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The Indians all over this continent had names, traditions, religions, ceremonies, feasts, prayers, songs, dances all, more or less, with symbolism and allegory, adapted to circumstances, just as all other races of mankind.
But the world has become so familiar with the continued and ridiculous publications in regard to everything touching upon that race of people that a universal doubt has long since been created and established as to the possibility of refinement of thought and nobleness of action ever having existed among the North American Indian race, ancient or modern; and so little of truth has also been learned regarding the real and true inner life of that peculiar and seemingly isolated race of mankind, that today only here and there can one be found who, from a lifetime association and intimate acquaintance, is well versed in Indian thought, feeling and character, and able to unfold and record the solution of that imagined mystery known as “The Indian Problem,” since they learned it from the Indians themselves. From the Indians own lips they were taught its elucidation, and only as it could be taught and learned, but never again can be taught and learned.
Even as various nations of antiquity of, the eastern continent have left the evidences of their former occupation by the geographical names that still exist, so to have the North American Indians left their evidences upon the western (in dependent of all written history) that they have likewise possessed this continent during unknown ages of the past. The artificial mounds, fortifications, lakes and ponds with their original names and those of rivers, creeks, mountains, bluffs and hills, remain to this day; and here they will remain long after the lips that spoke the language are hushed in death, even continuing to repeat the voices of that prematurely and mercilessly exterminated people.
But alas, how mutilated the orthography and how erroneous the translation of the original Indian names.
What a manifestation of the utter want of even the most remote idea of anything constituting their language!
As an illustration I will here insert a few examples, taken from a publication bearing date February 2nd, 1898, and to which is the signature, “John Hawkins in Philadelphia Times,” with the caption “Names from Indians” and also the important announcement, “Some Interesting; Information Concerning Their Origin. They Contain Curious Bits of Nature, Thought or Fancy, History or Tradition.”
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From among the names mentioned I have selected a few which Mr. Hawkins says are “Choctaw names,” giving also HIS orthography and translation:
First. “Chitimacha (La.) They possess cooking vessels.” Original, Chi-im-ai-ya-chih, Thine to conquer. But the Choctaw words for “They possess cooking vessels” are Original, Ah-la-bush-li ha-lul-li in, Cooking vessels possess they.
Second. “Owatomy, Straight.” Original, Owa-to-my, Hunting in the sunshine.
Third. “Oklahoma (Beautiful land).” Original Qk-la-hum-ma, Red people.
Fourth. “Chicola, The place of foxes.” Original Chu-la ai-an-tah; Fox there.
Fifth. “Arkansas (Bow on the smoky water).” In the Choctaw language, Sho-bo-ta oka chas-sa-la, means smoking water bow, i. e. Bow on a foggy lake.
Sixth. “Tennessee, River of the great bend.” The name given by the ancient Choctaws is Ta-nak-bi chi-toh bok, Big Bend river.
Seventh. “Missouri, Great muddy river.” But the Choctaw words for great muddy river are, Huch-cha hla-chi-ko chitoh. Missouri, if a Choctaw word, is a corruption of Mish-o-hof-fih, Continually rubbing off.
Eighth. “Alabama, “here we rest.” Original. Ul-la ba-noh hosh, The only child. The Choctaw words for: “Here we rest” are Fohah hup-ish-no yak.
Ninth. “Mississippi River, the Great River.” Original. Mish-a-si-pok-ni, Aged beyond. The Choctaw words for Great River are bok chi-toh, or Huch-cha chit-oh. Original, Misha-sipokni Huchcha. A river whose age is beyond computation.
Tenth. Mr. Hawkins says: “A South Carolina river which now bears the prosaic name of Broad, was known to the Indians (Choctaws) as Eswawpuddenah, the dividing-river, after a bloody battle between the Catawbas and Cherokees. The name Piscataway has much the same meaning.” But the Choctaw words for “the dividing-river” are, Hush-koli bok, and Piscataway is a corruption of the Choctaw words, Pus-ka ta-hah, Bread all gone, or Without bread.
In the Fort Smith, (Arkansas) Elevator, February 4th, 1887, the following appeared:
“Among the Choctaws An interesting article from the Cincinnati Graphic, by John R. Music:
The Choctaw tradition states that they traveled east, until from the summit of a mountain range they beheld a well-watered and beautiful land. In rapture they exclaimed: Tsi-g-ar-ma-kee (Chickamauga) good.” But the Choctaw word for good is A-chuk-ma, and Chickamauga is a corruption of the Choctaw words Chik-emai-ah, (may, can, or must, shall or will go in). These is no such word as Tsigar-makee in their language, and, it is reasonable to believe, in no other Indian language. Mr. Music thus continues: “The largest town in this region shows the contact of the Choctaws with the Cherokees, Tsatak (Choctaw) and nu-ger (taken out of the water). Here they drew a dead Choctaw out of the water.” Truly the “Choctaws” of Mr. Music must be a tribe of Indians known only to him. The words of the North American Choctaw “Indians for “dead Choctaw taken out of the water” are (in our phraseology) Il-li (dead) Chah-tah (Choctaw) shu-e-kuch-ih (pulled out) hosh (the) o-ka (water). He also asserts that one of the ancient clans of the Choctaws was named “Hottah Inholata” signifying “beloved of the people.” But the Choctaw words for “beloved of the people,” are Ih-o-lih-to-pah (beloved) okla (people) ho (the), the Prep, of is understood before okla, Be loved of the people.
Another, under the signature of Henry Inman, asserts, through the columns of the Greenville (Texas) Banner, October 9th, 189, that the signification of Apushamataha, the name of the renowned Choctaw Chief, is “The Warrior’s Seat is Finished.”
But the Choctaw words for “the warriors seat is finished,” are Tush-ka ai-ome-bin-i-li ak-okc-ta-hah. Apushamataha is a corruption of the noted chiefs true name. Original, A-num-pa-ish-ta-ya-u-bi, a messenger who kills.
Literally, a messenger of death, i. e., one whose rifle, bow or tomahawk, was alike fatal on the warpath or in the chase.
By request of friends I have here given a few Choctaw and Chickasaw ancient names of places, towns, villages, rivers, creeks, lakes, mounds, bluffs, etc., in the now States of Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, and others, with the derivations, corruptions, originals, orthography and significations. I first give the corruption, followed by the original and signification
- Appalachee. Original, Ap-ah-li-chih, (an ancient Choctaw clan), to whoop at.
- Apalachicola, a town and river in Florida. Original, Ap-e-lu-chih kolih, Help to break.
- Apookta. Original, A-yuk-pa (an ancient Choctaw village in Mississippi). A place of happiness.
- Alabama. In a late publication it is stated that Alabama is a corruption of the Choctaw words, “Alba, vegetation,” and “amo, gather.” But the Choctaw words for “vegetation gather” are Hush-uk (herbage, grass, etc.,) It-tun-a-hah (gathered). I know of no such word as “Alba” in the Choctaw language. It has the word “amba,” signifying However, and the word “amo,” signifying The. Alabama is a corruption of the Choctaw words Ul-la-ba-noh hosh, The only child, and was the name of a noted Choctaw chief who figured in 1746, contemporary with Shulush Humma, another noted Choctaw chief, during the wars of the French against the Chickasaws. The old interpretation of the word Alabama as being a Choctaw word signifying, “Here we rest, or rested,” is a myth. The Choctaw words for “Here we rest, or rested,” are yak (here) hup-ish-no (we all of us) fo-hah (to rest, or rested).
- A-bo-ha kub-lo humma, Strong Red House. The name of an ancient and noted Choctaw chief of the Ok-la hun-na-li iksa, Six People, Iksa, Clan.
- Allamucha. Original, A-lum-a-ka, A hiding place. The name of an, ancient Choctaw town situated near the Alabama line in Lauderdale County, Mississippi.
- Ai-ik-hun-a, A place of learning, a school. The name of a Choctaw village in which was established a missionary station in 1821.
- Iuka. Original, Ai-yu-pi, A place of bathing. The name of a town in north Mississippi.
- Boguefaliah. Original, Bok-fa-lai-yah, Long creek, in Mississippi.
- Buckatunnee. Original, Bok-it-tun-a-hah, collected together. A large creek in Mississippi. The junction of several creeks which, uniting, formed Bokittunahah.
- Betapinbogue. Original, Ni-ta-pm-bok, One Bear creek. A large creek in Mississippi.
- Buttihatche. Original, But-ih huch-cha, White Sumac river. The name of a creek in Mississippi.
- Biwier. Original, Bai-yi-wai-yah, Leaning white oak. A creek in Mississippi.
- Bok-sha-ha, Pearl River. The ancient Choctaw name of Pearl River.
- Biahela. Original, Bai-yi-il-ah, White oak by itself, lone white oak. The name of a place in Mississippi.
- Bulookta. Original, Bo-luk-ta, Square. A place in Mississippi.
- Bok-ta-nak-bi chi-toh, Big Bend River. The ancient Choctaw name of the Tennessee River.
- Boque Hooma. Original, Bok-hum-ma. Red Creek in Mississippi.
- Conehatta. Original, Ko-nih-hut-a, whitish polecat. The name of a creek in Mississippi.
- Caila. Original, Co-i-il-li, dead panther. The name of a creek in Mississippi.
- Chicopah. Original, Shik-o-pah, a plume. The name of a missionary society in Alabama.
- Culleoka. Original, Kul-ih-o-ka, water spring, or spring water. The name of a town in Tennessee.
- Chickahominy. Original, Che-kiho-mai-yih, to become red quickly. A creek in Virginia. A stream of water which, according to an ancient Choctaw tradition, suddenly changed its natural color to that of a coffee color, or brown.
- Chuk-fi-lum-a hih-lah bok, Dancing rabbit creek. The name of a small creek in Mississippi, upon whose banks the Choctaws, in 1830, ceded the last acre of their ancient pos sessions east of the Mississippi river to the United States.
- Chaffelia. Original, Sa-fa-la-yah, I am long. The name of a creek in Mississippi.
- Copiah. Original, Ho-pai-i, War Chief. The name of a county in Mississippi.
- Chulahoma. Original, Chu-la-hum-ma, Red Fox. The name of a creek in Mississippi.
- Chulatchee. Original, Chu-la-huch-cha, Fox River. Name of a stream in Mississippi.
- Chinchehoma. Original, Chish-a-hum-ma, Red Post Oak. The name of an aged Choctaw, whom I personally knew in my youth, and for whom a little stream took its name.
- Chattanooga. Original, Cha-hah-nu-chi, Tall wild flax.
- Chitimacha. Original, Chi-un-ai-ya-chih, Thine to conquer. A place in Louisiana.
- Calolarchi. Original, Ko-loh-lich-ih, To cut in many pieces. The ancient name of a Choctaw village.
- Chickasawha. Original, Chik-a-sah-si-ah, I am a Choctaw. The name of an ancient Chickasaw town in which De Soto and his army wintered in 1541.
- Chunkey. Original, Chuki, A martin the name of a small stream in Mississippi.
- Chualley. Original, Chu-ah-la bok, Cedar creek. The name of a creek in Mississippi.
- Catahoula. Original, Ka-wah-chu-la, barking fox. The ancient Choctaw name of a lake in Louisiana, and now the name of a Parish in Louisiana. It is published that the word “Catahoula” is a Choctaw word derived from “Okatahulo” and meaning “Beloved lake.” But the Choctaw words for Beloved Lake are Ok-hut-ah Ho-li-to-pa. There is no such word in the Choctaw language as Okatahulo.”
- Chickamauga A tributary of the Tennessee River. Original, Chik-emai-ah, may, can or must, shall or will, go in.
- Caloosahatchee. Original, Chas-su-lah huch-cha, crooked river. The ancient Choctaw name of a river in southwest Florida.
- Chauaches. Original, Chah-a-chih, to ennoble. The name of an ancient Choctaw Iksa (clan), which dwelt a few miles north of New Orleans and consisted of only thirty warriors with their families whom Governor Perier caused to be wholly exterminated, in January, 1717, by Negroes the slaves of the French colony; the particulars of which are given in “History of the Natchez.”
- Coashatta. Original, Ko-i-sak-tih, panther bluff. The ancient Choctaw name of a bluff on the Bigbee River in Mississippi.
- Coahoma. Original, Co-i hum ma, red panther. The name of a county in Mississippi.
- Coosa. Original, Chu-sah, tapering. The name of an ancient Choctaw family who were remarkable for their slenderness.
- Etowah. Original, He-to-ka, ball ground. The ancient Choctaw name of a river in Georgia upon whose banks was a noted ball ground.
- Eastabutchie. Original, I-ah-ta-ba-shih, to go mourning. The ancient name of a creek in Mississippi, famous for its fatal sickness; therefore, whoever lived upon its banks would have cause to mourn.
- Faket chee poonta. Original, Fa-kit-chi-pin-ta, very small turkey. The name of an ancient Choctaw village situated on the Bigbee River in Mississippi.
- Falukta bunnee. Original, Fa-lak-na-bun-ah, fox squirrel doubled up. The name of an ancient Choctaw village on the banks of the Bigbee River in Mississippi.
- Hatche camesa. Original, Huch-cha. chu-lo-sah, quiet river. A river with a quiet current.
- Hatchatigbee. Original, Ha-cho-tuk-ni, loggerhead turtle. The ancient Choctaw name of a bluff on the Bigbee River in Mississippi. .
- Habalo chitto. Original, Ha-bo-lih chi-to-lit, greatly diminished. The ancient Choctaw name of a large stream, which had diminished in depth, owing to the washing from the hills. I read the following in THE GLOBE DEMOCRAT, July 18, 1896: Habalo chitto, the name of a river in Mississippi, which means big fight.” But the Choctaw words for “big fight” are it-tib-ih chi-toh.
- Hobakin loopa. Original, Ho-ba-chi yuk-pa, laughing echo. The ancient Choctaw name of a shoal in the Bigbee River in Mississippi.
- Hiyoowunnie. Original, Hi-oh-lih un-i, standing berries. The name of an ancient Choctaw town situated on Chick-a-sah-hah creek, a tributary of Pearl River in Mississippi.
- Hushookwa. Original. Hash-o-kak. something superior which cannot be treated with impunity. The name of an ancient Choctaw town in which Peter P. Pitchlynn was born. Truly an appropriate name for the birth place of that renowned Choctaw orator and fearless states man, once known among the whites in Washington City as the Calhoun of the Choctaw.
- Humecheto. Original, Hum-ma-chi-toh, Big Red. The ancient Choctaw name of a creek in Choctaw County, Mississippi.
- Ittibano. Original, It-ti-ba-no-wah, walking together. The name of an ancient Choctaw village in Mississippi.
- Issaquena. Original, Issiok-hina, Deer Branch. The name of a town in Mississippi.
- Koonowa. Original, Ka-no-wa, the walker. The name of an ancient Choctaw hunter.
- Itawamba. Original, It-i-ai-o-bin-i-li, Wooden seat. That is, the seat occupied by the ancient Chickasaw chief in council assembled. Sometimes it was called Ai-o-bin-i-li, Bench or seat; fa-lai-a, (long) mi-ko (chief), i, e. Long Bench Chief; or Chief of the Long Bench. In our phraseology, The Chair of State. From the “Globe Democrat, July 18th, 1896,” from the New Orleans PICAYUNE, the following derivation and interpretation given by one I. H. Watkins, of the Chickasaw word Itawamba, the name of a county in North Mississippi. He gives the original as “Ita-taka-lombi,” with the interpretation thereof, “Go and kill.” Now the words in the Chickasaw language for go and kill are, mi-ah mich-a-ub-ih. The Choctaws have identically the same, words nor have either any other words for “go and kill.” The word Ita-taka-lombi” is utterly foreign to both languages.
- Loosascoona. Original, Lusa-ko-nih, black polecat, the name of a creek in Mississippi. The ancient Choctaws had four different names for that odoriferous little animal.
- Ko-nih, the general name.
- Ko-nih chuk-cho, a large striped species.
- Ko-nih lu-sa, small, black species.
- Ko-nih shup-ik, a peculiar kind having snouts like pigs, and feeding by rooting, according to the Choctaw tradition. But had become extinct long before the advent of the missionaries in 1818. Evidently, the anteater of Mexico.
- Lobutchy. Original, Lah-buch-ih, to make warm. The name of a creek in Mississippi.
- Looxapalia. Original, Luk-si-oh-pul-a-lih, Swimming terrapin, a town and creek in Lamar county, Mississippi.
- Lucarnatchie. Original, Lus-sah lucha, wet swamp.
- Lapantie bogue. Original, La-pit-tah bok, buck creek. The ancient Choctaw name of a creek in Mississippi.
- Meshoba. Original, Mi-ah-shoh-bih, go in advance until evening. The ancient Choctaw name of a place in Mississippi.
- Mouma. Original, Mo-yum-a, every one. The name of an ancient Choctaw Iksa (clan) in Louisiana. Now the name of a town in the same State, but changed to the name Homer.
- Mishawaka. Original, Mish-a-wa-yah , raised in abundance beyond. The name of a town in Indiana.
- Mokea lusha. Original, Bok-lus-a, black creek. An ancient Choctaw village in Mississippi.
- Mingo ho ma. Original, Mi-ko hum-ma, red chief. A place in Mississippi.
- The Choctaws and Chickasaws had two traditional names for the Mississippi River, as follows:
- Occochappo. Original, O-ka-chash-po-hosh, The ancient waters.
- Father Allouez, a Jesuit priest, when exploring the country from Quebec to Lake Superior, in 1669, first heard of a great river (which proved to be the Mississippi River) called Mecassheba. Original, Mi-ko Si-ah, King I am.
- Neshoba, “Original, Na-sho-ba, Wolf. A County in Mississippi.
- Nittayuma. Original, Nit-a-yum-ma, Bear yonder. The name of a Creek in Mississippi.
- Natchez. Original, Na-chuf-fih, to break off from. A town in Mississippi named after an ancient tribe of Indians that formerly inhabited the country on the Mississippi river; exterminated January 25th, 1733 by the French under Bienville.
- Noxubee. Original, Nak-sho-bih, offensive odor. The name of a Creek and also a County in Mississippi. It took its name according to Choctaw tradition, from a great battle fought upon its banks in the remote past, between the Choctaws, and Muscogees. The Muskogee’s were defeated and left their slain upon the battlefield which were thrown into the creek by the Choctaws; and such were the number that the decomposing mass polluted the air for miles around. It was fought in 1790 according to Choctaw tradition, with 500 warriors slain.
I read the following in the St. Louis Globe Democrat, of July 18th, 1896: “There is in the same state (Mississippi) a creek called Noxubee. The change from the Original in this word has also been very striking. The Indian form of the word was Ok-a-mak-shobi.” There is no such word in the Choctaw or Chickasaw languages.
- Nanna Way ah. Original, Nunih Waiyah, leaning mound. The name of a mound in Mississippi, previously mentioned.
- Ok-la-ta-ba-shih (the people s mourner) was the Noah of the Choctaws, in their tradition of the flood, who made a boat into which he placed his family and provisions and thus saved them truly an appropriate name.
- Oska loosa. Original, Os-si lu-sa, black eagle, a town in Illinois.
- Opelousas. Original, O-pah lus-sah, swamp owl. The name of a place in Alabama.
- Oaktoma. Original, Ok-toh-bi, to be foggy. The name of a creek in Mississippi.
- Okefinokee. Original, O-ka-hi-o-lih, water standing. A swamp in Georgia.
- Ossachile. Original, Os-si-chah-li, swift eagle. The name of an ancient Choctaw chief whom De Soto visited in 1540.
- Omaha. Original, O-mi-ha (if a Choctaw word), it must be. Said to mean, “To go against the current.”
- Osceola. Original, Os-si-o-lachih, Singing Eagle. The renowned Seminole chief and patriot.
- Okolona. Original, Ok-la-lok-on-lih, People gathered together. A town in Chickasaw County, Mississippi.
- Os-ki-fa-kop-lih, Stripped Cane. A large and lengthy creek in Mississippi known as Trimcane.
- Ocklawaha. Original, Ok-la-yan-ha, People subject to fever. The name of a river in Florida.
- Okeion. Original, Oka-i-ah, Moving water. The name of a little place in Mississippi.
- Oktibihha. The beginning of the creek Oka ittibihha (by abbreviation Oktibihha) was known to the Choctaws as O-ka-ai-it-tu-fa-ma (The coming together of the waters), and refers to the junction of the seven large creeks which form it, viz:
- Catarper. Original, Ka-ta-pah, checked or pushed back; i. e., water retarded by drifts.
- Os-ki Fa-kop-lih, cane stripped of its leaves; so called by the Choctaws from the abundance of switch cane growing upon its banks, with which, when stripped of its leaves, they made their beautiful baskets literally the place where the cane is trimmed.
- Bai-yih (white oak) Wai-yih (leaning over).
- Bok (creek) Fa-lai-ah (long).
- Hush-ih (sun) Bok (creek).
- Ba-cha-ya Bok (line creek), which divided the Choctaw and Chickasaw nations on the north, when living east of the Mississippi river.
- Sukatanchi. Original, Shuk-ha Ni-a-chih, hogs fattened. The place where hogs are fattened.
- Okahola. Original, O-ka-ho-yah, Filtered water. The name of a town in Marion County, Mississippi.
- Oktibbehaw. Original, O-ka-it-tib-ih-ka, The water fights. A County in Mississippi. The name given by the ancient Choctaws to a large creek flowing into the Bigbee river above the town of Columbus, Miss., now known as Tibi, (corruption of Ittibih, having fought). It took its name, ac cording to Choctaw tradition, from a great battle fought between the Choctaws and Muscogees years before the ad vent of the whites, in which the Muscogees occupied the north side of the creek and the Choctaws the south, shooting their arrows across the creek. The Choctaws were defeated, but soon reinforcements returned and drove the Muscogees out of their country.
- Opelika. Original, Ok-pul-ila-ka, The lily by itself the lone lily. The name of a missionary society in Alabama.
- Oktarkthalapulla. Original, Ok-tark-toh-boko-lih, bluish white prairie. A beautiful prairie in the southwestern part of Oktibbehaw County, Mississippi, six miles southwest of Starkville, known, before brought into cultivation, as “The Blue Prairie.” It was a peculiar looking- prairie, presenting- a lonely and melancholy appearance, nearly round, perfectly level and extending nearly two miles each way without a tree or shrub upon it but covered with a carpet of grass standing (in the summer season) from two to three feet in height. It was the last prairie between Starkville and the Mississippi river, surrounded by magnificent forests of oak and pine, in which were found wild game in sufficient quantities to glad den the heart of the most fastidious lover of the chase; in which I, with other congenial spirits, fully shared and enjoyed many years ere progress blotted it out.
- Okahatchee. Original, Ok-la-huch-cha, river people. An ancient Choctaw village whose people used river water.
- Oaklehy. Original, Ok-la-le-lih, People who plow. The name of an ancient Choctaw village in which several white families lived.
- Otocklawfa. Original, Ok-tah-lau-a, Many prairies. A town in Mississippi.
- Oaktewally. Original, O-ti-wa-lih, Exhibiting chestnuts. The name of a little town in Mississippi.
- Okatomie. Original, Ok-a-to-mih, Sunshine in water. The name of an ancient Choctaw village in Mississippi.
- Okenachitto. Original, Ok-hin-a-chi-toh, Big stream. The Choctaw name of a large creek in Mississippi.
- Okshawali. Original, Ok-shau-a-lih, Light complexion. The name of an ancient Choctaw town, among whose people were many of fair complexions.
- Osyka. Original, Os-si-ka, The Eagle. A town in Pike County, Mississippi.
- Ofahoma. Original, O-n-hum-ma, Red-dog. Town in Leake County, Mississippi.
- Okachickama. Original, O-ka-chukma, Good water. The capital of Yalobusha County, Mississippi.
- Yalobusha. Original, Ya-lo-ba-ai-a-sha, Tadpoles abound.
- Onalaska. Original, O-na-lu-chah, To arrive being wet. A town in Arkansas.
- Okatibbee. Original, O-ka-it-tib-ih, Water fight, i. e. A battle across the water. A town in Lauderdale County, Mississippi.
- Oktoc. Original, Ok-tak, prairie. A town in Oktibbeha County, Mississippi.
- Pillahatchee. Original, Pil-lah-huch-cha, far off river. A river in Rankin County, Mississippi.
- “Ponchatoula, a Choctaw word,” says the St. Louis Globe Democrat of July 18, 1896, “is a corruption of Panchagoula, which, according to the declaration of the well informed superintendent of the Choctaw schools in Mississippi, a gentlemen who speaks the Choctaw language fluently, means pond lily.” The Choctaw words for “pond lily” are Haiyip (pond) Okpul (lily).
- Pasgagoula, Original, Pus-ka-ok-la, people having bread. A town in Jackson County, Mississippi.
- Solgohachia, a town in Arkansas. Original, Sok-ko-huch-cha, Muscadine River.
- Panola. Original, Po-no-la, cotton; the name of a county in north Mississippi.
- Pachuta. Original, Pa-sho-hah, to handle, a town in Perry County, Mississippi.
- Piache. Original, Pi-e-shih, to care for us, the name of an ancient Choctaw town which De Soto passed through in October, 1540.
- Puchcheyanshoba. Original, Pu-chi-yo-shu-bah, pigeon to be lost Strayed Pigeon, ancient Choctaw village.
- Pantofoc. Original, Pa-ki-tak-oh-lih, grapes hung up Hanging Grapes, the name of a town in north Mississippi.
- Seneasha. Original, Si-nih-ai-an-ta, sycamore abound, the name of a little branch in Mississippi,
- Shetimasha. Original, Shit-til-e-mab-ai-a-shah, Habitation of the disdainful. The Shittilemahaiashah Indians of St. Mary’s Parish, Louisiana, are evidently a remnant of an ancient Choctaw Iksa (clan), a few feeble sparks still lingering in the ashes of their exterminated Iksa.
- Senatobia. Original; Sin-ih-toh-bih-a, My white sycamore. The name of a town in Tate County, Mississippi.
- Shubuta. Original, Sho-bo-tah, Smoking. A little town in Clarke county, Mississippi.
- Siboglahatcha. Original, Is-su-ba-ok-la-hu-cha, Horse river people i. e. People living on horse river. A creek and town in Calhoun County, Mississippi.
- Suqualak. Original, Shau-wa-lah, widely branching. A town in Noxubee county, Mississippi. The name also of a small creek emptying into Noxubee near the great ball play ground, upon which, in 1790, was fought the great battle be fore mentioned.
- Sukatanche. Original, Shuk-ha ne-a-chih, fattened hogs; i. e., the place where hogs fatten. A large creek in north Mississippi and town in Kemper County, Mississippi.
- Tangipahoa. Original, Tun-chi-pa sho-hah, corn hand led where corn was bought and sold.
- Tallula. Original, Ta-lo-ho ah, continually singing. The name of the falls of a river in Georgia, said to be 536 feet.
- Talluhah. Original, Tal-lu-hah, a bell. A town in Louisiana.
- Tuskogee. Original, Tush-ka-ko-cha, weather warrior, i. e., a warrior who foretells the weather.
- Tallasha. Original, Ta-la-ai-ar-sha, Palmetto abound. The place of palmettoes.
- Toonisuba. Original, To-no-lihis-su-ba, rolling horse. A place in Mississippi.
- Talletuluck. Original, Ta-le-tul-i, Palmetto rock, Palmetto by a rock. A town in Kemper county Mississippi.
- Tacaleeche. Original, Tak-a-li-chih, to put down, town in Benton County Mississippi. Town and river in Panola County Mississippi.
- Tullahoma. Original, Tul-i-hum-ma, red stone, rock or iron. Town in Jones County Mississippi.
- Wantubbee. Original, Ai-an-ta-ub-ih, To be at and kill. A little place in Mississippi.
- Winona, Original, Wa-ton-la, A crane. A town in Mississippi.
- Yakanookane. Original, Yak-ni-nak-ish-wa-na, Catfish land. A creek in Oktibbehaw County, Mississippi.
- Yoconapatawfa. Original, Yak-ni-pa-tuf-fih, Land ploughed.
- Waupanuckee. Original, Wak-chah-nu-sih, To sleep wide a part. A town in the present Chickasaw Nation.
- Tallula. Original, Til-oh-lih, to break off. A town in Issaquena County, Mississippi.
- Issaquena. Original, Is-si-ok-hena, deer branch. A town in Mississippi.
- Tillitoba. Original, Tul-i-toh-bi, gray rock. A town in Yalobusha County, Mississippi.
- Taloeah. Original, Ta lo ah-i-ah, to go singing. A town in Marion County, Mississippi.
- Tamolah. Original, Ta mo-ah, lost. A town in Kemper County, Mississippi.
- Tallase. Original, Tul-li-ai-sha, rocks abound. An ancient Choctaw village which De Soto visited in 1540.
- Toccopola. Original, Tosh-bo-ko li, mouse colored. A town in LaFayette County, Mississippi.
- Toomsuba. Original, Ta-is-su-ba, because or in as much as a horse. A town in Lauderdale County, Mississippi.
- Topisaw. Original, Tah-pi-sah, to see now. A town in Pike County, Mississippi
- Talawah. Original, Ta-lo ah, singing. A town in Marion County, Mississippi.
- Tubby. Original, Ub-ih, to kill. A town in Itawamba County, Mississippi.
- Tooanoowe. Original, To-mih-no-wa, walking in the sunshine. The nephew of Tumoachi.
- Tamoachih. Original, Turn o a-chi, you lost. Chief of the Yamacaws, with whom Oglethorpe established a never violated treaty.
- Yamacaw. Original, Yum-mak-ka-sha-pah, That one to be a part. The name of an ancient clan of Choctaws at the time Oglethorpe founded Savannah, Georgia, February 1st, 1733.
- Tuscola. Original, Tah-ok-la, Now a people. A town in Leake County, Mississippi.
- Chickasaw bogue. Original, Chik-a-sah-bok, Chickasaw creek. Town in Mobile County, Alabama.
- Choccolocco. Original, Chuk-cho-sok-koh, Thick maple or maple grove. Town in Calhoun County, Alabama.
- Choctawhatchie. Original, Chah-tah-huch-cha, Choctaw river. Town in Henry County, Alabama.
- Senauki. Original, Kin-nak-li, Limping. The wife of Tumoachi,
- Clayhatchie. Original, Chash-ah-huch-cha, Rattling or rippling river. Town in Dale County, Alabama.
- Enitachopco. Original, E-nit-tak ok chah, we awaken at day. A town in Clay County Alabama.
- Looxapalia. Original, Luk-si-ok pul-a lih, swimming terrapin. A town and creek in Lamar County Alabama.
- Loachapoha. Original, Lau-a-chih-fo-hah, making many to rest. Town in Lee County Alabama.
- Talladega. Original, Tal-a-ti-hah, pulled up palmetto. Town and County in Alabama.
- Tallahatta. Original, Tal-a-hut-a, standing palmetto. A town in Clark County, Alabama.
- Tallassahatchee. Original, Tal-a-sa-huch-cha, I am the palmetto river. A town in Calhoun County, Alabama.
- Tallula. Original, Tul-u-la, a bell. A town in Fayette County, Alabama.
- Talucah. Original, Ta-lo-ah, singing. A town in Morgan County, Alabama.
- Tallapoosa. Original, Tul-i-po-shi, Iron dust. A County in Alabama.
- Tuscahoma. Original, Tush-ka-hum-ma, red warrior. A town in Choctaw County Alabama.
- Tuscaloosa. Original, Tush-ka-lu-sa, black warrior. A town and county in Alabama.
- Tuscumbia. Original, Tush-ka-um-ba chi, rainmaker warrior. A town in Colbert County, Alabama. Name of an ancient Chickasaw chief renowned as a medicine war chief and contemporary with the famous Chickasaw chief, John Colbert.
- Wauchula. Original, Lau-a-chu-la, many foxes. A town in De Soto County, Florida.
- Chuluota. Original, Chu-la-an-tah, a fox stays where foxes abound. A town in Orange County, Florida.
- Oktahatchee. Original, Ok-tak-huch-cha, Prairie river. A town in Hamilton County, Florida.
- Oclawaha. Original, O-ka-lau-a-ha, Many times water. Town in Lake County, Florida. That is, in riding over the country your way is obstructed by lakes, lagoons and ponds.
- Chattahoochee. Original, Chuk-lih-huch-cha, Rapid river. A town in Fulton County, Georgia, and river in Georgia.
- Chenubee. Original, Chi-a-ub-ih, You kill. Town in Webster County, Georgia.
- Chokee. Original, Cho-ki, A martin, Town in Lee County, Georgia.
- Ossahutchee. Original, Os-si-huch-cha, Eagle river. A town in Harris County Georgia. A river upon which eagles abound.
- Sallacoa. Original, Sa-la-ko-f ah, I made a notch. A town in Cherokee County, Georgia.
- Chinchuba. Original, Chin-is-su-ba, thy horse. Town in St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana.
- Chepola. Original, Che-pu-li, Town in St. Helena Parish, Louisiana. The name given by ancient Choctaws to a favorite dance, the termination of a protracted feast and general good time.
- Chacahoula. Original, Chit-oh-hul-wa, large soft shell turtle. A town in Terre Bonne, Louisiana.
- Coushatta. Original, Kau-ah-shak-ba, broken arm. A town in Red River Parish, Louisiana.
- Hitchiti . Original, Hish-i-it-ih, hair mouth whiskers. An ancient Choctaw clan. A remnant of which are now living among the Creeks, Indian Territory; they did not move in 1832 with the Choctaws, but remained east of the Mississippi river, until the exodus of the Creeks and came with them, and with whom they have still remained.
Professor Campbell, of the Presbyterian College, Montreal, believes that he has found the key to the Hittite (of Biblical fame) inscriptions, and has sent the result of his investigation to the Society of Biblical Archaeology. It is said that the most striking and important feature of this work is the identity established by Professor Campbell, as he believes, between the Aztecs and the Hittites. He concludes a statement of his discovery in the Montreal Witness, as follows: “It is interesting to know that we have on this continent the remains of a people who played a great part in ancient history. It is also gratifying to learn that by the establishment of the Hittite origin of the Aztecs, evolutions in philology and ethnology will receive its death blow.”
Now, if the Aztecs be of Hittite origin, and the Choctaws and Chickasaws of Aztec origin, of which there is more than a probability if their ancient legends and traditions are reliable may not the Choctaw words Hishih itih (the name of one of their ancient Iksas) be itself a corruption of the Hittite, and not only confirming their eastern traditional migration in the years of ages passed, but also pointing back even to a Hittite origin?