Collection: Bancroft Works

Biography of Bezaleel Freeman Kendall

Bezaleel Freeman Kendall, like Elwood Evans, crossed the continent in 1853 with Stevens. He was a native of Oxford, Maine, and a graduate of Bowdoin College. His talents are highly praised by all his biographers. Evans, who knew him well, says that he possessed a grand physique, was a fine scholar, able writer, powerful speaker, hard student, and of thorough integrity, but ambitions, aristocratic in his feelings, bitter in his prejudices, and indiscreet in his utterances. The newspapers cannot too highly paint his contempt for the opinions of others, his bitterness of expression, his unqualified style of assault upon any with whom he differed. He carried this strong individuality into a journal, which he edited, called the Overland Press, and which was the occasion of his death, Jan. 7, 1863. Kendall had been clerk of the legislature, territorial librarian, prosecuting attorney of the Olympian Jud. Dist; had been sent on a secret mission by Gen. Scott, and appointed Indian agent in the Yakima country, but soon removed on account of his imperiousness. After his removal he published the Press, and used it to attack whomsoever he hated. He was the attorney and warm friend of George B. Roberts of the Puget Sound Co. On the 25th of October an attempt was made to burn the buildings of this company on Cowlitz farm. Kendall boldly charged the incendiaries on Horace...

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Miners of Silver Bow District and Gulches, Montana

The men who uncovered the riches of Silver Bow District were, after the original discoverers, W. R. Coggeswell Peter Slater Vernon & Co. C. Solomon M. Johnson Dennis Driscoll J. Baker Robert McMinn Thomas Flood W. R. Crawford Sherman & Co. Henry Rust M. Prettyman Lester Popple W. E. Harris J. La Clair L. Thayer George Popple A. M. Smith C. S. Warren James Beattie George McCausland Wolf & Cowan From the gulches opened by these men was taken, between 1864 and 1869, $l,894,300. Of the Gulches, which lay too high to be worked before the completion of the Pioneer and Rocker ditch in 1870, the discoverers were: W. E. Vernon John W. Baker Nelson Everest Charles S. Warren Michael Moran John Hanifin Benjamin Vener Eugene Boiteaux William Barry Thomas Smith H. H. Alstreadt Earl Gower John Barrick Levi Russell John Sheppard L. W. Burnett John M. Killop ‘Arkansaw’ H. H. Porter L. Griswold. Charles Rures Sidney Dinnon Vernon & Co. Thomas Burden H. J. Mattison Charles Noyes Gower& Co. Crane &...

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List of Early Montana Farmers

E. S. Banta, born in Missouri, Sept. 2, 1832; brought up a fanner; immigrated to California in 1862, with his own team; remained there one year, and came to Montana, first to the Bitterroot Valley, then to Gallatin City, and finally to Willow Creek in Madison County, where he obtained 196 acres of land, and raised stock. He married, in 1861, Mary Foster. William McKimens, a native of Pennsylvania, was born Oct. 20, 1835, and raised a farmer. Removed to Illinois at the age of 19, and soon after to Kansas. In 1858 he went the Pike’s Peak country, and was one of the 100 locators of Denver. Returning east, he came to Montana in 1804, and established himself. Ellis Elmer, born in England May 18, 1828, immigrated to the U. S. in 1850, settling in Illinois, where he remained 9 years, when he removed to Missouri, whence he came to Montana in 1871. Painter by trade; secured 100 acres of land at Fish Creek. In 1857 married R. T. Lambert. F. T. Black, born Oct. 23, 1856, in Illinois, removed at ten years of age to Missouri, and at The age of 20 to Montana, where he leased improved land at Pony, on Willow Creek. Robert Riddle, born in Ohio Aug. 18, 1840, was brought up a farmer. At the age of 18 he learned harness making, after...

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Pioneer Newspapers of Montana

A history of the pioneer newspapers will not be out of place here. The Montana Post was the first journal started in the territory. In 1864 John Buchanan brought a press and material from St Louis to Fort Benton, with a view to locating at some point in the new commonwealth. He fixed upon Virginia City, where the first number of the Post was issued August 27, 1864. After printing; two numbers Buchanan sold to D. W. Tilton and Benjamin R. Dittes. Dittes was a native of Leipsic, Saxony, born in 18.33. He was for a number of years on the upper Missouri at the various trading posts, and in Colorado in 1863, when Alder gulch was discovered, to which he removed that year, building one of the first houses in Virginia City. The firm of D. W. Tilton & Co. continued to publish the Post at Virginia City until the winter of 1867-8, when Dittes purchased Tilton’s interest, and in conjunction with Mr Pinney, removed it to Helena. The change was not favorable, and Dittes withdrew, the paper being suspended in the spring of 1869. Dittes died Nov. 6, 1879. Helena Herald, Nov. 6, 1879. Another paper published by Tilton and Dittes was the Tri-Weekly Republican, which was started the 7th of July, 1866, at Helena, and after printing 32 numbers was removed to Virginia City and published...

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Biographical Sketch of I. L. Scammon

Another Chehalis County pioneer is I. L. Scammon, who was born in Maine in 1822, came to California in 1849-50, making the voyage on the 63-ton schooner Little Traveler. In the autumn of 1850 he took passage for the Columbia River, which was passed by mistake, the vessel making Shoalwater bay. Making his way overland to the Columbia, he went to Salem, Oregon, and to the southern mines, but returning to Washington Territory took a donation claim on the Chehalis River, where the old town of Montesano, now known as Wynoochee, grew up about him. He married Miss Lorinda Hopkins in 1844, who rejoined him in Washington Territory in 1859. The first sermon preached in the region of Montesano was delivered by Rev. J. W. Goodell at Scammon’s house, and the second school in the county was on his place, in 1859. The children of this pioneer are: Harriet, married Edward Campbell. George, m. Clara Nye. Cornelia Jane, who died. Eva, who m. I. R. Edwards. Edith, who m. P. B. Briscoe. Elli, who m. Charles H. Finmet, County Surveyor. Norman, who accidentally shot himself when about 17 years of...

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Biography of Charles Biles

Charles Biles was born in Warren County, Tennessee, in Aug. 1809, and reared on a farm in North Carolina, removing when 19 years old to Christian County, Kentucky. In 1832 he married, and in 1835 removed to Illinois, soon returning to Hopkins County, Kentucky, where he resided until 1853, when he emigrated to Washington Territory in company with his brother James, their families, and C. B. Baker, Elijah Baker, and William Downing, and their families, being a part of the first direct immigration to the territory, via the wagon road through the Nachess pass. Mr Biles settled upon Grand Mound Prairie in Thurston County, farming, and sometimes preaching as a minister of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. He died Feb. 26, 1869, leaving two sons (one having died after emigrating) and two daughters, namely, David F., Charles N., Mrs M. Z. Goodell, and Mrs I. B. Ward. David F. Biles was born in Kentucky in 1833, coming with his parents to Washington Territory. In 1851 he took a claim in Thurston County, and in 1855 became a deputy U. S. Surveyor, but the Indian war coming on interrupted work, and he took to soldiering in defense of the settlements, resuming his surveying when peace was restored. From 1838 to 1862 he resided in Cosmopolis, Chehalis County, but then removed to a homestead claim near Elma, on the line of the...

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Washington Blockhouses or Stockades erected during Indian War

There were 22 block-houses or stockades erected by the settlers during the war, as follows 1Rept of W. W. De Lacy, Capt. Eng. W. T. V., in Wash. Mess. Gov., 1857, 55. : at Davis’ Skookum Chuck Henness, near Mound prairie on Tenalcut prairie, at Nathan Eaton’s #1 on Chambers’ prairie #2 on Chambers’ prairie at Bush’s Goodell’s Ruddell’s Rutledge’s #1 at Tumwater #2 at Tumwater one at Dofflemeyer’s one on Whidbey Island one at Port Gamble one on the Cowlitz (Fort Arkansas) one on Mime prairie, one at Port Ludlow, one at Meigs’ Mill, #1 at the Cascades #2 at the Cascades one at Boisford prairie. Others were subsequently erected by the volunteers and troops, to the number of 35 by the former and 4 by the latter, or 62 in all. One at Cowlitz landing French settlement near Cowlitz farm Chehalis River below the Skookum Chuck Tenalcut plain (Fort Miller) Yelm prairie (Fort Stevens) Lowe’s, on Chambers’ prairie #1 at Olympia #2 at Olympia one at Packwood’s ferry (Fort Raglan) #1 at Montgomery’s crossing of the Puyallup (Fort White) #2 at Montgomery’s crossing of the Puyallup (Fort White) #1 at Connell’s prairie #2 at Connell’s prairie #1 at crossing of White River #2 at crossing of White River South prairie (Fort McAllister) on the Dwamish (Fort Lander) Lone Tree point on the Snohomish (Fort Ebey) on the...

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Mounted Volunteer Companies engaged in the Indian War

Mounted Volunteer Companies engaged in the Indian War, Mason’s administration. See: Washington Indian Wars, 1855-1856 for context of this list. Volunteer Companies Companies A, Capt. William Strong, and B, Capt. Gilmore Hays, were mustered into the regular service and furnished their own horses Company B, Capt. Isaac Hays Company F, Capt. B. S. Henness Company K, Capt. John R. Jackson Cowlitz Rangers, Capt. H. W. Peers Lewis River Rangers, Capt. William Bratton, in the service of the territory, furnished their own horses Stevens Guards. Capt. Higgins, were furnished horses by Gov. Spokane Invincibles, Capt. Yantis, horses partly furnished by Gov. and partly by volunteers Puget Sound Rangers, Capt. Charles Eaton, furnished their own horses Nez Perce Volunteers, Capt. Spotted Eagle, furnished their own horses and equipments. Inf. companies: Company C, George B. Goody Company D, Capt. W. H. Wallace (part of them mounted) Company G, Capt. W. A. S. McCorckle Company M, Capt. C. C. Hewitt Company I, Capt. I. N. Ebey Company J, Capt. A. A. Plummer Nisqually Ferry guards, Serg. Packwood Adj.-Gen. Rept, in Wash. Mess. Gov., 1857. See also Roder’s Bellingham Bay, MS.; Ebey’s Journal, MS.; Morris’ Wash. Ter., MS.; Ballou’s Adr.,515.; Hanford’s Ind. War, MS.; Yesler’s Wash. Ter., MS.; Parker’s Puget Sound, MS.,...

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Indian Fight of the 7th, 8th, and 9th of December of 1858

Indian Fight of the 7th, 8th, and 9th of December of 1858. See: Washington Indian Wars, 1855-1856 for context of this list. Killed: Capt. Charles Bennett of Company F, the same who was connected with James Marshall in the discovery of gold in California 2d Lieut J. M. Burrows, Company H Simon S. Van Hagerman, Company I. Mortally wounded, who lived but a few hours: E. B. Kelsey, Company A Henry Crow and Casper Snook, Company H Joseph Sturdevant, Company B Jesse Flemming, Company A Dangerously wounded: Capt. Layton Privates T. J. Payne, Nathan Fry F. Crabtree, Company H J. B. Gervias, Company K. Severely wounded: Capt. A. V. Wilson, Company A Capt. L. Munson, Company I Ser.-Mag. Isaac Miller, Company H Private 0. W. Smith, Co. B Slightly wounded: Privates A. M. Addington, Company H Franklin Duval, Company A Evan., Oregon Military Organization, 90. On the 9th and 10th, wounded, A. Shepard Ira Allen John Smith Estimated Indians killed and wounded,...

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History of Washington, Idaho and Montana

In my History of the Northwest Coast I have brought down the annals of Washington, Idaho, and Montana to the end of the fur company regime, in 1846, at which time the question of boundary between the possessions of Great Britain and those of the United States was determined, the subjects of the former power thereupon retiring from the banks of the Columbia northward beyond the line of latitude 49°. In the History of Oregon I have likewise given much of the early affairs of the territory treated of in this volume, that territory for a time being a part of Oregon; just as in the history of Washington much is given of the history of Idaho, and in the history of Idaho much of Montana. Under the term Northwest Coast I originally included all that vast region of North America north of the 42d parallel and west of the Rocky Mountains, Alaska alone excepted. When, in 1846, the southern line of British Columbia was determined, all that remained was called Oregon. Later, from Oregon was set off Washington; from Washington was set off Idaho; and from Idaho, for the most part, was set off Montana. Thus for some part of the history of Montana we look to the annals of Idaho, Washington, Oregon, and the Northwest Coast; for part of the history of Idaho we look to the...

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Biographical Sketch of Joseph Cushman

Joseph Cushman was appointed by a democratic legislature first probate judge of Thurston County. He was born at Middlebury, Massachusetts, March 13, 1807, and was a lineal descendant of Robert Cushman of the Mayflower company, had a good home education and a Boston business training, hence was a valuable man in any community, besides being an orator of ability, and ready writer. He went to South America in 1849, and after a brief stay in Valparaiso, came to California, and engaged in jobbing goods on the Sacramento Paver. Making the acquaintance of Samuel Merritt, owner of the brig G. W. Kendall, he took charge of Merritt’s business, established in Olympia in 1852, Merritt running a line of vessels, and having a trading house at that place. In 1857 Cushman was admitted to practice as an attorney, and successfully defended Luther M. Collins, who was charged with murder in connection with the execution of an Indian outlaw. In 1855 he was nominated by the Free Soil Party for delegate to congress, but was beaten by J. P. Anderson, democrat. In the Indian war he enlisted as a private in Eaton’s company of rangers, and was one of the party besieged on Lemmon’s land in the Puyallup Valley, remaining in the service until the close of the war. He was president of the first board of trustees for Olympia in 1869....

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Biographical Sketch of Gilmore Hays

Gilmore Hays was a native of Kentucky, but resided in Missouri, where he was district judge, when the gold discovery drew him to California. Returning to Missouri, he led a train of immigrants to Oregon in 1852, and in 1833 settled on Des Chutes River near the head of Budd Inlet. The year 1852 was the time of the cholera on the plains, and Hays lost his wife and two children, who were buried near Salmon Falls of Snake River, together with the wife of B. F. Yantis. There remained to him three sons, James H., Charles, and Robert, and one daughter, who married J. G. Parker, all of whom reside in Olympia. In the same company were John P. and Isaac Hays, his brothers, N. Ostrander, Hilary Butler, James Scott, and their families, Thomas Prather, George Fry, and others. When the Indian war threatened, he was first to volunteer, his was the first company raised, and throughout he was of much service to the territory. After the termination of the war, he returned to Mo., but in 1863 removed to Idaho, and was useful to the supt of Ind. affairs for Washington in arranging treaties with the natives. Failing health caused him to return to Puget Sound, where he died October 10, 1880. Olympia Transcript, Oct. 30, 1880; Olympia Standard, Oct. 29, 1880; Olympia Courier, Oct. 29,...

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Washington Road Builders and Early Settlers, Olympia to the Sound, 1853

Builders George Shazer B. F. Yantis William Packwood B. F. Shaw John Alexander B. Close A. W. Moore E. Sylvester James Hurd W. W. Plumb The men who worked upon the eastern end of the road were: Whitfield Kirtley Edwin Marsh Nelson Sargent Paul Ruddell Edward Miller J. W. Fouts John L. Perkins Isaac N. Brown James Alverson Nathaniel G. Stewart William Carpenter E. L. Allen A. C. Burge Thomas Dixon Ephraim Allyn James H. George Githers John Walker John H. Mills R. S. More R. Forman Ed. Crofts James Boise Robert Patterson Edward Miller Edward Wallace Lewis Wallace James R. Smith John Barrow James Meek Settlers: John W. Lane and wife Samuel Ray William Ray Henry Mitchell H. Rockenfield James Barr J. A. Sperry William Evan Watts J. J. Ragan William McCreary G. Miller John Nelson J. Langinyre, wife and 5 children E. A. Light, wife and child William M. Kincaid, wife and 6 children Isaac Woolery, wife and 4 children Abram H. Woolery, wife and 3 children Peter Judson, wife and 2 children, composing the first train of 47 persons. This train had 62 work-oxen, 20 cows, and 7 mares. There were, besides, J. W. Woodward John B. Moyer Z. Gotzan Aaron Rockenfield Norman Kilborn Isaac Lemmon R. A. Finnell William R. Downey, wife and children John James Downey and daughter Abiel Morrison, Charlotte his wife and...

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Indian Captives of Washington from the Vessel Georgiana

The names of the rescued captives, and vessel’s crew: William Rowland, captain Duncan McEwen, mate Benjamin and Richard Gibbs, sailors Tamaree, an Hawaiian cook Passengers Asher Sargent E. N. Sargent Samuel D. Howe Ambrose Jewell Charles Weed Daniel Show Samuel H. Williams James McAllister John Thornton Charles Hendricks George A. Paige John Remley Jesse Ferguson Ignatius Colvin James K. Hurd William Mahard Solomon S. Gideon George Moore B. F. McDonald Sidney S. Ford Jr Isaac M. Browne Mr. Seidner I find, besides the reports made at the time by S. D. Howe, George Moore, Captain Rowland, and subsequently by Charles E. Weed, an account by the latter among my manuscripts, under the title of Weed’s Charlotte Island Expedition, from all of which I have drawn the chief facts. Weed was 27 years of age, a native of Connecticut, and had just come to Olympia by way of the Willamette from California. George A. Paige, a native of New Hampshire, had served in the Mexican war, and had been but a short time in Oregon. He remained on the Sound, serving in the Indian wars, and receiving an appointment as Indian agent at Port Madison. He died at Fort Colville in 1868. See references to the Georgiana affair, in Oregon Statesman, Feb. 15 and 24, and March 9, 1852; Oregon Spectator, Jan. 27, 1852; New Tacoma Ledger, July 9,...

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Petitioners for Territory of Columbia

The following were petitioners to the United States Government for the creation of the Territory of Columbia. G. N. McConaha president R. J. White secretary. Commettee: Quincy A. Brooks, D. S. Maynard, William W. Plumb, Alfred Cook, J. R. Jackson, E. L. Finch, A. F. Scott, F. A. Clarke, C. S. Hathaway, E. A. Allen, E. H. Winslow, Seth Catlin, and N. Stone. Petitioners G. N. McConaha, Seth Catlin, R. J. White, J. N. Law, Q. A. Brooks, C. C. Terry, C. S. Hathaway, A. J. Simmons, E. H. Winslow, S. Plomondon, A. Cook, H. A. Goldsborongh, A. F. Scott, G. Drew, W. N. Bell, M. T. Simmons, A. A. Denny, H. C. Wilson, L. M. Collins, L. B. Hastings, G. B. Roberts, S. S. Ford, Sen., N. Stone, B. C. Armstrong, L. H. Davis, J. Fowler, C. H. Hale, A. Crawford, S. D. Rundell, H. D. Huntington, E. J. Allen, W. A. L. McCorkle, A. B. Dillenbaugh, N. Ostrander, J. R. Jackson, C. F. Porter, D. S. Maynard, E. L. Finch, F. A. Clarke, H. Miles, Wm. W. Plumb, P. W. Crawford, A. Wylie, S. P. Moses. Cong. Globe, 1832-3, 541; Colombian, Dec. 11, 1832; Oregon Statesman, Jan. 1, 1853; Olympia Standard, May 9,...

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