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Collection: A Migration Legend of the Creek Indians

Seminole Indian Tribe

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now The term semanóle, or isti simanóle, signifies separatist or runaway, and as a tribal name points to the Indians who left the Creek, especially the Lower Creek settlements, for Florida, to live, hunt and fish there in entire independence. The term does not mean wild, savage, as frequently stated; if applied now in this sense to animals, it is because of its original meaning, “what has become a runaway”: pínua simanóle wild turkey (cf. pín-apúiga domesticated turkey), tchu-áta semanóli, antelope, literally, “goat turned runaway, wild,” from tchu-áta, ítchu háta goat, lit., “bleating deer.” 1This adjective is found verbified in isimanōläídshit “he has caused himself to be a runaway.” The present Seminoles of Florida call themselves Ikaniú-ksalgi or “Peninsula-People” (from íkana land, niúksa, for in-yúksa its point, its promontory, -algi: collective ending); another name for them is Tallaháski, from their town Tallahassee, now capital of the State of Florida. The Wendát or Hurons call them Ungiayó-rono, “Peninsula-People,” from ungiáyo peninsula. In Creek, the Florida peninsula is called also Ikan-fáski, the “Pointed Land,” the Seminoles: Ikana-fáskalgi “people of the pointed land.” The name most commonly given to the Seminoles in the Indian Territory by the Creeks is Simanō’lalgi, by the Hitchiti: Simanō’la’li. Indians speaking the Creek language lived in the south of the peninsula as early as the...

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Notes On Creek History

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now To offer a history of the Creek tribe from its discovery down to our epoch to the readers does not lie within the scope of this volume, and for want of sufficient documents illustrating the earlier periods it could be presented in a fragmentary manner only. But a few notes on the subject, especially on the Oglethorpe treaties, will be of interest to the reader. In the year following their departure from the West Indies (1540), the troops led by H. de Soto traversed a portion...

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Mikasuki Indian Tribe

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now “Miccosukee” is a town of Florida, near the northern border of the State, in Leon County, built on the western shore of the lake of the same name. The tribe established there speaks the Hitchiti language, and must hence have separated from some town or towns of the Lower Creeks speaking that language. The tribe was reckoned among the Seminole Indians, but does not figure prominently in Indian history before the out break of the Seminole war of 1817. It then raised the “red pole” as a sign of war, and became conspicuous as a sort of political center for these Southern “soreheads.” The vocabularies of that dialect show it to be practically identical with that of Hitchiti town. Cf. the comparative table, (Maskoki Word Similarities). More notices on this tribe will be found under:...

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List Of Creek Towns

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now In this alphabetic list of ancient Creek towns and villages I have included all the names of inhabited places which I have found recorded before the emigration of the people to the Indian Territory. The description of their sites is chiefly taken from Hawkins “Sketch” one of the most instructive books which we possess on the Creeks in their earlier homes. Some of these town names are still existing in Alabama and Georgia, although the site has not infrequently changed. I have interspersed into the list a few names of the larger rivers. The etymologies added to the names contain the opinions of the Creek delegates visiting Washington every year, and they seldom differed among each other on any name. The local names are written according to my scientific system of phonetics, the only change introduced being that of the palatal tch for ch. Ábi’hka, one of the oldest among the Upper Creek towns; the oldest chiefs were in the habit of naming the Creek nation after it. Hawkins speaks of Abikúdshi only, not of Abi’hka. It certainly lay somewhere near the Upper Coosa River, where some old maps have it. Emanuel Bowen, “A new map of Georgia,” has only “Abacouse,” and this in the wrong place, below Kusa and above Great Talasse, on the western...

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Koassáti Indian Tribe

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now The ancient seat of this tribe was in Hawkins’ time (1799), on the right or northern bank of Alabama River, three miles below the confluence of Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers. Coosada, Elmore County, Alabama, is built on the same spot. “They are not Creeks,” says Hawkins (Hawkins, Sketch of the Creek Country $$$, pp. 35, 1799.), although they conform to their ceremonies; a part of this town moved lately beyond the Mississippi, and have settled there.” G. W. Stidham, who visited their settlement in Polk county, Texas, during the Secession war, states that they lived there east of the Alibamu, numbered about 200 persons, were pure-blooded and very superstitious. Some Creek Indians are with them, who formerly lived in Florida, between the Seminoles and the Lower Creeks. Their tribal name is differently spelt: Coosadas, Koösati, Kosádi, Coushatees, etc. Milfort, Mem. p. 265, writes it Coussehaté. This tribe must not be confounded with the Conshacs, q. v. From an Alibamu Indian, Sekopechi, we have a statement on the languages spoken by the people of the Creek confederacy (Schoolcraft, Indians, I, 266 sq.): “The Muskogees speak six different dialects: Muskogee, Hitchitee, Nauchee, Euchee, Alabama and Aquassawtee, but all of them generally understand the Muskogee language.” This seems to indicate that the Alibamu dialect differs from Koassáti, for this...

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The Hitchiti Language

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now The Hitchiti Dialect of the Maskoki language family is analogous, though by no means identical with the Creek dialect in its grammatic out lines. Many points of comparison will readily suggest them selves to our readers, and enable us to be comparatively short in the following sketch. The female dialect is an archaic form of Hitchiti parallel to archaic Creek; both were formerly spoken by both sexes. Only the common form (or male language) of Hitchiti will be considered here. Hitchiti Phonetics The Hitchiti phonetic system is the same as in Creek, except that the sonant mutes, b, g, are more distinctly heard (d is quite rare). The processes of alternation are the same in both dialects. Many vowels of substantives are short in Creek, which appear long in Hitchiti: ă’pi tree: H. ā’pi; h ă’si sun, moon: H. hā’si; nĭ’ta day: H. níta etc. Hitchiti Language Morphology Noun. The case inflection of the substantive, adjective, of some pronouns and of the nominal forms of the verb is effected by the suffixes: -i for the absolute, -ut for the subjective, -un for the objective case: yáti person, yátut, yátun; náki what, which, nákut, nákun. A few verbals inflect in -a, -at, -an; for instance, those terminating in -hunga. The diminutive ending is the same as in...

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Hitchiti Indian Tribe

Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. Start Now The Hitchiti tribe, of whose language we present an extensive specimen in this volume, also belongs to the southeastern group, which I have called Apalachian. Hitchiti town was, in Hawkins time, established on the eastern bank of Chatahuchi River, four miles below Chiaha. The natives possessed a narrow strip of good land bordering on the river, and had the reputation of being honest and industrious. They obtained their name from Hitchiti creek, so called at its junction with Chatahuchi river, [and in its upper course Ahíki (Ouhe-gee); cf. List] from Creek: ahí-tchita “to look up (the stream).” They had spread out into two branch settlements: Hitchitúdshi or Little Hitchiti, on both sides of Flint River, below the junction of Kitchofuni Creek, which passes through a county named after it; and Tutalósi on Tutalosi creek, a branch of Kitchofuni creek, twenty miles west of Hitchitúdshi (Hawkins, p. 60. 65). The existence of several Hitchiti towns is mentioned by C. Swan in 1791; and Wm. Bartram states that they “speak the Stincard language.” There is a popular saying among the Creeks, that the ancient name of the tribe was Atchík’hade, a Hitchiti word which signifies white heap (of ashes). Some Hitchiti Indians trace their mythic origin to a fall from the sky, but my informants, Chicote and G....

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