Timucua Tribes, Towns, Chiefs and Provinces
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Below is a practically complete list of Timucua provinces, tribes, towns, and chiefs, so far as they have been revealed to us by the early writers.
Abino. This town and two others named Tucuro and Utiaca were said to be 40 leagues inland from St. Augustine, four days’ journey, and to be 1½ to 2 leagues apart. Their country is mentioned as a good agricultural region.
Acahano. One of the chiefs living inland from San Pedro, who met Ibarra in 1604.
Acassa. A town inland from Tampa Bay.
Acela. See Vicela.
Acuera, Aquera, Acquera, Aouera. An important province somewhere near the upper course of the Ocklawaha River. In 1655 it was the seat of a Franciscan mission called San Luis, and there was another mission there known as Santa Lucia.
Agile. See Assile.
Aguacalecuen, Aguacaleyquen, Caliquen. A town and province visited by De Soto. It seems to have lain between the Suwanee and its branch, the Santa Fe.
Ahoica. A town which gave its name to the mission of Santa Cathalina de Ahoica, which seems to have been somewhere near the Santa Fe River.
Alachepoyo. A town inland from Tampa Bay.
Alatico, Olatayco. A town belonging to the province of San Pedro or Tacatacum. The name is probably from holata, chief, and hica, town settlement.
Alimacani, Allimacany, Halmacanir, Alimacany. An island and town not far to the north of the mouth of St. Johns River.
Amaca. A town inland from Tampa Bay.
Amacarisse. A mission of the province of Timucua existing in 1655 is called Nombre do Dios de Amacarisse. This was settled by Yamasee, and its name is probably the original of the name Yamacraw.
Anacape, Nacape, Anacabila. A town in the Fresh Water province which gave its name to the mission of San Antonio de Anacape (1655). It was 20 leagues south of St. Augustine. Reckoning them in their order from St. Augustine southward the Fresh Water towns were: Tocoy, Antonico(?), St. Julian, Filache, Equale, Anacape, Maiaca. Yamasee were settled here in 1680.
Anacharaqua. A place mentioned by Laudonnière.
Antonico, Atonico, possibly also called Tunsa. One of the Fresh Water towns. The name is probably Spanish. (See Anacape.)
Apalu, Apalou, Hapaluya. A town mentioned by the De Soto chroniclers and Laudonnière. It was in the northwestern part of the Timucua country near Oyachile and in the province of Hostaqua. The name means “fort” in Timucua.
Aquera. See Acuera.
Arapaja, Harpaha. This place gave its name to the mission of Santa Marfa de los Angeles de Arapaja, which was 70 leagues from St. Augustine, probably north-west.
Araya. A place in Florida south of the Withlacoochee.
Archaha. A place mentioned by Laudonnière.
Assile, Agile, Axille, Aguil, Ochile, Ocilla, Asile. An important town in the westernmost part of the Timucua country. It gave its name to the mission of San Miguel de Assile and to the River Ocilla.
Astina. Given by Laudonnière as the name of a chief and town.
Atuluteca. A town which gave its name to the mission of San Felipe de Athuluteca. This is called in another place San Pedro de Atuluteca. It was probably near San Pedro or Cumberland Island.
Ayacamale. There is a single reference to this town in one of the Lowery MSS.
Ayaocuto. It gave its name to the mission of San Martin de Ayaocuto. The chief of this town was leader in the Timucua insurrection of 1656.
Aybe. See Yui.
Ayotore, Athore. Governor Ibarra gives this town as one of those in the country inland from San Pedro but subject to the chieftainess of Nombre de Dios. Laudonnière seems to place it nearer the St. Johns.
Beca, Yeca. Mentioned among the towns whose chiefs came to “give their obedience” to Governor de Canço.
Becao. Mentioned in the same connection as the last.
Bejesi. Mentioned once in the Lowery MSS. Possibly the Apalachee town of Wacissa.
Cachipile. This town gave its name to a mission, Santa Cruz de Gachipile, in 1655.
Çacoroy, Zacoroy. A town south of St. Augustine, 1½ leagues from Nocorooo.
Cadecha. One of the towns reported to the French in 1565 as allied with Utina.
Calabay. See Sarauahi.
Calany. A town reported to the French in 1565 to be allied with Utina.
Cale. See Ocale.
Caliquen. See Aguacalecuen.
Cañogacola. A warlike tribe near the Suwanee mentioned by Fontaneda. I believe these were the Potano. (See pp. 29-30.)
Capaloey. Ranjel records this as the name of a chief near Tampa Bay.
Caparaca, Capoaca, Xapuica(?). A town southwest of Nocoroco and south of St. Augustine.
Cascangue. See Icafi.
Casti. Given by Laudonnière as a Timucua town.
Cayuco. A town near Tampa Bay.
Chamini. A town that gave its name to the mission of San Ildefonso de Ghamini.
Chilili. See Çilili.
Chimaucayo. A town south of St. Augustine.
Chinica, Chinisca. A town 1½ leagues from San Juan del Puerto, and attached to it as a mission station.
Cholupaha. A Florida town reached by De Soto just before he came to Aguacaley-quen. ,
Chuaquín . A town which gave its name to the mission of San Francisco de Chuaquín.
Çicale, Cicale, Çical, Sicale. A town south of St. Augustine and 3 leagues south of Nocoroco.
Ciguache. See Siyagueche.
Çilili, Chilili, Chilily. A town mentioned by Laudonnière and by one of the older Spanish chroniclers.
Colucuchia, Colcuhia. A town several leagues south of Nocoroco.
Corruque, Corrouque, Curruche, Curruquey, Curruque. See Sumique.
Coya. A Florida town mentioned by Laudonnière.
Disnica. A town given in the Lowery MSS. and probably south of St. Augustine. It may be miscopied as d is rarely found in Timucua names.
Dulchanchellin. A chief met by Narvaez in the western Timucua country. (See p. 334.)
Epalamototo. A town which gave its name to the mission of San Diego de Egalamototo (1680).
Eçita. Given by Ranjel as a chief and perhaps town near Tampa Bay, in 1539. It may be a variant of Oçita (q.v.)
Eclauou. A town mentioned by Laudonnière, 1565.
Edelano, Lano. An island in the St. Johns River and a town on the same.
Elajay. An old field. It may have been the site of Elafay. (see net list).
Elanogue. A town in the Fresh Water province, near Antonico.
Emola. A town mentioned by Laudonnière.
Equale, Loguale. A town in the Fresh Water country, fifth in order from St. Augustine.
Ereze. A town inland from Tampa Bay.
Esquega. A chief whose province, according to an early Spanish document, lay on the west coast of Florida beftween those of Pebe and Osigubede.
Etocale. See Ocale.
Exangue. A town in the neighborhood of San Pedro (Tacatacuru).
Filache. A town in the Fresh Water province, the fourth in order from St. Augustine.
Guacara. A town which gave its name to the mission of San Juan de Guacara. It took part in the Timucua rising of 1656; subsequently it was occupied by Apalachee.
Guaçoco. A plain, and probably a town, in the Tocobaga country. Recorded by Ranjel.
Guatutima. An Indian of rank belonging to Aguacalecuen. Mentioned by Ranjel.
Halmacanir. See Alimacani.
Hapaluya. See Apalu.
Harpaha. See Arapaja.
Heliocopile. A chief and town mentioned by Laudonnière.
Helmacape. A chief and town mentioned by Laudonnière.
Hicachirico. A town 1 league from San Juan del Puerto, the missionary at which point visited it.
Hiocaia. A chief, and probably a town, mentioned by Laudonnière.
Homoloa, Homolona. See Moloa.
Horruque. See Surruque.
Hostaqua, Hostaque, Houstaqua, Yustaga, Yustaqua, Ustaga, Ustaqua, Ostaga. A province in the northwestern portion of the Timucua country bordering on the Apalachee. It seems to have consisted of a number of towns or small tribes, probably not always under one government. That there were some differences between these people and the rest of the Timucua appears to be indicated by one of the early writers who speaks of “the provinces of the Ustaqua and Timuqua.”
Huara. A town inland from San Pedro. The chief was summoned by Ibarra to meet him in San Pedro.
Hurripacuxi. See Orriparacogi.
Icafi, Icafui, Ycafui. A Timucua province identical with or confused with Cascangue. It lay on the border between the Timucua and Guale provinces, apparently on the mainland, and comprised seven or eight towns. It was visited by the missionary at San Pedro.
Itaraholata, Ytara. A small town abounding in corn which De Soto entered on day before he reached Potano. (For the meaning of holata see Alatico.)
Juraya. A rancheria in Florida, about 7 leagues from the Utina Paja hacienda.
Laca. A town which gave its name to the mission of San Diego de Laca (1655), 7 leagues from St. Augustine.
Lamale. A town inland from San Pedro. The chief came to see Ibarra in 1604.
Lano. See edelano.
Loquale. See Equale.
Luca. A town visited by De Soto. It was between Tampa Bay and the Withlacoochee River.
Machara, Machava, Machagua. A town which gave its name to the mission of Santa Elena de Machaba. It was inland near the northern border of the Timucua country.
Maiaca. A town which gave its name to the mission of San Salvador de Maiaca (1680). What is probably the same town appears in the mission list of 1655 as San Salvador de Macaya. We also find a town the name of which is spelled Maycoya or Mayguia. Either two towns have been confused or the letters in one name transposed. Maiaca was the most distant from St. Augustine of all the Fresh Water towns. It was a few leagues north of Cape Canaveral, on St. Johns River. Laudonnière also spells the name Mayarque and Maquarqua.
Maiera. See Mayara.
Malaca, Malica. A town south of St. Augustine and Nocoroco. Evidently the Malica of Laudonnière.
Maland. See Perquymaland.
Marracou. A chief and town mentioned by Laudonnière.
Mathiaqua, Omitiaqua. A chief and town mentioned by Laudonnière.
Mayaca. See Maiaca.
Mayajuaca, Mayjuaca. A town near Maiaca, for which Fontenada is the principal authority.
Mayara, Mayrra, Maiera. A town and chief of the lower St. Johns River mentioned by Laudonnière.
Mocama. The mission on Cumberland Island was called San Pedro Mocama, and Mocama may have been the native name of the town, but the name may also have been transferred from the religious province which was called the province of Mocama. The word means “on the sea.”
Mocoço, Moquoso, Mogoso. A province of considerable importance north of Tampa Bay and apparently on Hillsborough River. It is mentioned by the De Soto chroniclers, Laudonnière, and other explorers.
Mogote. A town south of St. Augustine in the region of Nocoroco.
Moloa, Moloua, Molo, Molona, Mollona, Homoloa, Homolous, Omoloa, Motoa. A town mentioned by Laudonnière and some early Spanish writers, on the south side of St. Johns River, near its mouth. De Gourgues places one of similar name 60 leagues inland on the same river. It is probably identical with the Motoa mentioned by Ibarra as a chief and town near San Juan del Puerto at the mouth of the St. Johns River. An early Spanish document speaks of this town, or its chief, as “Moloa the brave.” It was later a mission station 5 leagues from San Juan del Puerto.
Nacape. See Anacape.
Naguarete. A chief in the country between Tampa Bay and the Withlacoochee River, mentioned by Ranjel.
Napa, Napuica, Napuyca (hica means town or settlement). An island, village, and mission station 1 league from San Pedro. A mission station called Santo Domingo was in this island and in or near it Santa Maria de Sena.
Napituca, Napetaca. A village apparently in the province of Aguacaelcuen, between the Suwannee and Santa De Rivers. Ranjel describes it as “a very pleasant village, in a pretty spot, with plenty of food.” It was here that the people of Aguacalecuen endeavored to recover their chief.
Natobo (or Ratobo). A mission station 2½ leagues from San Juan del Puerto.
Nia Cubacani. A chieftaness mentioned by Laudonnière. Nia is the Timucua word meaning “woman.” No town bore this name.
Nocoroco. A town at the mouth of a river (Halifax River?) bearing the same name which was one day’s journey south of Matanzas Inlet.
Ocale, Ocaly, Cale, Etocale, Olagale. A province and town which De Soto passed through. It was north of the Withlacoochee, not far from the present Ocala.
Ochile, Ocilla. See Assile.
Oçita, Ucita. A town at or near the head of Hillsborough Bay, where De Soto landed.
Olata Ouae Utina. Full name of the head chief of Utina or Timucua, according to Laudonnière.
Olatayco. See Alatico.
Olagale. See Ocale.
Olotacara. A Florida chief prominent in the account of the De Gourgues expedition.
Omitiaqua. See Mathiaqua.
Omoloa. See Moloa.
Onathaqua. Mentioned by Laudonnière as a tribe or town near Cape Canaveral.
Onatheaqua. Given by Laudonnière as the name of a province in the northwestern portion of Florida, bordering on the Apalachee.
Oribia, Oribe. See Uribia.
Orriparacogi, Orriparagi, Urriparacoxi, Paracoxi, Hurripacuxi, Urribaracuxi, Urripacoxit. A chief and province spoken of by the De Soto chroniclers. It was inaland, northeast of Tampa Bay.
Orriygua. Given by Ranjel as the name of a chief living north of Tampa Bay.
Osiquevede, Osigubede. A province mentioned by Fontenada south of Apalachee (see p. 30).
Ossachile. See Uçachile.
Ostaga. See Hostaqua.
Panara. One of the towns lying inland from San Pedro; the chief came to meet Ibarra in 1604.
Paracoxi. See Orriparacogi.
Parca. This town name appears in one document. The spelling is somewhat in doubt.
Patica. A town mentioned by Laudonnière, on the seacoast 8 leagues south of St. Johns River. Another town of the same name was on the west bank of the St. Johns in the territory of the Timucua tribe. Le Moyne spells the latter Patchica. An early Spanish document speels the name Palica.
Pebe. Given in an early Spanish manuscript as the name of a chief on the west coast of Florida between Cañogacola and Esquega.
Pentoaya. Name of a town at the head of the River of Ais.
Perquymaland. This seems to be given as a town soth of St. Augustine and Nocoroco, but is doubtful whether the name has been copied correctly. There may be two names here, the original being “Perqui y Maland.”
Pia. A town on the east coast south of St. Augustine and Nocoroco.
Pitano. A mission station a league or half a league from San Pablo (Puturiba).
Piyaya. Given in an early Spanish manuscript as the name of a chief on the west coast of Florida between Osigubede and Tanpacaste.
Pooy, Pojoy. Mentioned in a Spanish document of 1612 as a town or province situated on a certain bay. The document says: “The best bay [on the south-western coast of Florida] is the bay of Pooy, which is where the Indians say Hernando de Soto disembarked.” This is Tampa Bay or that part of it known as Hillsborough Bay. A letter of 1625 mentions a province called Posoy, which is probably identical with this. In 1680 a Calusa province is referred to called Rojoi, said to contain a population of non-Christian Indians numbering 300. Rojoi is probably a misspelling of Pojoi (=Pojoy).
Potano, Potanou, Patano. One of the most important provinces or tribes in Florida and seemingly the most warlike. It was in the Alachua plains and was later the seat of the mission of San Francisco de Potano.
Potaya. A town and mission station 4 leagues from San Juan del Puerto.
Potoyotoya. A carry back of Cape Canaveral, where the Indians moved their canoes across from one lagoon to another.
Puala. A town in the neighborhood of San Pedro, whose chief came to see Gov. Ibarra in 1604.
Punhuri. A town inland from San Pedro, whose chief came to see Ibarra in 1604.
Puturiba, Poturiba, Potoriba, Pothohiriva, Potogiribia. A town and missionary seat which seems to have been located on San Pedro (Cumberland) Island near its northern end. The river which separated the provinces of Timucua and Guale, and which was probably the Satilla, bore its name. The chief of this town was among the insurgents of 1656. The mission was called San Pedro y San Pablo de Puturiba.
Ratobo. See Natobo.
Sabobche, Savovochequeya. A town near the east coast south of St. Augustine and Nocoroco.
[St. Julian.] One of the Fresh Water towns, the third from St. Augustine. The native name is not preserved, or at least not identified.
Salinacani. Given by Laudonnière as the name of a Florida river; probably a misprint of Halimacani (see Alimacani).
[San Mateo.] A village about 2 leagues from San Juan del Puerto.
[San Pablo.] A village about 1½ leagues from San Juan del Puerto. To be distinguished from San Pedro y San Pablo do Poturiba (see Puturiba).
[San Sebastian.] A town on an arm of the sea near St. Augustine, destroyed about 1600 by a flood.
Sarauahi, Saraurahi, Saracary, Serranay, Sarabay, Carabay, Calabay. Apparently the name of Nassau River and a town a quarter of a league from San Juan del Puerto.
Saturiwa, Saturiua, Saturiona, Saturiba, Satoriva, Sotoriba. One of the leading chiefs in Laudonnière’s time, and his province. It is scarcely mentioned by the Spaniards. The province lay on both sides of the St. Johns at its mouth. Doña Maria, a leading supporter of the Spaniards, whose town was close to St. Augustine, probably ruled over the Saturiwa territories in later times.
Seloy. See Soloy.
Sena. I do not know whether this is a native or a Spanish word. A mission not appearing in the regular lists was known as Santa Maria de Sena. Possibly this is intended for Sienna. It was on an inlet north of the mouth of the St. Johns, perhaps Amelia River.
Sicale. See Çicale.
Siyagueche, Ciouachb. A town near Cape Canaveral.
Socochuno. A town mentioned in one of the early Spanish documents.
Soloy. A town not far from St. Augustine. It was probably on the river called by the French Seloy and Seloy is probably a variant form of the word.
Surruque, Surruche, Surrucle, Serralli, Corruque, Corrouque, Curruche, Curruquey, Surude, Curruque, Urrucle, Horruque, Zorruque. A town or tribe at Cape Canaveral. It is probably the Sorrochos of Le Moyne’s map and I believe also the original of his Sarrop Lake Sarrope is probably placed too far to the south and too far inland. The French knew of it only by hearsay.
Tacatacuru, Tacadocorou, Tacatacouru, Tecatacourou, Tacururu. The native name for Cumberland Island, later known to the Spaniards as San Pedro. It may also have been the ancient name of the chief town, the seat of the mission of San Pedro Mocamo, which was situated on the inner side of Cumberland Island near the southern end and 2 leagues from the Barra of San Pedro.
Tapocole. A town inland from Tampa Bay.
Tahupa. A town inland from San Pedro, whose chief came to visit Ibarra in 1604.
Tanpacaste. Given in an old Spanish document as a chief between Piyaya on the north and Pooy on the south.
Tarihica, Tarixica, Tharihica, Tarica. A town 54 leagues from St. Augustine which gave its name to the mission of Santa Cruz de Tarihica. It was one of the 11 towns which rebelled in 1656.
Timucua, Thimogoa. Name of the largest confederacy or tribe in Florida, also called Utina. It has given its name to a group of tribes speaking similar dialects, the Timuquanan linguistic stock. With the possible exception of the Potano it was the most powerful tribe as well as the largest. The center of its domain was about Santa Fe Lake and its overlordship or dominance extended to the eastern shores of the St. Johns.
Tocaste. A village which De Soto passed through. It was on a large lake some distance south of the Withlacoochee.
Tocoaya, Tocohaya, Tocoya. A town very close to San Pedro, Cumberland Island. Its chief was one of those who met Ibarra at the latter place in 1604.
Tocobaga, Tocovaga, Tocobaa, Tocopaca, Topobaga. A chief and province frequently mentioned in Spanish documents but not by De Soto or the later writers. It was on the west coast and one old document places it, probably erroneously, between the province of Mogoso on the north and that of Cañogacola on the south. The chief town was at the head of one of the arms of Tampa Bay.
Tocoy, Tocoi. A town of the Fresh Water district, the nearest of all to St. Augustine, from which it was 5 leagues distant, according to one writer, and 24 according to another.
Tolapatafi. A town which gave its name to one of the later Florida missions, San Matheo de Tolapatafi. It seems to have been in the western part of the Timucua country, near Assile.
Toloco. A town from which the mission of Santa Fe de Toloco received its name. It is perhaps the Santo Thomas de Santa Fee of the mission list of 1680.
Tomeo. A town apparently in the neighborhood of the Fresh Water province.
Tucura. A town apparently in the same province as the above.
Tucuro. One of three towns 40 leagues from St. Augustine. See Abino. This may be identical with the above, though the distance seems to be against such a supposition.
Tunsa. Set Antonico.
Uçachile, Uzachil, Ossachile, Veachile. This has been discussed in full in dealing with the Osochi tribe. (See p. 165.)
Ucita. See Oçita.
Ufera. See Yufera.
Ulumay. A province and town just south of Cape Canaveral. There is reason to think that it belonged to the province of Ais rather than to the Timucua country.
Uqueten. Ranjel gives this as the name of the first village of the province of Ocale.
Urica. A town which gave its name to the mission of San Augustin de Urica (1655).
Uriutina. Ranjel describes this as “a village of pleasant aspect and abundant food.” It was passed by De Soto just after crossing the river of Aguacalecuen.
Urripacoxit, Urribaracuxi, Urriparacoxi. See Orriparacogi.
Urrucle. See Surruque.
Urubia, Urruya, Oribia, Oribe. A town near Cape Canaveral, 1½ leagues from the town of Surruque.
Ustaga, Ustaqua. See Hostaqua.
Utayne. A town inland from San Pedro, whose chief came to see Ibarra in 1604.
Utiaca. A town 40 leagues from St. Augustine. See Abino.
Utichini. A place evidently situated inland from San Pedro, and within a league or half a league of San Pablo (Puturiba).
Utina. A synonym for Timucua, q. v.
Utina Paja. Timucua name of a Spanish hacienda.
Utinamocharra, Utinama. A town passed by De Soto one day’s journey north of Potano.
Uzachil. See Ocachile.
Veachile. See Ocachile.
Veca. See Beca.
[Vera Cruz.] A village half a league from San Juan del Puerto.
Vicela, Acela. A small town passed through by De Soto a short distance south of the Withlacoochee.
Xapuica. This occurs in connection with some Guale towns, but the word appears to be rather Timucua. It may be a synonym for Caparaca, q. v.
Xatalalano. A town inland from San Pedro, whose chief came to see Ibarra in 1604.
Yaocay. A town in the Fresh Water province, near Antonico.
Ycafui. See Icafi.
Ycapalano. A town inland from San Pedro and said to be within a league or half a league of the mission of San Pablo, presumably the mission of San Pedro y San Pablo de Poturiba.
Ytara. See Itaraholata.
Yua. A town whose chief came “to give obedience” to Mendezde Canco in 1598 or shortly before. Perhaps this is really Yui.
Yufera, Ufera. A town inland from San Pedro, apparently toward the northwest, for it was passed through by some missionaries returning to San Pedro from the upper Altamaha. Its chief was one of those inland chiefs who came to visit Ibarra in 1604.
Yui, Ybi, Yby, Aybi(?). The name of this province should probably be pronounced Ewe in English. It was a small province on the mainland, consisting of five towns, and was 14 leagues from San Pedro. It was visited by the missionary at San Pedro.
Yustaga, Yustaqua. See Hostaqua.
Zacoroy. See Çacoroy.
Zorruque. See Surruque.