Pecos Indians. From P’e’-a-ku’, the Keresan name of the pueblo. Also called:
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- Acuyé, Cicuyé, probably the name of a former pueblo, Tshiquité or Tziquité.
- Aqiu, Pecos and Jemez name.
- Hiokŭö’k, Isleta Tiwa name.
- K’ok’-o-ro-t’tŭ’-yu, Pecos name of pueblo.
- Los Angeles, mission name.
- Nuestra Señora de los Angeles de Porciúncula, full church name.
- Paego, Keresan name of Pueblo.
- Paequiu or Paequivala, Keresan name of tribe.
- P’a-qu-láh, Jemez name.
- Péahko, Santa Ana name.
- Peaktŭní, Laguna name of Pueblo.
- Tamos, from Espejo.
Pecos Connections. The Pecos belonged to the Jemez division of the Tanoan linguistic family, itself a part of the Kiowa-Tanoan stock.
Pecos Location. On an upper branch of Pecos River, about 30 miles southeast of Santa Fe.
The following are names of ruined Pecos villages:
- Kuuanguala, a few miles southeast of Pecos, near Arroyo Amarillo, at the present site of Rowe.
- Pomojoua, near San Antonio del Pueblo, 3 miles southeast of San Miguel, San Miguel County.
- San Jose, modern Spanish name of locality.
- Seyupa, a few miles southeast of Pecos, at the site of the village of Fulton, San Miguel County.
- Tonchuun, 5 miles southeast of Pecos Pueblo.
Pecos History. According to tradition, the Pecos came originally from some place to the north of their historic seats, but their last migration was from the southeast where they occupied successively the now ruined pueblos at San Jose and Kingman before locating at their final settlement. Pecos was first visited by Coronado in 1540 and afterward by Espejo in 1583, Castano de Sosa in 159091, and Onate in 1598. During the governorship of Oñate, missionaries were assigned to Pecos, and the great church, so long a landmark of the Santa F6 Trail, was erected about 1617. The town suffered severely from attacks of the Apache of the Plains and afterward from the Comanche. In the Pueblo revolts of 168096 it took an active part and suffered proportionately. In 1782 the Pecos mission was abandoned, the place becoming a visita of Santa Fe. A few years later nearly every man in the Pecos tribe is said to have been killed in a raid by the Comanche, epidemics decreased the numbers of the remainder, and in 1838 the old town of Pecos was abandoned. The
17 surviving Pecos Indians moved to Jemez, where their descendants still live.
Pecos Population. At the time of Coronado’s visit in 1540 the population was estimated as 2,0002,500. In 1630 and 1680 there were 2,000 Pecos; in 1760, 599 (including Galisteo); in 179093, 152; in 1805, 104; in 1838, 17; in 1910, 10.
Connection in which the Pecos have become noted. The name Pecos seems assured of permanent preservation as applied to Pecos River, Tex., the largest branch of the Rio Grande, as well as to Pecos County, Texas, and its principal town, and also to a place in San Miguel County, New Mexico, adjacent to the ruins of the aboriginal village. The latter are well known as a result of the archeological work done there by Dr. A. V. Kidder for the Department of Archeology, Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass.