H New Mexico Indian Villages, Towns and Settlements
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A complete listing of all the Indian villages, towns and settlements as listed in Handbook of Americans North of Mexico.
Haatze (Queres: ‘earth’). A prehistoric pueblo of the Cochiti near the foot of the Sierra San Miguel, above Cochiti pueblo, N. Mex. It is claimed to have been occupied after the abandonment of the Potrero de las Vacas. Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papery, iv, 157, 1892.
Hachos (prob. Span.: a fagot or bundle of straw or grass covered with resin) Mentioned as a wild tribe of New Mexico in the 18th century. Villa-Señor, Theatre Am., pt, 2, 412, 1748.
Halona (Hálona I′tiwana, ‘middle place of happy fortune’, ‘middle ant-hill of the world’, ‘the ant-hill at the navel of the Earth Mother’. Gushing). A former pueblo of the Zuni and one of the Seven Cities of Cibola of the early Spanish chroniclers, said to have been situated on both sides of Zuni r., on and opposite the site of the present Zuni pueblo, w. N. Mex. Only the mound on the s. side of the stream is now traceable, and a part of this is occupied by modern buildings erected by white people. While there seems to be no question that Halona was inhabited by the Zuni at the time of Coronado in 1540, it was not mentioned by name until Nov. 9, 1598, when the Zuni made a vow of obedience and vassalage to Spain at Hawikuh, Halona being designated as Halonagu (Halonakwin, ‘Halona-place’). A Franciscan mission was established there in 1629, but the murder by the Zuni of their missionary in 1632 impelled the Indians to flee for protection to Thunder mtn., a mesa 3 m. away, where they remained for about 3 years. ” The mission was rehabilitated some time after 1643, and continued until the Pueblo outbreak of Aug., 1680, when the Zuni murdered Fray Juan de Bal, the Halona missionary, and burned the church. The Zuni again fled to Thunder mtn., where they remained until after the reconquest by Diego de Vargas in 1692. Meanwhile the pueblos in the valley, including Halona, had fallen in decay, and none of them was rebuilt, The present village of Zuni was reared on the N. bank of Zuni r., partly on the site of Halona, about the close of the 17th century. The population of Halona at the time of the revolt of 1680 was about 1,500, and Matsaki and Kiakima were visitas of its mission. See Bancroft, Ariz, and N. Mex., 1889; Bandelier (1) Doc. Hist. Zuni Tribe, in Jour. Am. Eth. and Arch., in, 1892, (2) in Arch. lust. Papers, in, iv, 1890-92; Gushing, Zuni Creation Myths, 13th Rep. B. A. E., 1896; Vetancurt in Teatro Am., repr. 1871. (F. W. H.)
Hampasawan (‘tented village’, from hampone, ‘tent’) A former Zuni pueblo, the ruins of which are still visible 6 m. w. of the present Zuni, Valencia co., N. Mex. Regarded by Gushing as probably one of the seven cities of Cibola. See Mindeleff in 8th Rep. B. A. E., 83, 1891.
Hanut Cochiti (haunt, ‘above’, + Cochiti, q. v.). The sixth town successively occupied by the people of Cochiti; situated about 12 m. N. w. of Cochiti pueblo, in the Potrero Viejo, N. Mex.
Hasatch (place to the east). A former summer village of the Lagunas, now a permanently occupied pueblo; situated 3 m. E. of Laguna pueblo, N. Mex.
Hatsinawan (hawe ‘leaves’, tsinawe ‘marks’, ‘paintings’, wan ‘place of”: ‘town of the (fossil?) leaf-marks’. Cushing). A ruined pueblo formerly inhabited by the Zuni, situated N. N. w. of Hawikuh and s. w. of the present Zuni pueblo, N. Mex. Gushing, inf’n, 1891.
Heashkowa. A prehistoric pueblo of the Red Corn (Kukinish-yaka) clan of Acoma, situated at the foot of a mesa about 2 m. s. e. of the present Acoma pueblo, N. Mex. According to tradition it was built by the Red Corn clan when the tribe entered its present valley from the N. and settled at Tapitsiama. it is said that when the village was abandoned some of the inhabitants joined the main body of the tribe while the remainder migrated southward.
Heshokta (ancient town of the cliffs). A ruined pueblo, formerly inhabited by the Zuni, on a mesa about 5 m. N. w. of Zuni pueblo, N. Mex. Cf. Shopakia.
Heshota Ayahltona (ancient buildings above). The ruins of a group of stone houses on the summit of Taaiyalana, or Seed mtn., commonly called Thunder mtn., about 4 m. s. E. of Zuni pueblo, N. Mex. This mesa has been a place of refuge for the Zuni at various periods since they have been known to history, Coronado, mentioning it as such, although not by name, in 1540. In 1632, after having killed their first missionary, the Zuni fled to the heights, remaining there until 1635. The ruined pueblo now to be seen on the summit was built probably about 1680, on the site of the ancient fortifications alluded to by Coronado, as a refuge against Spanish invasion during the Pueblo revolt of that year, when the villages in the valley below those that remained of the Seven Cities of Cibola were abandoned. The tribe doubtless occupied this stronghold uninterruptedly for at least 12 years during the Pueblo revolt, being found there by Vargas in 1692. In 1703 the Zuni again fled to their mesa village, after having killed 4 Spanish soldiers. This time they remained until 1705, when they returned to the valley and began to build the present Zuni pueblo on a part of the site of Halona. The ruins of Heshota Ayahltona have been mistakenly regarded by some writers as the ancient Cibola, hence are often noted on maps as Old Zuni. See Mindeleff in 8th Rep. B. A. E., 89, 1891; Bandelier (1) in Arch. Inst. Papers, in, 134, 1890; iv, 335, 1892, (2) Doc. Hist. Zuni, in Jour. Am. Ethnol. and Archreol., in, 1892; Gushing, Zuni Creation Myths, in 13th Rep. B. A. E., 1896; Winship, Coronado Exped., in 14th Rep. B. A. E., 1896. (F. W. H.)
Heshota Hluptsina (Héshota–hlúp-tsina, ‘ancient village of the yellow rocks’). A prehistoric ruined stone pueblo of the Zuni, situated between the “gateway” and the summer village of Pescado, 7 m. E. of Zuni pueblo, N. Mex. (F. W. H.)
Heshota Imkoskwin (ancient town surrounded by mountains). A ruined pueblo near Tawyakwin, or Nutria, anciently occupied by the northern clans of the Zuni. Cushing, inf’n, 1891.
Heshota Uhla (Héshota-úhla, ancient town of the embrasure). A prehistoric ruined stone pueblo of the elliptical type, supposed to be of Zuni origin ; situated at the base of a mesa on Zuni r., about 5 m. w r .of the Zuni summer village of Ojo Pescado, or Heshotatsina, N. Mex. So named, according to Cushing, because it was embraced by hills, and by the turn of a northern trail. (F. W. H.)
Hlauhla (Hla′-uhla, ‘surrounded by arrow-shaft bushes’). The ruins of a small but traditionally important Zuni pueblo near a small spring about 10 m. N. N. E. of Zuni, N. Mex. (F. H. C.)
Hlaukwima (Hlaukwi′ma). The native name of the South town of Taos pueblo, N. Mex. (F. W. H.)
Hlauuma (Hlauu′ma). The native name of the North town of Taos pueblo, N. Mex. (F. W. H.)
Hohota. Mentioned by Onate (Doc. Ined., xvi, 113, 1871) as a pueblo of New Mexico in 1598; at that time doubtless situated in the country of the Salinas, in the vicinity of Abo, E. of the Rio Grande, and evidently occupied by the Tigua or the Piros. (F. W .H.)
Homayo. A large ruined pueblo of the Tewa on the w. bank of Rio Ojo Caliente, a small w. tributary of the Rio Grande, in Rio Arriba co., N. Mex. See Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, iv, 37, 1892; Hewett in Bull. 32, B. A. E., 39, 1906.
Howiri. A ruined pueblo, formerly occupied by the Tewa, at the Rito Colorado, about 10 m. w. of the Hot Springs, near Abiquiu, Rio Arriba co., N. Mex. See Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, in, 61, 1890; iv, 22, 1892; Hewett in Bull. 32, B. A. E., 40, 1906.
Huashpatzena (huashpa = ‘dance-kilt’). A pueblo occupied after 1605 by the ancestors of the inhabitants of Santo Domingo pueblo, near the present site of the latter, on the E. bank of the Rio Grande, N. central New Mexico. The pueblo was erected after the destruction, by a freshet, of the second Gipuy (q. v.) to the eastward. A part of Huashpatzena was also carried away by flood, compel ling the villagers to move farther east, where they built the pueblo of Kiua the present Santo Domingo, q. v.
Huertas (Las Huertas; Span.: ‘the orchards or kitchen gardens’). A cluster of ruined pueblos 4 m. below Socorro, N. Mex. (Abert in Emory, Recon., 495, 1848); probably originally inhabited by the Piros.
Hungopavi (Navaho: crooked nose ). An important pueblo ruin 2 in. above Pueblo Bonito, on the N. side of Chaco canyon, at the base of the canyon wall, in N. w. New Mexico. It is built around 3 sides of a court, the extremities of the wings being connected by a semicircular double wall and the space between these walls divided into rooms. The length of the main building is 309 ft; of the 2 wings, 136 ft each. The building was 4 stories high. There is a circular kiva in the court and another enclosed within the walls of the main building. The one in closed is 23 ft in diameter. The masonry of Hungopavi is exceptionally good; the material is fine-grained, grayish-yellow sandstone, compactly laid in thin mud mortar. The exterior walls of the first story are 3 ft thick. Walls still stand to a height of 30 ft, and deterioration has proceeded very slowly since the ruin was first described. See Hardacre in Scribner s Mag., Dec. 1878; Jackson in 10th Rep. Hayden Surv., 438, 1879. (E. L. H.)