Collection: People of One Fire

Native American History of Telfair County, Georgia

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Telfair County is located in south-central Georgia. It is named after Edward Telfair, an important leader of Georgia during the Revolution and early days of statehood. He had just died when Telfair County was created from ceded Creek lands. The county seat is McRae. Edward Telfair was born in Scotland in 1735 and died in Georgia in 1807. After immigrating to Virginia to be an agent for a Scottish mercantile firm, Telfair first moved to North Carolina and then settled permanently in Georgia. He immediately began assembling large tracts of land in St. Paul’s Parish, what was to become Burke County, GA and also held a significant amount of real estate in Christ Church Parish (Chatham County, GA.) In 1768, he was elected to the Commons House of Assembly. By 1774 he was an active revolutionary, being one of the original members of the Liberty Boys. In May of 1775 Telfair joined other Liberty Boys in the theft of 600 pounds of gunpowder from the Royal Magazine. The next month, he was elected to the Council of Safety, which was Georgia’s government during the Revolution. During the American Revolution, Telfair was a member of the Continental Congress from 1778 to 1783. He was named by the British Parliament as a person guilty of high treason and...

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Native American History of Stewart County, Georgia

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Stewart County is located in southwest Georgia, south of Columbus and Fort Benning. It was named after Brig. General Daniel Stewart, a commander in the Georgia Militia during the American Revolution and the War of 1812. Stewart was the great-grandfather of President Theodore Roosevelt. The county seat of Stewart County is the town of Lumpkin. Stewart County is bounded on the north by Chattahoochee County, GA. On the south, it is bordered by Randolph County, GA. The county’s western boundaries are formed by the Chattahoochee River, the Alabama State Line, Barbour County, AL and Russell County, AL. On the east, it is bordered by Webster County, GA. Geology and hydrology Stewart County is located in the Upper Gulf Coastal Plain. In most areas of the Gulf Coastal Plain the terrain is almost level with sandy loam soils. The soils located in stream former Miocene, Pliocene and Holocene swamplands (25 million to 2,000 years ago) can be extremely fertile. Because of their sandy structure, they were particular attractive to Native American farmers, who only had crude stone and bone tools with which to till the soil. The Chattahoochee Red Clay Hills run through Stewart County. Here, there are deep ravines and canyons created by streams flowing westward through soft sedimentary soils. Inappropriate farming methods by 19th century...

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Native American History of Seminole County, Georgia

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Seminole County is named after the Seminole Indians. Its county seat is Donalsonville. It is located in the far southwestern corner of Georgia and adjoins both Alabama and Florida. Maps of the late 1700s and early 1800s labeled the Hitchiti-Creek Indians in Southwest Georgia, who were not members of the Muskogee-Creek Confederacy, as Seminoles. Some of these villages and farmsteads eventually moved to Alabama and joined the Creek Confederacy, while others moved southward into Florida, after 1721, when Florida became part of the United States. Up until around 1843 there were still substantial numbers of Creek and Yuchi Indians in southern Georgia, who remained in the region, after it was ceded to the United States by the Creek Confederacy. These people did not feel bound by the treaties with a tribal body to which they did not belong. Many mixed-blood Creek and Yuchi families in southwest Georgia elected to take state citizenship, rather than being forced to move out of the state. They were often related by marriage to their Caucasian neighbors. In the decades that have followed, these mixed-heritage families have culturally assimilated into the general population. Seminole County is bounded on the north by Early County, GA. On the southwest, it is bordered by Jackson County, FL, and Houston County, AL. The county’s western...

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Native American History of Rockdale County, Georgia

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Rockdale County located in northern Georgia and is part of the Atlanta Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA.) It’s name honors the strata of granite that lays under the county. The county seat is Conyers. Rockdale County is bordered on the north by Gwinnett County. On the east is bordered by both Walton and Newton Counties. On the south it is bordered by Henry County and on the west by DeKalb County. Geology and hydrology Rockdale County was located in the Piedmont geological region, which is characterized by underlying rock strata of igneous and metamorphicized igneous rock. The Piedmont’s terrain generally consists of rolling hills and stream valleys with some areas being almost flat plains. There are few permanent wetlands paralleling the streams. The top soils are thin over most hills and steep slopes, while much deeper near streams and in the plains. Extensive swamplands parallel the South and Alcovy Rivers. Most of Rockdale County was immediately south of the old Cotton Line, which marked the northern limit of cotton species grown before the Civil War. Cotton was the most important agricultural product before the Civil War, but there were few large plantations. The landscape varies from being flat to moderately hilly. . Rockdale County is drained by the South, Alcovy, Mulberry and Apalachee Rivers. These are...

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Native American History of Randolph County, Georgia

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Randolph County is located in southwest Georgia. It was named after John Randolph of Virginia, a prominent Congressman and spokesman for states rights during the late 1700s and early 1800s. The county seat of Randolph County is the town of Cuthbert. Randolph County is bounded on the north by Stewart County, GA. On the southeast, it is bordered by County and southwest by Clay County. The county’s western boundaries are formed by the Quitman County. On the east it is bordered by Terrill County, GA. On the northeast, it is bordered by Webster County, GA Geology and hydrology Randolph County is located in the Upper Gulf Coastal Plain. In most areas of the Gulf Coastal Plain the terrain is almost level with sandy loam soils. However, in Randolph these types of soils are limited to stream valleys. The soils located in stream former Miocene, Pliocene and Holocene swamplands (25 million to 2,000 years ago) can be extremely fertile. Because of their sandy structure, they were particular attractive to Native American farmers, who only had crude stone and bone tools with which to till the soil. The Chattahoochee Red Clay Hills run through Randolph County. The terrain is much more undulating than in the adjacent flood plain and alluvial terraces adjacent to the Chattahoochee River. Streams tend...

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Native American History of Quitman County, Georgia

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Quitman County is named after General John A. Quitman, a U.S. Army officer in the Mexican War and governor of Mississippi. The county seat of Quitman County is the town of Georgetown. Quitman County is bounded on the north by Chattahoochee County, GA. On the south, it is bordered by Randolph County, GA. The county’s western boundaries are formed by the Chattahoochee River, the Alabama State Line, Barbour County, AL and Russell County, AL. On the east, it is bordered by Webster County, GA. Geology and hydrology Quitman County is located in the Upper Gulf Coastal Plain. In most areas of the Gulf Coastal Plain the terrain is almost level with sandy loam soils. The soils located in stream former Miocene, Pliocene and Holocene swamplands (25 million to 2,000 years ago) can be extremely fertile. Because of their sandy structure, they were particular attractive to Native American farmers, who only had crude stone and bone tools with which to till the soil. The Chattahoochee Red Clay Hills run through the northeastern corner of Quitman County. Here, there are deep ravines created by streams flowing westward through soft sedimentary soils. Some of the erosion ravines that begin in Stewart County continue into Quitman County. Most of Quitman County drains into the Chattahoochee River. A small portion on...

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Native American History of Oconee County, Georgia

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Oconee County is located in northeastern Georgia. Its county seat is Watkinsville. It is named after the Oconee River, which was named after the Okonee branch of the Creek Indians. To the north of Oconee is Clarke County. It is bounded on the east by Oglethorpe County. Walton County forms its western boundary, while Greene defines its southeastern boundary and Morgan County adjoins Oconee on the south. Geology and Hydrology The entire county is in Georgia’s Piedmont, which was originally an ancient mountain range that has been leveled through the eons. This region is underlain by igneous and metamorphic rocks. There are outcrops of granite or gneiss in several locations. Most of Oconee County drains into the Oconee River. The north and middle forks of the Oconee form in Hall County, GA then join in Clarke County. Its terrain is characterized by rolling hills and stream valleys whose peripheries vary from being moderate to steep in slope. Due to improper farming techniques in the 1800’s and early 1900s, much of the exposed soil now is red clay. Fertile top soils can still be seen along some sections of river or creeks. There are a few shallow, seasonal wetlands near streams that usually dry up in the summer. In pre-European times the alluvial soils suitable to cultivation...

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Native American History of Twiggs County, Georgia

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Twiggs County is located in central Georgia and is part of the Macon, GA Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA.) It is named after General John Twiggs (1781 -1820) – a leader of the Georgia Militia during the American Revolution. Its county seat is Jeffersonville. Twiggs is bordered on the northeast side by Wilkinson County and the northwest by Bibb and Jones Counties. Laurens County forms its southeastern boundary. Bleckley County forms its southern boundary, while Houston County forms its southwestern boundary. One of the larger Native American town sites in Georgia is located in Twiggs County. Labeled today by archaeologists as Bullard Landing, it contains at least 24 mounds. It is only 12 miles south of Macon and was obviously part of the Ocmulgee Bottoms conurbation. This Lamar Culture site is practically unknown outside of Twiggs County, but was apparently visited by Hernando de Soto in the spring of 1540. Geology and hydrology Twiggs County is located in the Sand Hills and Atlantic Coastal Plain geological regions. The Sand Hills are in the northwestern part of the county and compose about 20% of its land area. The remainder of the county is either in the upper or middle sections of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The Sand Hills are located immediately south of the Fall Line. They are...

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Native American History of Polk County, Georgia

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Polk County is located in northwest Georgia. It was named after James K. Polk, 11th president of the United States. The county seat is Cedartown. Polk County is bounded on the north by Floyd County, GA and on the northeast by Bartow County, GA. On the south it adjoins Haralson County, GA. On the west, it is bordered by Cherokee County, Alabama and on the southwest by Cleburne County, Alabama. Geology and hydrology Most of Polk County is located in the Ridge and Valley geological region, which is characterized by multiple strata of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks deposited when eastern North America was flooded by the ancient Iapetus Ocean. Dolomitic limestone, limestone, sandstone, mudstone and shale are the dominant rock formations of the county. Caves and springs are common in the county. Much of the central part of Polk County ranges in elevation from 1000 feet down to 600 feet, which is about the same range as adjacent Bartow County to the northeast. There are two mountainous areas in the county. In the east, the low mountains rise up 1,316 feet at Carnes Mountain. In the more rugged northwestern part of the county, elevations reach 1,600 feet on top of Indian Mountain. A relatively small section in the southern section of the county is part of the...

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Native American History of Pickens County, Georgia

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Pickens County located in northern Georgia. It is part of the Atlanta Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA.) Its county seat is Jasper. It is named after Colonel Andrew Pickens, who commanded Patriot units in one of the last battles of the Revolutionary War, which was fought in Pickens county. Pickens County is bordered on the north by Gilmer County and the east by Dawson County. Gordon County adjoins Pickens on its western side. Cherokee County forms its southern boundary. Bartow County forms a relatively short section of Pickens’ southwest boundary. Geology and hydrology Pickens County contains sections of the Blue Ridge Mountains, Marble Valley and Pine Log Mountains geological regions. The Blue Ridge Mountains, which run along the eastern side of the county, are characterized by underlying rock strata of igneous and metamorphicized igneous rock. The official southern terminus of both the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Appalachian Trail are located in Pickens at Mt. Oglethorpe. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, several chicken houses and private real estate developments were constructed on top of the Appalachian Trail, thus negating its use for public recreation. In 1999, the marble monument marking the start of the Appalachian Trail was relocated to downtown Jasper, since it was no longer relevant. Mount Oglethorpe, at 3,288 feet above sea level,...

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Native American History of Paulding County, Georgia

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Paulding County is located in west central Georgia and is part of the Atlanta Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA.) It was named after Revolutionary militiaman John Paulding (1758-1818) who led a party of three young farmers in the capture of Major John Andre. Andre was carrying secret papers to traitor, Gen. Benedict Arnold. Paulding refused a bribe from Andre and turned him into George Washington’s headquarters; thus saving Fortress West Point. The county seat of Paulding County is Dallas. Paulding County is bounded on the north by Bartow County. On the east, it adjoins Cobb County. On the southeast it is bordered by Douglas County and on the southwest by Haralson County, GA. Polk County is located on the western side of Paulding. Geology and hydrology Paulding County is located at the juxtaposition of three geological zones, the Piedmont, the Great Appalachian Valley and the Appalachian Ridge and Valley Province. There are alluvial riverine bottomlands along several tributaries of the Etowah River. Seasonal or permanent wetlands parallel some of its streams. These are relatively narrow bands of soggy terrain that provide ecological diversity for animal and plant life. The top soils are thin over most hills and steep slopes, while much deeper near streams. Streams in the Great Appalachian Valley are prone to flooding, but also...

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Native American History of Newton County, Georgia

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Newton County located in northern Georgia and is part of the Atlanta Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA.) Its name honors Sgt. John Newton, a hero of the American Revolution. The county seat is Covington. Newton County is bordered on the north by Walton County. Morgan County adjoins it on the east while Jasper County adjoins it on the Southeast. Butts County is located to the south. Henry County forms the southwestern border, while Rockdale County forms the northwest border. Geology and hydrology Newton County was located in the Piedmont geological region, which is characterized by underlying rock strata of igneous and metamorphicized igneous rock. The Piedmont’s terrain generally consists of rolling hills and stream valleys with some areas being almost flat plains. There are few permanent wetlands paralleling the streams. The top soils are thin over most hills and steep slopes, while much deeper near streams and in the plains. Newton County was immediately south of the old Cotton Line, which marked the northern limit of cotton species grown before the Civil War. Cotton was the most important agricultural product before the Civil War, but there were few large plantations. The landscape varies from being flat to moderately hilly. . Newton County is drained by the Alcovy, Yellow and South Rivers. These rivers join at the...

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Native American History of Muscogee County, Georgia

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Muscogee County is located in west central Georgia and is part of the Columbus, GA Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area. It was named after the Muscogee branch of the Creek Indians. Muscogee-speaking towns took a leading role in the formation of the People of One Fire or Creek Confederacy during the late 1600s and early 1700s. However, the word “Muscogee” did not appear on British and American maps until the late 1700s. Muscogee is the English version of the Native American word Mvskoke (Ma(hs-ko–ke-) which means Medicinal Herb People in the Creek language. Several references state that the word is of Algonquin origin. This is not correct. Muscogee County is bounded on the north by Harris County, GA. On the northeast, it adjoins Talbot County, GA. On the south, it is bordered by Chattahoochee County, GA. The county’s western boundaries are formed by the Chattahoochee River, the Alabama State Line and Russell and Lee Counties, AL. Geology and hydrology Four geological zones are visible in Muscogee County. They are the Lower Piedmont, Fall Line, Sand Hills and Gulf Coastal Plain. Geology has played a major roll in the county’s economic development. The Lower Piedmont is characterized by underlying rock strata of igneous and metamorphicized igneous rock. The terrain consists of rolling hills, stream valleys and some relatively...

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Native American History of Monroe County, Georgia

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Monroe County is located in central Georgia and is part of the Macon, GA Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA.) It is named after President James Monroe of Virginia (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831.) Its county seat is Forsyth. Monroe County for several years became tourist destination after the popular movie, “Fried Green Tomatoes,” was filmed at the village of Juliette in 1991. Monroe County is bounded on the north by Butts County and the northeast by Jasper County. Jones County is located to the east, while Bibb County forms its southeastern boundary. Crawford County forms a section of its southern boundary, while Upson County adjoins a short section on the west-southwest. Lamar County is located to the west of Monroe. Geology and hydrology Monroe County is located in the Lower Piedmont geological region. The county contains two faults, the Towaliga and the Goat Rock, which apparently are inactive, although some minor tremors do occasionally occur in the region. The northern edge of the county contains several mineral springs, which were frequent camping locations by Native Americans. The Lower Piedmont is characterized by underlying rock strata of igneous and metamorphicized igneous rock. The terrain consists of rolling hills and, stream valleys. Seasonal or permanent wetlands parallel many of its streams. These are relatively narrow bands of...

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Native American History of Milton County, Georgia

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now Milton County was located in northern Georgia. As part now of Fulton County, all of old Milton County is part of the Atlanta Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA.) Its county seat was Alpharetta prior to the annexation of Milton and Campbell Counties by Fulton County in 1932. In 1932 Milton County (on the north) and Campbell County (on the south,) merged with Fulton County. Cobb County ceded the City of Roswell and a section of land along Wileo Creek to Fulton, in order to make the original section of Milton contiguous with Milton. The Native American histories of Campbell, Fulton and Milton Counties are covered as separate articles. Geology and hydrology Milton County was located in the Upper Piedmont geological region, which is characterized by underlying rock strata of igneous and metamorphicized igneous rock. The Upper Piedmont terrain generally consists of rolling hills and stream valleys, but in some areas can seem semi-mountainous. This is because high mountains once stood at these locations, but have eroded to large hills through the eons. The section of the Chattahoochee River passing the original portion of Milton County generally has a narrow flood plain. There are few permanent wetlands paralleling the streams that flow into the Chattahoochee. The top soils are thin over most hills and steep slopes, while...

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