Piro Pueblo Indians. Significance of Piro unknown. Also called:
- Norteflos, “northerners” in Spanish, because inhabiting the region of El Paso del Norte (may also refer to Tiwa).
- Tiikahun, Islets Tiwa name for all pueblos below their village, meaning “southern pueblos.”
Piro Pueblo Connections. They were a division of the Tanoan linguistic family, which in turn is a part of the Kiowa-Tanoan stock.
Piro Pueblo Location. In the early part of the seventeenth century the Piro comprised two divisions, one inhabiting the Rio Grande Valley from the present town of San Marcial, Socorro County, northward to within about 50 miles of Albuquerque, where the Tiwa settlements began; and the other, sometimes called Tompiros and Salineros, occupying an area east of the Rio Grande in the vicinity of the salt lagoons, or salinas, where they adjoined the eastern group of Tiwa settlements on the south.
- Abo Pueblo, on the Arroyo del Empedradillo, about 25 miles east of the Rio Grande and 20 miles south of Manzano, in Valencia County.
- Agua Nueva Pueblo, on the Rio Grande between Socorro and Servilleta.
- Alamillo Pueblo, on the Rio Grande about 12 miles north of Socorro.
- Barrancas Pueblo, on the Rio Grande near Socorro.
- Qualacu Pueblo, on the east bank of the Rio Grande near the foot of the Black Mesa, on or near the site of San Marcial.
- San Felipe Pueblo, on the Rio Grande, probably near the present San Marcial, Socorro County.
- San Pascual Pueblo, on the east bank of the Rio Grande, opposite the present San Antonio village, Socorro County.
- Senecu Pueblo, on the west bank of the Rio Grande, at the site of the present village of San Antonio, 13 miles below Socorro.
- Senecu del Sur Pueblo (also Tiwa), on the southeast bank of the Rio Grande, a few miles below El Paso, in Chihuahua, Mexico.
- Sevilleta Pueblo, on the east bank of the Rio Grande about 20 miles above Socorro.
- Socorro Pueblo or Pilabo Pueblo, on the site of the present Socorro.
- Socorro del Sur Pueblo, on both sides of the Rio Grande a few miles below El Paso, Tex.
- Tabira Pueblo, at the southern apex of the Mesa de los Jumanos, northeast of the present Socorro.
- Tenabo Pueblo, probably at the Siete Arroyos, northeast of Socorro and east of the Rio Grande.
- Teypana Pueblo, nearly opposite the present town of Socorro, on the east bank of the Rio Grande, in Socorro Couuty.
- Tenaquel Pueblo (?).
Following are names of deserted pueblos near the lower Rio Grande which were also in all probability occupied by the Piro:
- Amo Pueblo
- Aponitre Pueblo
- Aquicabo Pueblo
- Atepua Pueblo
- Ayqui Pueblo
- Calciati Pueblo
- Canocan Pueblo
- Cantensapue Pueblo
- Cunquilipinoy Pueblo
- Encaquiagualcaca Pueblo
- Huertas Pueblo, 4 miles below Peixol6e.
- Pencoana Pueblo
- Penjeacd Pueblo
- Pesquis Pueblo
- Peytre Pueblo
- Polooca Pueblo
- Preguey Pueblo
- Pueblo Blanco, on the west rim of the
- Medano Pueblo, or great sand-flow, east of the Rio Grande.
- Pueblo Colorado, same location as Pueblo Blanco.
- Pueblo de la Parida, same location as Pueblos Blanco and Colorado.
- Pueblo del Alto, on the east side of the Rio Grande, 6 miles south of Belen.
- Queelquelu Pueblo
- Quialpo Pueblo
- Quiapo Pueblo
- Quiomaquf Pueblo
- Quiubaco Pueblo
- Tecahanqualahamo Pueblo
- Teeytraan Pueblo
- TercAo Pueblo
- Texa Pueblo
- Teyaxa Pueblo
- Tohol Pueblo
- Trelagf Pueblo
- Trelaquepu Pueblo
- Treye y Pueblo
- Treypual Pueblo
- Trula Pueblo
- Tuzahe Pueblo
- Vumahein Pueblo
- Yancomo Pueblo
- Zumaque Pueblo
The following deserted pueblos were inhabited either by the Piro or the Tiwa:
- Acoli Pueblo
- Aggey Pueblo
- Alle Pueblo
- Amaxa Pueblo
- Apena Pueblo
- Atuyama Pueblo
- Axauti Pueblo
- Chein Pueblo
- Cizentetpl Pueblo
- Couna Pueblo
- Dhiu Pueblo
- Hohota Pueblo
- Mejia Pueblo, 5 leagues below Isleta.
- Quanquiz Pueblo
- Salineta Pueblo, 4 leagues from Guadelupe Mission at El Paso, Tex.
- San Bautista Pueblo, on the Rio Grande, 16 miles below Sevilleta.
- San Francisco Pueblo, on the lower Rio Grande between El Paso, Tex., and San Lorenzo.
- Xatoe Pueblo
- Xiamela Pueblo (?).
- Yonalus Pueblo
All the above pueblos not definitely located were probably situated in the Salinas in the vicinity of Abe.
Piro Pueblo History. The western or Rio Grande branch of the Piro was visited by members of Coronado’s Expedition in 1540, by Chamuscado in 1580, by Espejo in 1583, by Onate in 1598, and by Benavides in 1621-30. The establishment of missionaries among them began in 1626, and the efforts of the monks combined with the threats of Apache raids to induce the Indians to concentrate into a smaller number of towns. The first actual mission work among the Piros of the Salinas began in 1629 and was prosecuted rapidly, but before the Pueblo rebellion of 1680 Apache raids had become so numerous that all of the villages of the Salinas region and Senecu on the Rio Grande were abandoned. The Piro were not invited to take part in the great rebellion and when Governor Otermin retreated to El Paso nearly all of them joined him, while the few who remained subse quently scattered. Those who accompanied the governor were settled at Senecu del Sur and Socorro del Sur, where their descendants became largely Mexicanized.
Piro Pueblo Population. The Piro population was estimated at 9,000 early in the sixteenth century, but is now about 60. (See Tiwa Pueblo Indians)