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Collection: Choctaw Mixed Bloods

An Affinity For Trade

Despite their early encounters with Hernando DeSoto, whose ruthless exploitation of the Native Americans was unabashedly cruel, the Southeastern Indians greeted white men with peaceful cooperation. Later European arrivals found that their success in the Gulf wilderness depended largely upon peace with the native inhabitants, or at least peace with one of the larger tribes. 1Robert S. Cotterill, The Southern Indians: The Story of the Five Civilized Tribes Before Removal, Civilization of the American Indian Series, number 38, (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1954), 18-36; Angie Debo, The Rise and Fall of the Choctaw Republic, Civilization of the American Indian Series, number 6, (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1961), 27-33. Because no large deposits of gold or other precious metals were found, the Spaniards relegated the region to outpost status and made no major effort to colonize beyond settlements at Pensacola and later Mobile and New Orleans, and thus they had relatively little contact with the Indians until late in the colonial period. Even the French effort to control the Mississippi River at the turn the eighteenth century attracted no large population. Anchorages at Biloxi and later Mobile were followed by settlements at New Orleans, Natchez and some points between, but these small colonies did not amount to more than a few hundred settlers for quite a few years, especially after the 1720 John Law land debacle, a scheme to...

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Introduction, Choctaw Mixed Blood

One of the most controversial areas of American history is that of Indian/white relations and the federal policies, which led to Indian Removal. In the early and middle nineteenth century the United States government embarked upon a program of wholesale government-sponsored emigration of tribes residing within the various states and territories. 1See R. S. Cotterill, The Southern Indians: The Story of the Five Civilized Tribes Before Removal, Civilization of the American Indian Series, number 38, (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1954), 64 re early reticence of the United States to police Indians inside state boundaries. Later called the “Trail of Tears” this official program of tribal displacement was long the focus of American Indian policy and the genesis of the present-day reservation system. Although several northeastern and eastern tribes had been displaced earlier, the removal of the Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, and Seminole nations (later known collectively as the Five Civilized tribes) from the rich cotton lands of antebellum Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi and Tennessee in the 1820’s and 30’s sparked an emotional debate throughout the United States. This study will identify a sizable population of Choctaw mixed bloods — coexisting comfortably with the full-blood population — who effectively facilitated the Indian land acquisition policy of the federal government. Leading ultimately to removal, this land policy was designed by President Thomas Jefferson to attract settlers for militia purposes into the...

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Choctaw Mixed Bloods and the Advent of Removal

Choctaw Mixed Blood and the Advent of Removal: This dissertation by Samuel James Wells lists the names and families of the known mixed bloods and examines their role in tribal history, especially regarding land treaties during the Jeffersonian years preceding Removal. This dissertation includes a database of over three thousand names of known and probable mixed bloods drawn from a wide range of sources and therefore has genealogical as well as historical value.

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Durant Choctaw Family – List of Mixed Bloods

The Durant family represents an important link between a large number of modern Alabamans and Mississippians of mixed blood heritage and its line can easily be traced into several prominent pre-Civil War southern families (see Charts 7, 8 and 9). One such example is the Linder family of south Alabama. Their history stretches back across the Atlantic to Switzerland and touches the mixed bloods when John Linder, V, married Sophie Durant, another daughter of Ben Durant and Sophie McGillivray, and lived near the mixed-blood communities along the Alabama River above Mobile. 1Linder Genealogy, Lackey collection, University of Southern Mississippi...

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Emeline Jane Smith, Application

No. 9576                                                                                                         Action: Reject Name: Emeline J. Smith and X children                     Residence: Mt. Vernon, Ala Reason: Applicant claims through her fathers brother who was ½ Cherokee and as applicant was born in 1833 and her father in 1790 her father’s mother must have been born about 1770. It does not appear that any ancestor was ever enrolled or that any ancestor was party to the treaties of 1835-6 and 1846. Shows no connection with the Eastern Cherokees. Covers #1Mobile, Ala (hand written) No. 9576 Name: Mrs Emeline J. Smith With No.__________ also: 139366, 39835 Remarks: To be adjudicated by...

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Folsom Choctaw Family – List of Mixed Bloods

The Folsom family is easily one of the best known of all mixed-blood groups (see Charts 10 and 11). Their earliest members in Choctaw country were reputedly the three brothers Edmond, Ebeneezer, and Nathaniel who migrated through Indian country with their parents prior to the American Revolution. 1W. David Baird, Peter Pitchlynn: Chief of the Choctaws, (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1972) 6. According to Cushman: “Nathaniel Folsom married Aiahnichih Ohoyo (A woman to prefer above all others). She was a niece of Miko Puskush (Infant Chief), who was the father of Moshulatubbee. She descended from a long ancient line...

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Cravat Choctaw Family – List of Mixed Bloods

Horatio Cushman, the source of so many mixed-blood family histories and the only known source for facts about the Cravat family, states: “The Cravat family of Choctaws are the descendents of John Cravat, a Frenchman who came into the Choctaws at an early day, and was adopted among them by marriage. He had two daughters by his Choctaw wife, Nancy and Rebecca, both of whom became the wives of Louis LeFlore. His Choctaw wife dying he married a Chickasaw woman, by whom he had four sons, Thomas, Jefferson, William and Charles, and one daughter, Elsie, who married a white...

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Brashears Choctaw Family – List of Mixed Bloods

The Brashears family represents one of the most industrious and influential included in this study. The genealogical thread running through this line can be traced back to the early Scotch trader, Lachlan McGillivray, and his father-in-law, the French trader aptly named Marchand, in Creek country in the mid-eighteenth century (see Chart 4). This family spans the Creek, Chickasaw and Choctaw tribes. Samuel Brashears was an early trader with the Creeks and married Rachael Durant, the mixed-blood daughter of Ben Durant (another trader) and Sophie McGillivray (the mixed-blood daughter of trader Lachlan McGillivray and mixed-blood Sehoy Marchand). 1Woodward. Reminiscences, 113. His presence was marked by the naming of Brashears Landing on the Alabama River at the spot where he lived. 2Pickett, History of Alabama, 562. Another Brashears, Turner, is documented as the pro-Spanish trader — among the Chickasaws at Muscle Shoals on the Tennessee River — who furnished liquor to the Indians. During a meeting with the American commissioners there in 1792 some Indians went on a drunken spree which resulted in “a black eye and a dead horse.” 3Jack D. L. Holmes, “Spanish Regulation of Taverns and the Liquor Trade in the Mississippi Valley,” in John Francis McDermott, ed., The Spanish in the Mississippi Valley, 1762-1804 (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1974) 162. This is probably the same Turner Brashears who for some years had a stand on the Natchez Trace...

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Anderson Choctaw Family – List of Mixed Bloods

The first Choctaw family examined, the Anderson family, has little or no documentation in Choctaw country prior to the removal era (see Chart 3) other than family tradition and representation on the Armstrong roll. There is, however, a Robert C. Anderson listed as a Mississippi Territory volunteer during the Creek War. On August 12, 1813 he had a commission Second Lieutenant. 1See John F. H. Claiborne, Mississippi as a Province, Territory, and State with Biographical Notices of Eminent Citizens, (1889, reprint, Spartanburg: The Reprint Company, Publishers, 1978) 320n.  But beyond this and a few Andersons on the 1808 and 1810 Washington County Mississippi territorial census there is little documentation on this family. One might surmise from the relatively small number (seven heads of households) of Andersons on the Armstrong Roll that they came late into the area. Since no source positively identifies any Anderson as a mixed blood the family may have entered Choctaw country as countrymen. One Anderson (no first name given) was located at the head of BoK Ho Ma which probably is the Bogue Homa, or Red Creek of the Melish map which flows southwest into the Chickasawhay River north of Sinte Bogue. Its headwaters would be in present Washington County, Alabama approximately half way between the Tombigbee and Chickasawhay Rivers (See Figure 2). Four other Andersons are located by Armstrong as living on the Chickasawhay...

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