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Treaty of June 25, 1817

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A treaty of peace and friendship made and concluded between William Clark and Auguste Chouteau, commissioners on the part and behalf of the United states of America, of the one part, and the undersigned chiefs and warriors of the Poncarar tribe of Indians, on the [their] part and of their said tribe of the other part.

The parties being desirous of re-established peace and friendship between the United States and their said tribe, and of being placed, in all things and every respect, upon the same footing upon which they stood before the late war between the United States and Great Britain, have agreed to the following articles:

Article I. Every injury or act of hostility by one or either of the contracting parties against the other, shall be mutually forgiven and forgot.

Article II. There shall be perpetual peace and friendship between all the citizens of the United States of America and all the individuals composing the said Poncarar tribe; and all the friendly relations that existed between them before the war shall be, and the same are hereby, renewed.

Article III. The undersigned chiefs and warriors, for themselves and their said tribe, do hereby acknowledge themselves to be under the protection of the United States of America, and of no other nation, power, sovereign, whatever.

In witness whereof, the said William Clark and Auguste Chouteau, commissioners as aforesaid, have hereunto subscribed their names and affixed their seals, this twenty-fifth day of June, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventeen, and of the independence of the United States the forty-first.

William Clark
Auguste Chouteau
Aquelaba, the Fighter, his x mark
Gradonga, Fork-tailed Hawk, his x mark
Shondagaha, Smoker, his x mark
Kihegashinga, Little Chief, his x mark
Necawcompe, the Handsome Man, his x mark
Ahahpah, the Rough Buffalo Horn, his x mark
Showeno, the Comer, his x mark
Bardegara, he who stands fire, his x mark

Witnesses present:
Lewis Bissel, Acting Secretary to the Commissioners
Manual Liea, United States Indian Agent
Benja O’Fallon, United States Indian Agent
R, Graham, Indian Agent for Illinois
Dr. Wm, J. Clarke
B. Vasques
Saml. Solomon, Interpreter
Stephen Julien, United States Indian Interpreter
Joseph Lafleche, Interpreter

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