their head men, chiefs, and warriors, assembled at Greenville, in the state of Ohio, have agreed to the following articles, which, when ratified by the president of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, shall be binding upon them and the said tribes. Article 1. The United States and the Wyandots, Delawares, Shawanoese, and Senecas, give peace to the Miamie nation of Indians, formerly designated as the Miamie Eel River and Weea tribes; they extend this indulgence also to the bands of the Putawatimies, which adhere to the Grand Sachem Tobinipee, and to the chief Onoxa, to the Ottawas of Blanchard’s creek, who have attached themselves to the Shawanoese tribe, and to such of the said tribe as adhere to the chief called the Wing, in the neighborhood of Detroit, and to the Kickapoos, under the direction of their chiefs who sign this treaty. Article II. The tribes and bands abovementioned, engage to give their...

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Illinois Burial Customs

The term Illinois Indians as used by some early writers was intended to include the various Algonquian tribes, encountered in the “Illinois country,” in addition to those usually recognized as forming the Illinois confederacy. Thus, in the following quotation from Joutel will be found a reference to the Chahouanous – i. e., Shawnee – as being of the Islinois, and in the same note Accancea referred to the Quapaw, a Siouan tribe living on the right bank of the Mississippi, not far north of the mouth of the Arkansas. Describing the burial customs of the Illinois, as witnessed by him during the latter years of the seventeenth century, Joutel wrote: ” They pay a Respect to their Dead, as appears by their special Care of burying them, and even of putting into lofty Coffins the Bodies of such as are considerable among them, as their Chiefs and others, which is also practised among the Accancea’s, but they differ in this Particular, that the Accancea’s weep and make their Complaints for some Days, where as the Chahoaanous, and other People of the Islinois Nation do just the Contrary; for when any of them die, they wrap them up in Skins, and then put them into Coffins made of the Barks of Trees, then sing and dance about them for twenty four Hours. Those Dancers take Care to tie Calabashes, or...

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Indian Confederacy Of 1781

The spring of 1781 was a terrible season for the white settlements in Kentucky and the whole border country. The natives who surrounded them had never shown so constant and systematic a determination for murder and mischief. Early in the summer, a great meeting of Indian deputies from the Shawanees, Delawares, Cherokees, Wyandot, Tawas, Pottawatomie, and diverse other tribes from the north-western lakes, met in grand council of war at Old Chilicothe. The persuasions and influence of two infamous whites, one McKee, and the notorious Simon Girty, “inflamed their savage minds to mischief, and led them to execute every diabolical scheme.”

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