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Topic: Abenaki

Indian Wars of New England

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now To the student of Indian history of the early New England period the catalog of the librarian would allow one to infer that the ground had been already preempted by Mr. William Hubbard and some other well-known writers upon the tragedies of the early New England days, whose labors are more famous for being a quaint reflection of the times than for comprehensive treatment of the subject at hand. Without Mr. Drake’s labors, allied to those of Church and Belknap, the earlier story would be a...

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Pequawket Tribe

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Pequawket Indians (a name of disputed etymology, the most probable rendering, according to Gerard, being ‘at the hole in the ground,’ from pekwakik). A tribe of the Abnaki confederacy, formerly living on the headwaters of Saco River and about Lovell’s Pond, in Carroll County, New Hampshire, and Oxford County, Maine. Their principal village, called Pequawket, was about the present Fryeburg, Maine. The tribe is famous for a battle fought in 1725 near the village, between about 50 English under Capt. Lovewell and 80 Indians, the entire force of the tribe, under their chief, Pangus. Both leaders were killed, together with 36 of the English and a large part of the Indian force. By this loss the Pequawket were so weakened that, together with the Arosaguntacook, they soon after withdrew to the sources of Connecticut River. After being there for a short while, the Arosaguntacook removed to St Francis in Canada, while the Pequawket remained on the Connecticut, where they were still living under their chief at the time of the Revolution. Some of them seem to have found their way back to their old home some time after the Lovewell fight. Pequawket Synonmy Pâgwâki. Kendall, Trav., III, 173, 1809 (correct form). Paquakig. Gyles (1726) in Me. Hist. Soc. Coll., III, 358, 1853. Peckwalket. Sullivan in N. H....

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Arosaguntacook Tribe

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Arosaguntacook Indians: A tribe of the Abnaki confederacy, formerly living in Androscoggin County, Maine. Their village, which bore the same name, was on Androscoggin River, probably near Lewiston. The various names used indiscriminately for the tribe and the river may be resolved into the forms Ammoscoggin and Arosaguntacook, which have received different interpretations, all seeming to refer to the presence of fish in the stream . The name seems to have been used only for the part of the river in Androscoggin County between the falls near Jay and those near Lewiston. The present name was obtained by changing the first part of the word to Andros in compliment to Gov. Andros. The Arosaguntacook lived on the edge of the first English settlements in Maine, and consequently suffered much in the various Indian wars, in which they took a prominent part from 1675 until their removal to Canada. Their town was burned by the English in 1690. As the settlements pushed into the interior the Wawenoc, at the mouth of the river, moved up and joined the Arosaguntacook, and at a later period the combined tribes moved still farther up and joined the Rocameca. These movements led to much confusion in the statements of writers, as the united tribes were commonly known by the name of...

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Aucocisco

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now The name of the territory about Casco Bay and Presumpscot River, in the area now included in Cumberland County, Maine. It was also sometimes applied to those Abnaki Indians by whom it was occupied. Since the section was settled at an early date by the whites, the name soon dropped out of use as applied to the Indians, or rather it was changed to “Casco,” but this was a mere local designation, not a tribal distinction, as the Indians referred to were Abnaki. The proper form of the word is given by Willis as Uh-kos-is-co, ‘crane’ or ‘heron,’ the first syllable being guttural. These birds still frequent the bay. It is said by Willis to have been the Indian name of Falmouth (Portland),...

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Penobscot Tribe

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Penobscot Indians (derived by Vetromile from the Pānnawānbskek, ‘it forks on the white rocks,’ or Penaubsket, ‘it flows on rocks’; Godfrey and Ballard practically agree with Vetromile, the name applying directly to the falls at Oldtown, but Ballard says it has also been rendered ‘rock land,’ from penops [penopsc] ‘rock,’ and cöt [ot] locative, applied to the bluff at the mouth of the river near Castine. Gerard gives the aboriginal form as Pěnobskât, lit.’ plenty stones’). A tribe of the Abnaki confederacy (q. v.), closely related in language and customs to the Norridgewock. They are sometimes included in the most numerous tribe of the Abnaki confederacy, and for a time more influential than the Norridgewock. They occupied the country on both sides of Penobscot bay and river, and claimed the entire basin of Penobscot river. Their summer resort was near the sea, but during the winter and spring they inhabited lands near the falls, where they still reside, their principal modern village being Oldtown, on Indian island, a few miles above Bangor, in Penobscot county. A band living on Moosehead Lake, Maine, was popularly known as Moosehead Lake Indians. That Indians of this tribe were encountered by navigators before the middle of the 17th century appears to be certain. Kohl 1Kohl, Discov. East Coast Am., 1869 says...

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Squando

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Squando. An Abnaki sachem of the Sokoki, known generally as the “Sagamore of Saco” He was credited with seeing visions and was called by Mather “a strange, enthusiastical sagamore.” His wife and child had been insulted by the English, and he took part in the war of 1675-76 and in the burning of Saco.  He signed the treaty of...

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Moxus

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Moxus. A chief of the Abnaki, called also Agamagus, the first signer of the treaty of 1699, and seemingly the successor of Madokawandu (Drake, Inds. of N. Am., 294, 1880). He signed also the treaty with Gov. Dudley in 1702, but a year afterward unsuccessfully besieged the English fort at Casco, Me. He treated with the English in 1713, and again in 1717. It was he who in 1689 captured Pemaquid from the...

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Pierre Paul Osunkhirhine

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Osunkhirhine, Pierre Paul. An Abnaki Indian of St Francis, near Pierreville, Quebec, noted for his translations, especially of religious works, into the Penobscot dialect of the Abnaki language, published from 1830 to 1844.  He received a good education at Moore’s Charity School, Hanover N. H. and returned to his home as a Protestant missionary.  In some of his published works 1Pilling, bibliog. Algonquian Language, 539-40, 1891 his name appears as Wzokhilain, because it could not be more exactly transliterated into the Abnaki language. 2Hodge, Handbook of American Indians, vol 2, 162, 1910. Osunkhirhine was licensed to preach in January, 1836, by the Champlain Presbytery, and in the following June, he was ordained as an evangelist to his native tribe. Upon this, the opposition of the papal community was much embittered, and efforts were made to get him removed from the reservation, but the governor refused to interfere. When he commenced his labors, the whole tribe were ignorant and bigoted papists. In 1837, more than 30 persons attended his preaching, all of whom had renounced the Romish church, in spite of the most bitter persecution. From five to twenty children were gathered into a school, according as the people were at home or on their hunting grounds, and three persons, including the wife of Osunkhirhine, had joined...

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Abenaki Chiefs and Leaders

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now The following information concerning the leaders and chiefs of the Abenaki Tribe are collated from various manuscripts. While some of them include little known information, the importance of remembering them requires us to include them on our site. Abbigadasset Aspenquid Assacumbuit Moxus Orono Osunkhirhine, Pierre Paul...

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Abbigadasset

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Abbigadasset,  An Abenaki sachem whose residence was on the coast of Maine near the mouth of Kennebec River. He conveyed tracts of land to Englishmen conjointly with Kennebis.  In 1667 he deeded Swans Island to Humphrey Davy 1Drake, Biography and history of the Indians of North America, bk. 3, 98, 1834. 2Hodge, Handbook of American Indians, 1, 1905. Footnotes:   [ + ] 1. ↩ Drake, Biography and history of the Indians of North America, bk. 3, 98, 1834. 2. ↩ Hodge, Handbook of American Indians, 1,...

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Abenaki Indians

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now At the period of the first settlement of New England by the English, the principal Indian powers located in that territory, were, the Pokanokets, under Massasoit; the Narragansetts, under Canonicus; the Pequot-Algonquins of Connecticut; and the Merrimack, or Pennacook, Bashabary of Amoskeag. Each of these comprised several subordinate tribes, bearing separate names, and, although bound, by both lingual and tribal affinities, to the central tribal government, yet yielding obedience to it in the ordinary loose manner of the local Indian tribes. Each of these tribal circles was ruled by its particular chief, who, although he arrogated to himself the powers and immunities of hereditary descent, yet exercised no absolute controlling influence, beyond what the popular voice allowed him. The colonists were not long in ascertaining who were the principal rulers, nor in taking the necessary measures to conciliate them. Their mode of treating with the Indians was, to assert that the sovereignty and fee simple of the soil were vested in the English crown; but yet to acknowledge the possessory right of the aborigines, by presents, or by purchase, in order to conciliate the local chiefs. When collisions were occasioned by disputed boundaries, or by questions of trade, they were adjusted in councils of both parties. No difficulties of any general moment occurred until the origination...

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Abenaki Tribes in the Merrimac Valley

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now At the period of the first settlement of New England by the English, the principal Indian powers located in that territory, were, the Pokanokets, under Massasoit; the Narragansetts, under Canonicus; the Pequot-Algonquins of Connecticut; and the Merrimack, or Pennacook, bashabary of Amoskeag. Each of these comprised several subordinate tribes, bearing separate names, and, although bound, by both lingual and tribal affinities, to the central tribal government, yet yielding obedience to it in the ordinary loose manner of the local Indian tribes. Each of these tribal circles was ruled by its particular chief, who, although he arrogated to himself the powers and immunities of hereditary descent, yet exercised no absolute controlling influence, beyond what the popular voice allowed him. The colonists were not long in ascertaining who were the principal rulers, nor in taking the necessary measures to conciliate them. Their mode of treating with the Indians was, to assert that the sovereignty and fee simple of the soil were vested in the English crown; but yet to acknowledge the possessory right of the aborigines, by presents, or by purchase, in order to conciliate the local chiefs. When collisions were occasioned by disputed boundaries, or by questions of trade, they were adjusted in councils of both parties. No difficulties of any general moment occurred until the origination...

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