Condition of the New Mexico Indians in 1890
Enter a grandparent's name to get started.
choose a state:
- Indian Pueblos in New Mexico
- Mescalero Indian Agency and Mescalero Apache Reservation
- Southern Ute (Colorado) Agency and Jicarilla Apache Reservation
- Report on the 19 Pueblos of New Mexico, 1864
- Pueblo Indians of New Mexico and their Customs
- An Odd People at Home – Charles F. Lummis
- Condition of 16 New Mexico Indian Pueblos, 1890, by Henry R. Poore, Special Agent
- Observations on the Census of the Pueblo Indians, 1890
- Pueblos of Laguna, Acoma and Zuñi
The Jicarilla Apaches, Mescalero Apaches (including 40 Lipans), and the Navajos are of Athapascan stock.
The Navajo reservation lies in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah, but the agency is in New Mexico. The total number of Navajos is 17,204, entirely self-supporting, of which 5,169 are in New Mexico, 11,042 are in Arizona, and 993 are in Utah or roaming.. (For data as to the Navajos (Apache) see Arizona.)
The Pueblo Indians, who live in 19 pueblos or towns, are citizens of the United States. The civilized (self-supporting) Indians of New Mexico, counted in the general census, number 8,554 (4,553 males and 4,001 females), and are distributed as follows:
Bernalillo County, 3,409; Colfax County, 18; Mora County, 25; Rio Arriba County, 499; San Miguel County, 45; Santa Fe County, 589; Socorro, County, 14; Taos County, 505; Valencia County, 3,374; other counties (11 or less in each), 16.
There are less than 300 civilized Indians in New Mexico besides the Pueblo Indians.
New Mexico Indians Population of Reservations and Pueblos
|Agencies and Reservations||Tribe||Total||Males||Females||Ration Indians|
|Southern Ute agency||808||389||419||325|
|Mescalero Apache (Fort Stanton) reservation||Mescalero (Apache) and Lipans||513||226||287||410|
|Southern Ute agency, Colorado|
|Jicarilla Apache reservation (a)||Jicarilla (Apache)||808||389||419||325|
|Navajo reservation (the portion in New Mexico||Navajo (Apache)||5,160||2,617||2,552|
|19 Indian pueblos||Pueblos (3 stocks)||8,287||4,448||3,839|
Tribe, Stock and Location of the New Mexico Indians
|Jicarilla||Athapascan||Jicarilla Apache||Southern Ute|
|San Domingo||Keresan||A pueblo||Pueblo|
|San Felipe||Keresan||A pueblo||Pueblo|
|San Ildefonao||Tewan||A pueblo||Pueblo|
|San Juan||Tewan||A pueblo||Pueblo|
|Santa Ana||Keresan||A pueblo||Pueblo|
|Santa Clara||Tewan||A pueblo||Pueblo|
Mescalero Apache Reservation
The Mescalero Apaches have been on this reservation since 1874. They were, prior to this, 3 years at Fort Stanton, New Mexico, 36 miles from their present reservation, Prior to their being placed on a reservation their location was in New Mexico east of the Rio Grande, from Santa Fe north to Del Norte south. It is claimed by Chief Nautzila that these Indians were on this range before, the cities of Santa Fe and La Hoja were built. No tribes or bands, which are credited as being on the reservation, are extinct or merged into other tribes. There are 40 Lipans (Apaches) on the reservation whose former location was Mexico, H. Rhodes, United States Indian agent.
Jicarilla Apache Reservation
The Jicarilla Apaches are composed of 2 bands, the Jicarillas and Olleros, about equal in number, both bands living together on the reservation, which is nearly square, located in northwestern New Mexico and almost due south of the Southern Ute reservation, Colorado. These are blanket (or wild) Indians, and originally were kept at the Cimarron agency, New Mexico, southeast of their present location. They were taken there in 1868, when the Utes were moved. They came to this reservation in 1887, when it was established. The Apaches lived in close proximity to the 2 bands of the Utes, and were looked after by the same agent. Again, they are almost identical with the Navajos, with a very slight difference in habits and language. They intermarry with the Utes and Navajos. They are very industrious, and will work as well as the average white man. They have occupied the land now in New Mexico always. C. A. Bartholomew, United States Indian agent.