Arizona territory was formed from the territory captured from Mexico and ceded by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, February 2, 1848, and the lower portion is a part of the Gadsden purchase, December 30, 1853. The “Gadsden purchase” was generally known as “Arizona” prior to coming under the jurisdiction of the United States. The provisions of both treaties extend over the Indians therein.

The Indian population was in character from the earliest time when noted (in 1542) about the same as now, and probably never could have exceeded 40,000 in number. The barrenness of the country and lack of water precluded a large population. The reservation Indian population of Arizona in 1890 was 28,452, its non-reservation Indian population was 1,512, Indians in prisons not otherwise enumerated, 17; a total of 29,981. Geronimo’s band of Apaches, 384 in number, deported from Arizona in the interest of peace, now live in Alabama, at Mount Vernon barracks, near Mobile. They are known as the Chiricahua Apaches. “Natchez” was also a chief of this band. The Pimas and Papagos have always been the friends of the whites, and the Papagos claim to have never killed a white man.

Total Indian Population As Of June 1, 1800. 1The self-supporting Indians, taxed, are in eluded in the general Census. The results of the special Indian census, to be added to the general census, are:
Total 28,623

Total 29, 981

Reservation Indians, not taxed. (not counted in the general census) 28, 452
Indians in prisons, not otherwise enumerated 17
Indians off reservations, self-supporting and taxed (counted In the general census) 1, 512
Reservation Indians, not taxed 28, 452
Indians in prisons, not otherwise enumerated 17
Other persons with Indians, not otherwise enumerated 154

1890 Indian Population of Reservations in Arizona

Agencies and Reservations Tribe Total Males Females Ration Indians
Total 28,452 14,066 14,386 1,519
Colorado River Agency Mohave Apache (Yuman) 640 306 334 92
Pima Agency 9,942 5,138 4,804
Salt River Reservation Pima 641 323 318
Salt River Reservation Maricopa 315 166 149
Gila River Reservation Pima 3,823 1,942 1,881
Papago reservation and roaming Papago Indians Papago 5,163 2,707 2,456
San Carlos Agency 4,832 2,257 2,575 1,427
White Mountain Apache reservation Cayotero, 733: San Carlos and Tonto, 1,352: White Mountain Apache, 36 2,121 1,017 1,104 951
Fort Apache subagency White Mountain Apache 1,920 821 1,009 137
Mohave reservation Mohave 551 291 260 236
Yuma Reservation Yuma 240 128 112 103
Navajo reservation Navajo (Apache) 11,042 5,368 5,676
Moqui Pueblo reservations Moqui 1,996 999 907

The civilized (self-supporting) Indians of Arizona, counted in the general census, number 1,512, 840 males and 672 females, and are distributed as follows:

Pima County, 904
Pinal County, 138
Yavapai County, 27
Yuma County, 424
other counties with 9 or less in each, 19.

These Indians live much like the people of Mexican descent about them, and are more or less affected by the Spanish-American admixture of blood.

The Hualapai reservation has no agent; the superintendent of the Indian school at The Needles has nominal charge of it, and issues beef and salt from the appropriation of $7,500 made each year by Congress. The Indians supplied are the Chimejueves, Hualapais (a), and some wandering Apaches.

The Suppai reservation is a small one to the east of the Hualapai. Reservation, and is officially unoccupied.

The Navajo agency, situated in New Mexico, embraces the Navajo reservation, which lies in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah. The portion of the reservation in Arizona contains an enumerated Navajo population of 11,042 out of a total of 17,204 Navajos enumerated and estimated.

The 384 Apaches of Geronimo’s band, now at Mount Vernon barracks, Alabama, are not included in the above Indian population of Arizona, but are counted as Indians not taxed under Alabama.

Tribe, Stock, And Location Of The Indians In Arizona 2The census names are Mishongnovi, Oraibi, Sichmninavi, Shumopavi, Shipaulavi, Tewa, and Walpi.

Tribes Stock Reservation Agency
Arivaipa Athapascan White Mountain San Carlos
Chillion (Cochise) Athapascan White Mountain San Carlos
Chimehueva Shoshonean Colorado River Colorado River
Chirikahwa (includes Chillion and Arivaipa) Athapascan White Mountain San Carlos
Hualapai Yuman Colorado River (and roaming) Colorado River
Kemahwivi (Tantawait, Chimehueva) Shoshonean Colorado River Colorado River
Koahuilia (Kawin) Shoshonean Colorado River Colorado River
Koiotero (Coyotero) Athapascan White Mountain San Carlos
Kokopa Yuman Not on reservation Colorado River
Maricopa Yuman Gila River and Salt River Pima
Mimbre Athapascan White Mountain San Carlos
Mogollon Athapascan White Mountain San Carlos
Mohave Yuman Colorado River Colorado River
Mohave Apache Yuman White Mountain San Carlos
Moqui Meshongnavi Shoshonean Moqui Navajo
Moqui Oraibi Shoshonean Moqui Navajo
Moqui Seehumavi Shoshonean Moqui Navajo
Moqui Shemopavi Shoshonean Moqui Navajo
Moqui Shepolavi Shoshonean Moqui Navajo
Moqui Tewa Shoshonean Moqui Navajo
Moqui Walpi Shoshonean Moqui Navajo
Ojo Caliente Athapascan White Mountain San Carlos
Papago Piman Papago and Gila Bend (and roaming) Pima
Pima Piman Gila River and Salt River Pima
Pinal Athapascan White Mountain San Carlos
San Carlos Athapascan White Mountain San Carlos
Southern Apache Athapascan White Mountain San Carlos
Suppai (Cosnino) Yuman Suppai
Tonto Yuman White Mountain San Carlos
White Mountain Athapascan White Mountain San Carlos
Yuma Apache Yuman White Mountain San Carlos

Arizona Tribes in 1890

Footnotes:   [ + ]

1. The self-supporting Indians, taxed, are in eluded in the general Census. The results of the special Indian census, to be added to the general census, are:
Total 28,623
2. The census names are Mishongnovi, Oraibi, Sichmninavi, Shumopavi, Shipaulavi, Tewa, and Walpi.