Topic: Algonquian

Shinnecock Tribe

Shinnecock Indians. An Algonquian tribe or band on Long Island, New York, formerly occupying the south coast from Shinnecock Bay to Montauk Point. Many of them joined the Brotherton Indians in New York. About 150 still remain on a reservation of 750 acres, 3 miles west of Southampton, having intermarried with Negroes until their aboriginal character is almost obliterated. Nowedonah, brother of the noted Wyandanch, was once their chief, and on his death his sister, wife of Cockenoe, became his successor. In Dec. 1876, 28 Shinnecock men lost their lives in an attempt to save a ship stranded off Easthampton, since which time a number, especially the younger people, have left the reservation and become scattered. They have a Presbyterian and an Adventist church; the men gain a livelihood by employment as farm-hands, baymen, berrypickers, etc., and the women as laundresses. A few families make and sell baskets and a sort of brush made of oak splints; there is almost no agriculture. They have lost all their old customs, and but few words of their native language survive even in the memory of the oldest people, although it was in more or less general use 60 or 70 years ago. For Further Study The following articles and manuscripts will shed additional light on the Shinnecock as both an ethnological study, and as a people. Consult: Harrington in Jour. Am....

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Algonquian Family

Early in the seventeenth century, the Algonkin were the largest family of North American Indians within the present limits of the United States, extending from Newfoundland to the Mississippi, and from the waters of the Ohio to Hudson’s Bay and Lake Winnipeg. Northeast and northwest of them were the Eskimos and the Athabasca; the Dakotas bounded them on the west, and the Mobilian tribes, Catawba, Natchez, &c., on the south. Within this region also dwelt the Iroquois and many detached tribes from other families. All the tribes of the Algonkin were nomadic, shifting from place to place as the fishing and hunting upon which they depended required. There has been some difficulty in properly locating the tribe from which the family has taken its name, but it is generally believed they lived on the Ottawa River, in Canada, where they were nearly exterminated by their enemies, the Iroquois. The only remnant of the tribe at this time is at the Lake of the Two Mountains. Of the large number of tribes forming this family, many are now extinct, others so reduced and merged into neighboring tribes as to be lost, while nearly all of the rest have been re moved far from their original hunting-grounds. The Lenni Lenape, from the Delaware, are now leading a civilized life far out on the great plains west of the Missouri, and with...

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Pequot Indian War

The Pequot and their traditional enemies, the Mohegan, were at one time a single socio-political entity. Anthropologists and historians contend that sometime before contact with the Puritan English, the Pequot split into the two competing groups. In the 1630s, the Connecticut River Valley was in turmoil. The Pequot aggressively worked to extend their area of control, at the expense of the Wampanoag to the north, the Narragansett to the east, the Connecticut River Valley Algonquians and Mohegan to the west, and the Algonquian people of present-day Long Island to the south. The tribes contended for political dominance and control of the European fur trade. A series of smallpox epidemics over the course of the previous three decades had severely reduced the Indian populations, due to their lack of immunity to the disease. As a result, there was a power vacuum in the area. The Dutch and the English were also striving to extend the reach of their trade into the interior to achieve dominance in the lush, fertile region. By 1636, the Dutch had fortified their trading post, and the English had built a trading fort at Saybrook. English Puritans from Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies settled at the newly established river towns of Windsor, Hartford and Wethersfield. 1634-1638 Indian Tribes Pequot Tribe (contr. of Paquatauog, ‘destroyers.’- Trumbull). An Algonquian tribe of Connecticut. Before their conquest by the English...

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Iroquoian Peoples resulted in the separation of the Siouan and Algonquian Tribes

Many of the protected sites may have been constructed and occupied by the Iroquoian tribes during the movement northward, and consequently a comparative study of the archeological material recovered from them should prove to be of the greatest interest. If this hypothesis is correct, it is probable that before the Iroquoian tribes had reached the left bank of the Ohio the Siouan peoples were living in security in the upper valley of the stream. The great majority were north of the river, but others, including the Catawba, may have been south of the Ohio in the mountains to the eastward. The...

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Linguistic Groups at the beginning of the Sixteenth Century

The groups of tribes continued to move, and by the beginning of the sixteenth century they were located approximately as indicated on tile last map. The Iroquoian tribes had moved far eastward, and some occupied the country south of the St. Lawrence. The Hurons had settled north of Niagara, and the Eries remained south of the lake that bears their name. The Cherokee had become established far south in the Alleghenies, with Uchean tribes to the west of them. The Siouan peoples had scattered far from their ancient homes in the valley of the Ohio Some had traversed the...

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Iroquoian and Muskhogean Tribes after arrival East of the Mississippi

The fertile valleys of Tennessee and Kentucky present more convincing evidence of having been occupied by a great number of tribes, at different times, than does any other section of the southeastern United States. Many of the tribes differed in manners and customs, as indicated by the great variety of archeological material recovered front the innumerable sites. During the migratory movements as theoretically expressed on the maps, the present States of Tennessee and Kentucky were crossed and re-crossed by many tribes, representing the historic Siouan, Uchean, Iroquoian, and Muskhogean stocks, while probably at an early time, and certainly at...

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Linguistic Stocks During the Earliest Period Migrations

Map Intended to Visualize the Position of the Several Linguistic Stocks During the Earliest Period Considered in this page. The Algonquian tribes are believed to have come from the far northwest and to have skirted the shores of the Great Lakes before reaching the country farther south. At their first coining, long before the Iroquoian peoples had arrived in the regions south of the St. Lawrence, some tribes of the Algonquian stock appear to have penetrated far south along the mountains into Tennessee or beyond, while others pushed onward into the piedmont sections of the present Virginia and of the Carolinas.

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