Topic: Algonquian

Chowanoc Indians

Chowanoc Tribe: Meaning in Algonquian “(people) at the south.” Chowanoc Connections. The Chowanoc belonged to the Algonquian linguistic family and were evidently most nearly allied to the other North Carolina Algonquians. Chowanoc Location. On Chowan River about the junction of Meherrin and Blackwater Rivers. Chowanoc Villages Catoking, (probably) near Gatesville, in Gates County. Maraton, on the east bank of Chowan River in Chowan County. Metocaum, on Chowan River in the present Bertie County. Ohanoak, on the west side of Chowan River not far below Nottoway River probably in Hertford County. Ramushonok, apparently between the Meherrin and Nottoway Rivers in Hertford County. Chowanoc History. In 1584-85, when first known to Europeans, the Chowanoc were the leading tribe in northeastern North Carolina. In 1663 they entered into a treaty with the English by which they submitted to the English Crown, but they violated this in 1675 and after a year of warfare were compelled to confine themselves to a reservation on Bennett’s Creek which became reduced by 1707 from 12 square miles to 6. They sided with the colonists in the Tuscarora War, and at about the same time were visited by a Church of England missionary, Giles Rainsford. In 1723 a reservation of 53,000 acres was set aside for them conjointly with the Tuscarora and in 1733 they were given permission to incorporate with that tribe. They continued to decline...

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Coree Indians

Coree tribe, or Coranine Tribe, Coranine Indians. Meaning unknown. Coree Connections. As the final stage of the Coree existence was passed with an Algonquian tribe, some have thought that the affiliations of  this people were also Algonquian. On the other hand Lawson (1860) that notes that their language and that of a tribe to the north were mutually intelligible and there is a reason for thinking that this northern tribe belonged to the Iroquois Confederacy. At least the Coree were closely associated in many ways with the Iroquoian Tuscarora. Coree Location. On the peninsula south of Neuse River in Carteret an Craven Counties. Coree Villages Coranine, probably on the coast in Carteret County. Narhantes, among the Tuscarora, 30 miles from Newbern. Raruta, probably on the coast of Carteret County, south of Neuse River. Coree History. When the Coree and the Whites first met is unknown, but they appear in the records of the Raleigh colony under the name Cwarennoc. They were greatly reduced before 1696 in a war with another people. They took part with the Tuscarora in their war against the colonists, and in 1715 the remnant of them and what was left of the Machapunga were assigned a reservation on Mattamuskeet Lake in Hyde County, where they occupied one village, probably until they became extinct. A few of them appear to have remained with the Tuscarora. Coree...

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Hatteras Indians

Hatteras Tribe: Meaning unknown. Linguistic Connections – The Hatteras belonged to the Algonquian linguistic family. Hatteras Location. Among the sandbanks about Cape Hatteras east of Pamlico Sound and frequenting Roanoke Island. Hatteras Village. Sandbanks, on Hatteras Island. Hatteras History. Lawson (1860) thought the Hatteras showed traces of White blood and therefore they may have been the Croatan Indians with whom Raleigh’s colonists are supposed to have taken refuge. They disappeared soon after as a distinct tribe and united with the mainland Algonquians. In 1761, the Rev. Alex. Stewart baptized 7 Indians and mixed-blood children of the” Attamuskeet, Hatteras, and Roanoke” tribes and 2 years later he baptized 21 more. Hatteras Population. The Hatteras population has been estimated with the Machapunga and other tribes at 1,200 in 1600; they had 16 warriors in 1701, or a total population of about 80. Connection in which they have become noted. The possible connection of the Hatteras with the Croatan has been mentioned and their name has become perpetuated in the dangerous cape at the angle of the outer sand islands of their old...

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Machapunga Indians

Machapunga Tribe: Said to mean “bad dust,” or “much dirt,” in the native Algonquian language. Machapunga Connections. The Machapunga belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock. Machapunga Location. In the present Hyde County and probably also in Washington, Tyrrell and Dare Counties, and part of Beaufort. Machapunga Villages. The only village named is Mattamuskeet (probably on Mattamuskeet Lake in Hyde County). However, we should probably add Secotan on the north bank of Pamlico River in Beaufort County, and perhaps the town of the Bear River Indians. Machapunga History. The Machapunga seem to have embraced the larger part of the descendants of the Secotan, who lived between Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds when the Raleigh colony was established on Roanoke Island (1585-86) though the Pamlico may also have been included under the same head. They were reduced to a single village by 1701, took part with other Indian tribes of the region in the Tuscarora War, and at its close were settled on Mattamuskeet Lake with the Coree. In 1761 a small number were still living in North Carolina, evidently at the same place, and the Rev. Alex. Stewart reported that he had baptized seven Indian and mixed-blood children belonging to the “Attamuskeet, Hatteras, and Roanoke.” On a second visit 2 years later he baptized 21 more. Machapunga Population. The Machapunga are estimated by Mooney (1928) to have numbered 1,200, including some...

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Moratoc Indians

Moratok Tribe, Moratok Indians (Moratoc Tribe). A place name, but the meaning otherwise unknown. Moratoc Connections. There is little doubt that the Moratok belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock and were closely related to the other Algonquian tribes of the sound region of North Carolina. Moratoc Location. On Roanoke River and apparently on the north side, and estimated to be 160 miles up the river, though the distance is evidently reckoned from the Raleigh settlement on Roanoke Island Moratoc Villages. The village bearing the name of the tribe is the only one known. Moratoc History. The sole mention of the Moratok is in the narratives of the Raleigh expeditions. They were first recognized as an independent tribe by Mr. Maurice Mook (1943 a). Moratoc Population. Unknown but reported as...

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Pamlico Indians

Pamlico Tribe: Meaning unknown. Pamlico Connections. The Pamlico belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock. Pamlico Location. On Pamlico River. Pamlico History. The Pamlico are mentioned by the Raleigh colonists in 1585-86 under the name Pomouik. In 1696 they were almost destroyed by smallpox. In 1701 Lawson recorded a vocabulary from them which shows their affiliations to have been as given above (Lawson, 1860). In 1710 they lived in a single small village. They took part in the Tuscarora war, and at its close that part of the Tuscarora under treaty with the English agreed to destroy them. A remnant of the Pamlico was probably incorporated by the Tuscarora as slaves. Pamlico Population. The Pamlico are estimated by Mooney (1928), together with “Bear River” Indians, as 1,000 in 1600. In 1710 they numbered about 75. Connection in which they have become noted. The Pamlico have given their name to or shared it with the largest sound in North Carolina and a North Carolina county. They are also noteworthy as having been almost if not quite the most southerly Algonquian tribe on the Atlantic seaboard, and the most southerly one from which a vocabulary has been...

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Weapemeoc Indians

Weapemeoc Tribe: Meaning unknown, but evidently a place name. Also called: Yeopim, a shortened and more usual form. Weapemeoc Connections. The Weapemeoc were almost certainly of the Algonquian linguistic family and related to the Powhatan Indians the north and the Chowan, Machapunga, and Pamlico to the south. Weapemeoc Location. Most of the present Currituck, Camden, Pasquotank, and Perquimans Counties, and part of Chowan County north of Albemarle Sound. Weapemeoc Subdivisions. In the same section in later times are given the following tribes which must be regarded as subdivisions of the Weapemeoc: Pasquotank, on Pasquotank River. Perquiman, on Perquimans River. Poteskeet, location uncertain. Yeopim, or Weapemeoc proper, on Yeopim River. Weapemeoc Villages Chepanoc, on Albemarle Sound in Perquimans County. Mascoming, on the north shore of Albemarle Sound, in Chowan County. Metachkwem, location unknown. Pasquenock, perhaps identical with Pasquotank, on the north shore of Albemarle Sound, perhaps in Camden County. Weapemeoc, probably in Pasquotank County. Weapemeoc History. The Weapemeoc first appear in history in the narratives of the Raleigh colony of 1585-86. Later they are spoken of under the various subdivisional names. They parted with some of their land in 1662. In 1701, according to Lawson (1860), only 6 of the Yeopim survived though there were 40 warriors of the other subdivisions, including 10 Pasquotank and 30 Potekeet. Weapemeoc Population. In the time of the Raleigh colony the Weapemeoc are said...

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Villages of the Algonquian, Siouan and Caddoan Tribes West of the Mississippi

Life on the prairies or mountains with the best built house had to be hard for our ancestors, but consider the Indians of the 1800’s. With few implements, or tools, they constructed their homes from their surroundings. David Bushnell, provides a vivid picture of the traditional homes, hunting camps, and travels of the Algonquian, Caddoan and Siouan tribes. Even without the photos and drawings, all of which are included here, Bushnell paints a picture of these tribes life and culture with his words.

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Western Niantic Tribe

Western Niantic Indians. An Algonquian tribe formerly occupying the coast of Connecticut from Niantic bay to the Connecticut river. De Forest concluded that they once formed one tribe with the Rhode Island Niantic, which was cut in two by the Pequot invasion. Their principal village, also called Niantic, was near the present town of that name. They were subject to the Pequot, and had no political connection with the eastern Niantic. They were nearly destroyed in the Pequot war of 1637, and at its close the survivors were placed under the rule of the Mohegan. They numbered about 100 in 1638, and about 85 in 1761. Many joined the Brotherton Indians in New York about 1788, and none now exist under their own name. Kendall 1Kendall, Tray., 1809 states that they had a small village near Danbury in 1809, but these were probably a remnant of the western Connecticut tribes, not Niantic. According to Speck 2Speck, inf’n, 1907 several mixed Niantic Mohegan live at Mohegan, Connecticut, the descendants of a pure Niantic woman from the mouth of Niantic river. Their voices are commonly said to have been high-pitched in comparison with those of their neighbors. Footnotes:   [ + ] 1. ↩ Kendall, Tray., 1809 2. ↩ Speck, inf’n,...

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Narraganset Tribe

Narraganset Indians (‘people of the small point,’ from naiagans, diminutive of naiag, ‘small point of land,’ with locative ending -et). An Algonquian tribe, formerly one of the leading tribes of New England. west of Narragansett Bay, including the Niantic territory, form Providence River on the northeast to Pawcatuck River on the southwest.  On the northwest they claimed control over a part of the country of the Coweset and Nipmuc, and on the southwest they claimed by conquest form the Pequot a strip extending to the Connecticut line. They also owned most of the islands in the bay, some of which had been conquered from the Wampanoag. The Niantic, living in the western part of the country, were a subordinate tribe who became merged with the Narraganset after King Philip’s war. The Narraganset escaped the great pestilence that in 1617 desolated the southern New England coast, and, being joined by numbers of the fugitives from the east, became a strong tribe. The early estimates, as usual, greatly exaggerate, but it is certain that they numbered, including their dependents, several thousand when first known to the whites. In 1633 they lost 700 by smallpox, but in 1674 they still numbered about 5,000. The next year saw the outbreak of King Philip’s War, which involved all the neighboring tribes and resulted in the destruction of the Indian power in southern New England....

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Eastern Niantic Tribe

Niantic Indians (contr. of Naïantukq-ut ‘at a point of land on a [tidal] river or estuary.’ Trumbull) An Algonquian tribe formerly occupying the coast of Rhode Island from Narragansett Bay to about the Connecticut state line.  Their principal village, Wekapaug, was on the great pond near Charlestown.  They were closely connected with the Narraganset forming practically one tribe with them. By refusing to join in King Philip’s war in 1675 they preserved their territory and tribal organization and at the close of the war the Narraganset who submitted to the English were placed with the Niantic under Ninigret, and the whole body thenceforth took the name of...

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Montagnais Tribe

Montagnais Indians, Montagnais People, Montagnais First Nation (French ‘mountaineers’, from the mountainous character of their country). A group of closely related Algonquian tribes in Canada, extending from about St Maurice river almost to the Atlantic, and from the St Lawrence to the watershed of Hudson bay. The tribes of the group speak several well-marked dialects. They are the Astouregamigoukh, Attikiriniouetch, Bersiamite, Chisedec, Escoumains, Espamichkon, Kakouchaki, Mauthaepi, Miskouaha, Mouchaouaouastiirinioek, Nascapee, Nekoubaniste, Otaguottouemin, Oukesestigouek, Oumamiwek, Papinachois, Tadousac, and Weperigweia. Their linguistic relation appears to be closer with the Cree of Athabasca lake, or Ayabaskawininiwug, than with any other branch of the Algonquian family. Champlain met them at the mouth of the Saguenay in 1603, where they and other Indians were celebrating with bloody rites the capture of Iroquois prisoners. Six years later he united with them the Hurons and Algonkin in an expedition against the Iroquois. In the first Jesuit Relation, written by Biard (1611-16) they are spoken of as friends of the French. From that time their name has a place in Canadian history, though they exerted no decided influence on the settlement and growth of the colony. The first missionary work among them was begun in 1615, and missions were subsequently established on the upper Saguenay and at Lake St John. These were continued, though with occasional and long interruptions, until 1776. The Montagnais fought the Micmac, and often the Eskimo,...

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Micmac Tribe

Micmac Indians, Mi’kmaq First Nation. (Migmak, ‘allies’; Nigmak, ‘our allies.’ Hewitt). Alternative names for the Micmac, which can be found in historical sources, include Gaspesians, Souriquois, Acadians and Tarrantines; in the mid-19th century Silas Rand recorded the word wejebowkwejik as a self-ascription. 1McGee, Harold Franklin, Jr. Micmac-Mi’kmaq, published online in The Canadian Encyclopedia, 2012. An important Algonquian tribe that occupied Nova Scotia, Cape Breton and Prince Edward Islands, the north part of New Brunswick, and probably points in south and west Newfoundland. While their neighbors the Abnaki have close linguistic relations with the Algonquian tribes of the great lakes, the Micmac...

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Miami Tribe

Miami Indians (Chippewa: Omaumeg, ‘people who live on the peninsula’). An Algonquian tribe, usually designated by early English writers as Twightwees (twanhtwanh, the cry of a crane. Hewitt), from their own name, the earliest recorded notice of which is from information furnished in 1658 by Gabriel Druillettes 1Jes. Rel.1658, 21, 1858, who called them the Oumamik, then living 60 leagues froth St. Michel, the first village of the Pottawatomi mentioned by him; it, was therefore at or about the mouth of Green Bay, Wisconsin. Tailhan (Perrot, Mémoire) says that they withdrew into the Mississippi valley, 60 leagues from the bay, and were established there from 1657 to 1676, although Bacqueville de la Potherie asserts that, with the Mascoutens, the Kickapoo, and part of the Illinois, they came to settle at that place about 1667. The first time the French came into actual contact with the Miami was when Perrot visited them about 1668. His second visit was in 1670, when they were living at the headwaters of Fox River, Wis. In 1671 a part at least of the tribe were living with the Mascoutens in a palisaded village in this locality 2Jes. Rel 1671, 45, 1858. Soon after this the Miami part from the Mascoutens and formed news settlements at the south end of Lake Michigan a on Kalamazoo river, Michigan. The settlement at the south end of the...

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