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Topic: Apache

Jicarilla Apache Tribe

Jicarilla (Mexican Spanish: `little basket’). An Athapascan tribe, first so called by Spaniards because of their expertness in making vessels of basketry. They apparently formed a part of the Vaqueros of early Spanish chronicles, although, according to their creation legend, they have occupied from the earliest period the mountainous region of southeast Colorado and northern New Mexico, their range at various periods extending eastward to western Kansas and Oklahoma, and into northwest Texas. The Arkansas, Rio Grande, and Canadian Rivers figure in their genesis myth 1Mooney in Am. Anthrop., XI, 200, 1898 , but their traditions seem to center about Taos and the heads of Arkansas River. They regard the kindred Mescaleros and also the Navaho as enemies, and, according to Mooney, their alliances and blood mixture have been with the Ute and Taos. In language they are more closely related to the Mescaleros than to the Navaho or the Arizona Apache. The Jicarillas were first mentioned by this name early in the 18th century. Later, their different bands were designated Carlanes, Calchufines, Quartelejos, etc., after their habitat or chieftains. Jicarillo Apache History The Spaniards established a mission among there within a few leagues of Taos, North Alex., in 1733, which prospered for only a short time. They were regarded as a worthless people by both the Spanish settlers of New Mexico and their American successors, in raids for...

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Arivaipa Apache Tribe

Arivaipa Apache Indians, Arivaipa Indians (Nevome Pima: aarirapa, ‘girls,’ possibly applied to these people on account of some unmanly act). An Apache tribe that formerly made its home in the canyon of Arivaipa Creek, a tributary of the Rio San Pedro, south Arizona, although like the Chiricahua and other Apache of Arizona they raided far southward and were reputed to have laid waste every town in northern Mexico as far as the Gila prior to the Gadsden purchase in 1853, and with having exterminated the Sobaipuri, a Piman tribe, in the latter part of the 18th century. In 1863 a company of California volunteers, aided by some friendly Apache, at Old Camp Grant, on the San Pedro, attacked an Arivaipa rancheria at the head of the canyon, killing 58 of the 70 inhabitants, men, women, and children – the women and children being slain by the friendly Indians, the men by the Californians in revenge for their atrocities. After this loss they sued for peace, and their depredations practically ceased. About 1872 they were removed to San Carlos agency, where, with the Pinaleños, apparently their nearest kindred, they numbered 1,051 in 1874. Of this number, however, the Arivaipa formed a very small part. The remnant of the tribe is now under San Carlos and Ft Apache agencies on the White Mountain Reservation, but its population is not separately...

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Chiricahua Apache Tribe

Chiricahua Indians, Chiricahua Apache Indians (Apache: `great mountain’). An important division of the Apache Indians, so called from their former mountain home in southeast Arizona. Their own name is Aiaha. The Chiricahua were the most warlike of the Arizona Indians, their raids extending into New Mexico, south Arizona, and north Sonora, among their most noted leaders being Cochise, Victorio, Loco, Chato, Nahche, Bonito and Geronimo. Physically they do not differ materially from the other Apache. The men are well built, muscular, with well-developed chests, sound and regular teeth, and abundant hair. The women are even more vigorous and strongly built, with broad shoulders and hips and a tendency to corpulency in old age. They habitually wear a pleasant open expression of countenance, exhibiting uniform good nature, save when in anger their face takes on a savage cast. Chiricahua Apache Culture White thought their manner of life, general physique, and mental disposition seemed conducive to long life. Their characteristic long-legged moccasins of deerskin have a stout sole turning up at the toes, and the legs of the moccasins, long enough to reach the thigh, are folded back below the knee, forming a pocket in which are carried paints and a knife. The women wore short skirts of buckskin, and the men used to display surplus skins folded about the waist. Their arrows were made of reed tipped with obsidian or iron,...

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Faraon Apache Tribe

Faraon (‘Pharaoh’) Apache Indians. A tribe of Apache. From references in early Spanish writings to the “Apache hordes of Pharaoh,” it is assumed that the name of the Faraon Apache was thus derived. This tribe, no longer known by name, seems to have formed the south division of the Querecho of Coronado (1541), the Vaqueros of Benavides (1630) and other 17th century writers, and part at least of the Llaneros of more recent times. Their principal range was that part of New Mexico lying between the Rio Grande and the Pecos, although their raids extended beyond this area. Nothing is known of their ethnic relations, but judging from their habitat, they were probably more closely related to the Mescaleros than to ally other of the Apache tribes, if indeed they were not a part of them. They made numerous depredations against the Spanish and Pueblo settlements of the Rio Grande in New Mexico, as well as in Chihuahua, and for a time at least their principal rendezvous was the Sandia mountains in the former territory. Several expeditions were led against them by the Spanish authorities, and treaties of peace were made, but these did not prove to be binding. According to Orozco y Berra 1Orozco y Berra, Geog., 59, 1864 their divisions were Ancavistis, Jacomis, Orejones, Carlanes, and Cuampes, but of these the Carlanes at least belonged to the...

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Apache Chiefs and Leaders

Geronimo Geronimo (Spanish for Jerome, applied by the Mexicans as a nickname; native name Goyathlay, `one who yawns’). A medicine man and prophet of the Chiricahua Apache who, in the latter part of the 19th century, acquired notoriety through his opposition to the authorities and by systematic and sensational advertising; born about 1834 at the headwaters of Gila River, New Mexico, near old Ft Tulerosa. His father was Taklishim, ‘The Gray One,’ who was not a chief, although his father (Geronimo’s grandfather) assumed to be a chief without heredity or election. Geronimo’s mother was known as Juana. When it...

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Apache Tribe

Apache Indians (probably from ápachu, ‘enemy,’ the Zuñi name for the Navaho, who were designated “Apaches de Nabaju” by the early Spaniards in New Mexico). A number of tribes forming the most southerly group of the Athapascan family. The name has been applied also to some unrelated Yuman tribes, as the Apache Mohave (Yavapai) and Apache Yuma. The Apache call themselves N’de, Dĭnë, Tĭnde, or Inde, `people.’ They were evidently not so numerous about the beginning of the 17th century as in recent times, their numbers apparently having been increased by captives from other tribes, particularly the Pueblos, Pima, Papago, and other peaceful Indians, as well as from the settlements of northern Mexico that were gradually established within the territory raided by them, although recent measurements by Hrdlicka seem to indicate unusual freedom from foreign admixture. They were first mentioned as Apaches by Oñate in 1598, although Coronado, in 1541, met the Querechos (the Vaqueros of Benavides, and probably the Jicarillas and Mescaleros of modern times) on the plains of east New Mexico and west Texas: but there is no evidence that the Apache reached so far west as Arizona until after the middle of the 16th century. From the time of the Spanish colonization of New Mexico until within twenty years they have been noted for their warlike disposition, raiding white and Indian settlements alike, extending their depredations...

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Condition of the Alabama Indians in 1890

Total Indian Population As Of June 1, 1890 Reservation Indians, not taxed (not counted in the general census): Males…….149 Females….235 Total………384 Indians self-supporting, taxed (counted in the general census): Males…….338 Females….421 Total………759 Grand Total 1,148 The civilized (self-supporting) Indians of Alabama, counted in the general census, number 759, 338 males and 421 females, and are distributed as follows: Autauga County, 116 Escambia County, 173 Mobile County, 4023 other counties with 8 or less in each, 68. The mode of life of these Indians is akin to that of their neighbors of small property. Among them are the descendants of Creek, Cherokee, Chickasaw, and Mobile Indians, more or less affected by white and Negro blood. The reservation Indians not taxed are a band known as Geronimo’s band of Apaches removed from their former homes in Arizona as prisoners of war, and who, after some changes of location, were finally placed at Mount Vernon barracks, situated 28 miles north of Mobile and one-half mile from the railroad station whence the barracks takes its name. Forty-six of the original number were enlisted in Company I of the Twelfth infantry, and are on duty at the barracks. There has been a great improvement in their condition. Each family is living in a comfortable home, they are cleanly, and have adopted the civilized style of dress. There is a good school adjacent, and children...

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Signals – Smoke Signals of the Apaches – Sign Language

The following information was obtained by Dr. W.J. Hoffman from the Apache chiefs under the title of Tinnean, (Apache I): The materials used in making smoke of sufficient density and color consist of pine or cedar boughs, leaves and grass, which can nearly always be obtained in the regions occupied by the Apaches of Northern New Mexico. These Indians state that they employ but three kinds of signals, each of which consists of columns of smoke, numbering from one to three or more. Alarm This signal is made by causing three or more columns of smoke to ascend, and signifies danger or the approach of an enemy, and also requires the concentration of those who see them. These signals are communicated from one camp to another, and the most distant bands are guided by their location. The greater the haste desired the greater the number of columns of smoke. These are often so hastily made that they may resemble puffs of smoke, and are caused by throwing heaps of grass and leaves upon the embers again and again. Attention This signal is generally made by producing one continuous column, and signifies attention for several purposes, viz, when a band had become tired of one locality, or the grass may have been consumed by the ponies, or some other cause necessitated removal, or should an enemy be reported, which would...

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Apache Wickiup

During the late 1800s, certain bands of the Apache Indians of Arizona and New Mexico were able to tie down large numbers of United States and Mexican soldiers while living in the most primitive of dwellings – the wickiup. What is particularly interesting about their huts is that its appearance was probably identical to the housing used by most Native Americans 5000 years ago. In fact, the indigenous people of New England were still living in very similar huts when the Pilgrims arrived on the Mayflower. One can not imagine how cold those huts were in the winter. Unlike...

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Apache Indian Tribe Photo Descriptions

One of the most numerous branches of Athabascan stock are the Apaches, a fierce, nomadic nation, roaming over the Territories of New Mexico and Arizona, and Sonora and Chihuahua. Always a scourge and a terror to settlers, they have held in check for many years the civilization of the country covered by their depredations. In 1831 Gregg wrote of them: “They are the most extensive and powerful, and yet the most vagrant, of all the savage nations that inhabit the interior of Northern Mexico. They are supposed to number 15,000 souls, although they are subdivided into various petty bands and are scattered over an immense tract of country. They never construct houses, but live in the ordinary wigwam or tent of skins and blankets. They manufacture nothing, cultivate nothing. They seldom resort to the chase, as their country is destitute of game, but seem to depend entirely upon pillage for the sup port of their immense population, at least 2,000 of which are warriors.” Steadily resisting all attempts at conversion from the missionaries, they gathered about them many of the disaffected tribes and made frequent descents upon missions and towns, ravaging, destroying, and completely depopulating many of them. Since the annexation of their territory to the United States they have caused much trouble, and an almost constant war fare has been kept up against them until quite recently. Successful...

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