Wappo. An Americanization of Spanish Guapo. “brave,” given them on account of their stubborn resistance to Spanish military aggression. Also called:
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- Ash-o-chl-mi, a name given by Powers (1877).
- Soteomellos or Sotomieyos, names given by Taylor (1860-63).
Wappo Connections. The Wappo language constituted a very divergent form of speech of the Yukian linguistic family.
Wappo Location. On the headwaters of Napa River and Pope and Putah Creeks, and a stretch of Russian River.
Wappo Subdivisions and Villages
Following are their dialectic divisions and the villages in each, the names in italic being principal towns in as many village communities:
- Southern Wappo:
- Anakota-noma, at St. Helena.
- Kaimus, at Yountville.
- Tsemanoma, northeast of St. Helena.
- Wilikos, near the head of Sonoma Creek.
- Central Wappo:
- Maiyakama, south of Calistoga.
- Melka’wa-hotsa-noma, at site of Middletown, Driver.
- Mutistul, between the Napa River and Russian River drainage.
- Nihlektsonoma, north of Calistoga.
- Tselmenan, north of Calistoga.
- Northern Wappo:
- Lok-noma, northeast of Middletown.
- Petinoma, north of Middletown.
- Uyuhanoma, east of Middletown.
- Western Wappo:
- Ashaben, near Lytton.
- Gayechin, near Lytton.
- Hol-tcu’kolo, location unknown.
- Koloko, on Russian River below Geyserville.
- Malalachahl, at Lytton.
- Nets-tul, northeast of Tsimitu-tsonoma.
- Oso’ynk-eju, west of Russian River and southeast of Geyserville.
- Owotel-peti, east of Tsimitutsonoma.
- Pipoholma, on Russian River below Geyserville.
- Shei-kana, location unknown.
- Shimela, on Russian River below Geyserville.
- Tsi’mitu-tso-noma, on the east bank of Russian River some miles below Geyserville.
- Tekenan-tso-noma, near Geysers in Sulphur Creek drainage.
- Unutsa’wa-holma-noma, north of Tsi’mitu-tso-noma.
- Lile’ek Wappo:
- Daladan, on Cole Creek.
- Kabetsawam, on Cole Creek.
Driver (1939) adds the following names of camp sites, presumably in the country of the Western Wappo: Halfsh-wah1 k-holma, Ho’lko-mota, Hut-mitul, Nuya-hotsa, Tcano-nayuk, Ts’awo-tul, Tikomota, Walma-pesite.
Wappo Population. Kroeber (1925) estimates 1,000 Wappo in 1770 as a maximum; the census of 1910 returned 73. (See Yuki.)