Topic: Chiefs

Biography of Bloody Knife

A famous Arikara warrior and chief, who was long in the Government service. His father was a Hunkpapa Sioux and his mother an Arikara. He was born on the Hunkpapa Reservation, North Dakota, but as he approached manhood his mother determined to return to her people and he accompanied her. Prior to the building of the Northern Pacific R. R. the mail for Ft Stevenson, North Dakota, and other Missouri River points, was carried overland from Ft Totten. The high country east of the Missouri was at that time a hunting ground for hostile Sioux who had been driven...

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Yakima Chiefs Owhi and Qualchien

“Headquarters Expedition Against Northern Indians, Camp on the Ned-Whauld (Lahtoo) River, W. T., September 24, 1858. Sir: At sunset last evening the Yakima chief Ow-hi presented himself before me. He came from the lower Spokane River, and told me that he had left his son, Qual-chew, at that place. I had some dealings with this chief, Ow-hi, when I was on my Yakima campaign in 1856. He came to me when I was encamped on the Nah-chess River, and expressed great anxiety for peace, and promised to bring in all his people at the end of seven days. He did not keep his word, but fled over the mountains. I pursued him and he left the country. I have never seen him from that time until last evening. In all this time he has been considered as semi-hostile, and no reliance could be placed on him. This man Qual-chew, spoken of above, is the son of Ow-hi. His history, for three years past, is too well known to need recapitulation. He has been actively engaged in all the murders, robberies, and attacks upon the white people since 1855, both east and west of the Cascade Mountains. He was with the party who attacked the miners on the We-nat-che river in June last, and was severely wounded; but recovering rapidly he has since been committing assaults on our people whenever...

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Biography of Captain Jack – Kintpuash

Kintpuash ‘having the water-brash’ – Gatschet; also spelled Keiutpoos, but commonly known as Captain Jack. A subchief of the Modoc on the Oregon-California border, and leader of the hostile element in the Modoc war of 1872-73. The Modoc, a warlike and aggressive offshoot front the Klamath tribe of south east Oregon, occupied the territory immediately to the south of the latter, extending across the California border and including the Lost River Country and the famous Lava-bed region. They had been particularly hostile to the whites up to 1864, when, under the head chief Sconchin, they made a treaty agreeing to go upon a reservation established on Upper Klamath Lake jointly for them and the Klamath tribe. The treaty remained unratified for several years, and the meantime Jack, with a dissatisfied band numbering nearly half the tribe and including about 70 fighting men, continued to rove about the Lost River Country, committing frequent depredations and terrorizing the settlers. He claimed as his authority for remaining, in spite of the treaty, a permission given by an Indian agent on the California side. With some difficulty he was finally induced in the spring of 1870 to go with his band upon the reservation, where the rest of the tribe was already established under Sconchin. He remained but a short time, however, and soon left after killing an Indian doctor, who, he said,...

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Seneca Indian Chiefs and Leaders

Blacksnake Blacksnake (Thaonawyuthe, ‘needle or awl breaker’). A chief, about the close of the 18th century, of the Seneca Indians, who lived on their reservation along the Alleghany River in Cattaraugus County, New York. His residence was a mile above the village of Cold Spring. The date of his birth is not known, but is supposed to have been about 1760, as it is stated that in 1856 he had reached the age of 96 years. He was present on the English side at the battle of Oriskany, N. Y., in 1777, and it is said that he participated in the Wyoming massacre of 1778, but he fought on the American side in the battle of Ft George, New York, August 17, 1813. He died in 1859.   Farmer’s Brother Farmer’s Brother. A Seneca chief, known among his people as Honanyawus, of vulgar meaning, born in 1716, or 1718, or 1732, according to varying authorities; died in 1814 1Drake, Biog. and Hist. Inds., Bk. V, 108, 1837; Haines, Am. Indian, 579, 1888 . He is often mentioned in connection with Red Jacket, but does not appear to have come into prominence until about 1792. One of his most celebrated speeches was delivered before a council at Genesee River, New York, in 1798. He signed the treaties of Genesee, September 15, 1797, and Buffalo Creek, June 30, 1802. He espoused the...

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Powhatan Indian Chiefs and Leaders

Chanco Chanco. A Powhatan Indian of Virginia who gave timely warning to the English of the intended massacre by Opechancanough, in Mar., 1622, thus pre serving a number of lives. Drake, Bk. Inds., 361, 1880.   Opechancanough Opechancanough. A Powhatan chief, born about 1545, died in 1644. He captured Capt. John Smith shortly after the arrival of the latter in Virginia, and took him to his brother, the head-chief Powhatan (q. v.). Some time after his release, Smith, in order to change the temper of the Indians, who jeered at the starving Englishmen and refused to sell them food, went with a band of his men to Opechancanough’s camp under pretense of buying corn, seized the chief by the hair, and at the point of a pistol marched him off a prisoner. The Pamunkey brought boat-loads of provisions to ransom their chief, who thereafter entertained more respect and deeper hatred for the English. While Powhatan lived Opechancanough was held in restraint, but after his brother’s death in 1618 he became the dominant leader of the nation, although his other brother, Opitchapan, was the nominal head-chief. He plotted the destruction of the colony so secretly that only one Indian, the Christian Chanco, revealed the conspiracy, but too late to save the people of Jamestown, who at a sudden signal were massacred, Mar. 22, 1622, by the natives deemed to be...

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Mohawk Indian Chiefs and Leaders

Onasakenrat, Joseph Onasakenrat (‘White Feather’) , Joseph. A Mohawk chief, noted for his translations of religious works into his native language. He was born on his father’s farm, near Oka, Canada, Sept. 4, 1845; at 14 years of age he was sent to Montreal College to be educated for the priesthood, remaining there about 4 years. He was afterward converted to Protestantism and became an evangelical preacher. On June 15, 1877, the Catholic church of Oka was burned, and Chief Joseph was tried for the offense, but was not convicted. He died suddenly, Feb. 8, 1881, at Caughnawaga. Among...

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Captain Jack, Modoc Indian Tribe

The famous warrior, more correctly called Keiutpoos, was born about the year 1840. Little is known of his early history. His fame rests upon his desperate fighting in the lava beds in the winter of 1872-73. In some respects the most extraordinary warrior in the annals of Indian fighting, it is yet a very difficult matter to decide whether Keiutpoos is to be regarded as an accident or a veritable Indian Hannibal. The location of that war was so singular, the forces of the Indians so small in comparison with those of the Whites, the slaughter of the latter so great and so unaccountable. The deliberate treachery of the Indians towards Canby and Thomas so coldly diabolical, the cost of exterminating the little band of savages so vast, and the final execution of Jack and his men so coolly and laconically met, that the attention of every read of history has been enchained; and, even with the execration which we must all feel for the atrocities of that savage band, we cannot avoid a lurking admiration for their amazing energy and daring. At the time of his execution Jack was apparently thirty-four or thirty-five years old, small of stature, with a large head, shaggy hair, and restless, piercing eyes. There was little in him to show his tiger blood, though the remark that he made to one of the...

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Massachuset Indian Chiefs and Leaders

Attacks, Crispus Attacks, Crispus. An Indian-Negro half-blood of Framingham, Massachusetts, near Boston, noted as the leader and first person slain in the Boston massacre of Mar. 5, 1770, the first hostile encounter between the Americans and the British troops, and therefore regarded by historians as the opening fight of the great Revolutionary struggle. In consequence of the resistance of the people of Boston to the enforcement of the recent tax laws a detachment of British troops had been stationed in the town, to the great irritation of the citizens. On Mar. 5 this feeling culminated in an attack on the troops, in front of the old State House, by a crowd made up largely of sailors, and said to have been led by Attucks, although this assertion has been denied by some. The troops retaliated by firing into the party, killing four men, of whom Attucks was the first to fall. A monument to his memory was erected in Boston Common by the commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1888. Although the facts in regard to his personality are disputed, the evidence goes to show that Attucks was a sailor, almost a giant in stature, the son of a Negro father and an Indian mother of Framingham, or the neighboring village of Natick, formerly the principal Indian mission settlement of Massachusetts. The name Attucks, derived from his mother, appears to be...

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Biography of Black Hawk

Black Hawk (Ma´katawimeshekā´käa, from ma´katäwi ‘it is black, mishi ‘big,’ kā´käa the name referring to the description of a bird, or sparrow hawk.­ W. J.) A subordinate chief of the Sauk and Fox Indians and leader in the Black Hawk wars of 1832. He was born at the Sauk village at the mouth of Rock River, Illinois, in 1767, and belonged to the Thunder gens of the Sauk tribe. When only 15 years of age he distinguished himself in war; and before he was 17, at the head of a war party of young men, he attacked an Osage camp...

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Arikara Indian Chiefs and Leaders

The following are biographies of Arikara Indian Chiefs and Leaders. Biography of Bloody Knife A famous Arikara warrior and chief, who was long in the Government service. His father was a Hunkpapa Sioux and his mother an Arikara. He was born on the Hunkpapa Reservation, North...

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Mohegan Indian Chiefs and Leaders

Occom, Samson Occom, Samson, A Christian convert, called “the pious Mohegan,” born in 1723. Converted to Christianity under the influence of Rev. E. Wheelock in 1741, he received in the family of that minister a good education, learning to speak and to write English and obtain in some knowledge of Latin and Greek; and even of Hebrew. Owing to ill health he did not complete the collegiate instruction intended for him. He was successively a school teacher in New London, Conn. (1748); preacher to the Indians of Long Island for some ten years; agent in England (1766-67) for Mr. Wheelock’s newly established school, where he preached with great acceptance and success; minister of the Brotherton Indians, as those Mahican were called who removed to the Oneida country in the state of New York (1786). On his death at New Stockbridge, N. Y., in 1792, Occom was greatly lamented. He is said to have been an interesting and eloquent speaker, and while in England delivered some 300 sermons. A funeral sermon on Moses Paul, a Mahican executed for murder in 1711, has been preserved in printed form. Occom was the author of the hymn beginning “Awaked by Sinai’s Awful Sound,” and of another, “Now the Shades of Night are Gone,” which gave Bishop Huntington delight that the thought of an Indian was made part of the worship of the Episcopal...

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Oneida Chief Shikellamy

With To-re-wa-wa-kon ‘Paul Wallace’ as a guide, the Mohawks headed over a road, that once was an Indian trail, toward the north. Their route was over a beautiful country of hills and valleys. With their friend they soon reached the beautiful Susquehanna River Valley. At Sunbury, Pa. they visited the site of the cabin of old Chief Shikellamy. It was here that the great Oneida chief, the overseer of Vice-Gerent of the Delaware and other refugee Indians of the region lived. This was where his village, Shamokin, was located and where be spent most of his time from 1728...

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Grave Of Tenh-Wen-Nyos, Governor Blacksnake, Allegany Reserve

Leaving the monument of Pauline Johnson, the Mohawks headed for the nearby City of Brantford. There in one of the city parks they saw a gigantic monument, said to be the largest in Canada, erected to the Mohawk Chief, Thayendangea. The inscription on this monument was as follows: “The last resting place of Tenh-wen-nyos ‘Awl Breaker’ Governor Blacksnake, born 1737-died 1859-One of the greatest War-Chiefs of the Seneca Nation, warmly espoused the American Cause in struggle of 1776-Devoted his later years to work among his people-Absolutely honest and truthful and enjoying entire confidence of Indian and Paleface, Erected by...

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