Migrating from the East late in the sixteenth or early in the seventeenth century, the Chippewa, or Ojibwas, settled first about the Falls of Saint Mary, from which point they pushed still farther westward, and eventually compelled the Dakotas to relinquish their ancient hunting-grounds about the headwaters of the Mississippi and of the Red River of the North. Were first known to the French, about 1640, who called them Sauteux, from the place of their residence about Sault Ste. Marie, a name still applied to them by the Canadian French. They were then living in scattered bauds on the banks of Lake Superior and Lake Huron, and at war with the Foxes, Iroquois, and Dakotas, becoming thereby much reduced in numbers. Were firm allies of the French in all of their operations against the English, and took a prominent part in Pontiac’s uprising. During the revolutionary war they were hostile to the colonists, but made a treaty of peace with them at its close. They again sided with the English in the war of 1812, but joined in a general pacification with a number of other tribes in 1816. Like other tribes, they gradually ceded their lands to the Government, receiving in return annuities and goods, until in 1851 all but a few bands, retaining but moderate reservations, had removed west of the Mississippi.
“The Chippewa, now numbering 19,606, formerly ranged over Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, and with common interests, and acknowledging more or less the leadership of one controlling mind, formed a homogeneous and powerful nation: a formidable foe to the Sioux, with whom they waged incessant warfare, which was checked only by the removal of the Minnesota Sioux to Dakota after the outbreak of 1863.”
The collecting of the Chippewa upon thirteen reservations, scattered over the above-named States, under five different agencies, has so modified the esprit du corps of the tribe that, though speaking the same language and holding the same traditions and customs, the bands located in different sections of the country have few interests and no property in common, and little influence or intercourse with each other. The agency has taken the place of the nation, and is in turn developing the individual man, who, owning house, stock, and farm, has learned to look solely to his own exertions for sup port. No tribe by unswerving loyalty deserves more of the Government, or is making, under favorable conditions, more gratifying progress; 9,850 of the tribe Jive in houses, 9,345 are engaged in agriculture and other civilized occupations; and 13/202 wear citizen’s dress. Fifty-seven per cent, of their subsistence is obtained by their own labor, mainly in farming; for the rest, they depend on game and fish, especially the latter, of which they readily obtain large quantities.
The Chippewa are extensively intermarried with the Ottawa, and are thrifty and worthy citizens of the United States, as are also those of Saginaw, and of Keewenaw Bay in Michigan. The Bad River, Red Cliff, Ked Late, and Mississippi bands are likewise making rapid progress in civilization. Of those which have made but little or no progress are the Leech Lake, White Earth, Mille Lac, and other scattered bands in remote and inaccessible regions of Minnesota and Wisconsin, the older chiefs resolutely opposing any attempt on the part of the younger men to begin a civilized life.
List of Illustrations
1001. Es-En-Ce. Little Shell. Pembina.
Head chief of the Pembina, residing at Turtle Mountain, in Dakota. His father and grandfather were chiefs of the same band before him. Took an active part against the Sioux in the Minnesota massacres in 1863. Visited Washington in 1874, at the head of a delegation in behalf of their bands, to protest against being removed from their old homes about Turtle Mountain.
1002. Mis-To-Ya-Be. Little Bull. Pembina
Head brave of the Pembina, and resides at Pembina. Is a man of considerable influence, his word being law with his band. Has good common sense and fine executive ability. Was removed by the Government to White Earth reservation, but refuses to live there, and has gone back to his old home. Has fought the Sioux frequently, and has been quite successful in stealing horses from them. Has two wives. Does no farming.
1003. Ka-Ees-Pa. Something Blown Up by the Wind. Pembina
A half-breed, but lives and dresses like an Indian. His father was made a chief of the Pembina by the English and Americans, and upon his death succeeded him. Is a very successful hunter, and is looked upon as a representative man of the tribe.
1004. Ke-Woe-Sais-We-Ro. The Man Who Knows How to Hunt. Pembina
A half-breed and third brave of the band. Always joined the Chippewa in fighting the Sioux the Pembina fighting on horseback and counts four scalps. Is a trader. Is thought very much of by his tribe, and has a reputation for moral worth and straight forward dealing.
851. Large Group of the preceding four numbers.
1068. Shay-Wi-Zick. Sour Spittle. Red Lake
A brave of the Red Lake band of Chippewa and younger brother of the head chief. His wife and children were killed by the Sioux, and be fought them frequently in return, killing two. Was a good speaker and farmed a good deal. Died last winter, aged about 70.
80, 1069. Qui-Wi-Zhen-Shish. Bad Boy. Red Lake
Foremost brave of the Red Lake band. His father was chief, which office is now held by his older brother. Was ranked as one of the bravest of the Chippewa in their battles with the Sioux, and took many scalps. Was a fine speaker and a man of much influence. Farmed very successfully and raised considerable corn, and was also a good hunter. Had two wives. Died in 1872.
1070. Qui-Wi-Zens. The Boy. Red Lake
A brave and a leading warrior in the battles of his tribe with the Sioux. A good speaker, hunter, and farmer, although the farming is done almost entirely by his wife and children, as is the case with all these Indians. Is now dead.
1071. Auguste. Pembina
A brave of the Pembina, formerly residing near the British line, but now removed, with his band, to the White Earth reservation. Has the reputation of being a miserable, worthless Indian, unwilling to work, and adhering with great tenacity to the heathenish customs of his tribe. Was baptized in his infancy by the Roman Catholics, but has renounced his Christianity. Has had his skull broken three times in quarrels with his own people, and has been twice wounded in fights with the Sioux.
1072. Moozomo. Moose’s Dung. Red Lake
A petty chief of the Red Lake baud. Died some years ago at a very old age. Was a great hunter, and farmed considerably also. Was much respected by the Red Lake bauds, and especially so by the whites.
1073. Me-Jaw-Key-Osh. Something in the Air Gradually Falling to the Earth. Red Lake
A brave but recently made a chief of the Red Lake Chippewa, and is ranked as the very bravest of all his tribe. Had always been accustomed to fight the Sioux, but after the massacre of 1862-’63 reorganized and led a small party of from six to ten of his bravest men against them every summer for some time, killing with his own hand fifteen of their enemies and bringing home their scalps. Was a crafty warrior and knew well how to slay his foe without losing his own life. He still lives, farming and hunting for a living, and is a man of great influence in his band.
1074. Essiniwub Ogwissun. The Son of Essiniwub. Red Lake
A quiet, peaceable young man, never on the war path, peace having been declared with the Sioux be fore he came of age.
1075. Maiadjiaush. Something Beginning to Sail Off. Red Lake
A brave residing at Red Lake. His father was a chief and his younger brother the present head chief of the Red Lake band. Ten years ago had the reputation of being a bad man, and has the same suspicion still hanging about him; is ill-natured, cross-grained, and always striking and quarrelling with his fellow-Indians.
1076. Naboniqueaush. A Yellow-haired One Sailing Along. Red Lake
1077. Tibishko-Biness. Like a Bird. Red Lake.
A petty chief and brother of Bad Boy. Has often fought the Sioux as a leading brave. Hunts for a living, while his family cultivate corn and potatoes. Is a good speaker and much respected by the Red Lakes.
78, 79. Po-Gonay-Ge-Shick. Hole in the Day.
81. Ah-Ah-Shaw-We-Ke-Shick. Crossing Sky. Rabbet Lake
82. Nah-Gun-A-Gow-Bow. Standing Forward. Rabbet Lake
83. Kish-Ka-Na-Cut. Stump. Mllle Lac
84. Mis-Ko-Pe-Nen-Sha. Red Bird. Lake Winnipeg
85. Naw-Yaw-Nab. The Foremost Sitter. Wisconsin
86. Now-We-Ge-Shick. Noon Day.