In 1898, Congress passed a bill creating the only ‘Institution for Insane Indians’ in the United States. The Canton Indian Insane Asylum, South Dakota (sometimes called Hiawatha Insane Asylum) opened for the reception of patients in January, 1903.
Enter a grandparent's name to get started.
Many of the inmates were not mentally ill. Native Americans risked being confined in the asylum for alcoholism, opposing government or business interests, or for being culturally misunderstood. A 1927 investigation conducted by the Bureau of Indian Affairs determined that a large number of patients showed no signs of mental illness. The asylum was closed in 1934. While open, more than 350 patients were detained there, in terrible conditions. At least 121 died.
Land was set aside for a cemetery, but the Indian Office decided that stone markers for graves would be an unwarranted expense. Today, the cemetery (121 names) is located in the middle of a golf course in Canton. No one knows the cause of death of the incarcerated or why they were even at the asylum. The National Park Service has recently added the cemetery to the National Register of Historic Places.
This page covers the female patients interred in Canton Asylum during the year of 1921.
June 30, 1921 Female Patients
Canton Indian Asylum, 1921 Female Patients
|7,00||Canoe, Kate||Winnebago||Grand Rapids||Wisconsin|
|8,00||Dauphinais, Madeline||Chippewa||Turtle Mountain||N. Dakota|
|9,00||Davis, Eliza L.||Cherokee||Union||Oklahoma|
|10,00||DeCoteau, Margaret||Sioux||Sisseton||S. Dakota|
|14,00||Faribault, Elizabeth||Sioux||Sisseton||S. Dakota|
|18,00||Houle, Cypia||Cree||Turtle Mountain||N. Dakota|
|21,00||Kiger, No Walk||Piute||Nevada||Nevada|
|22,00||La Lakes, Leona||Klamath||Klamath||Oregon|
|23,00||Medicine, Black||Gros Ventres||Ft. Berthold||N. Dakota|
|24,00||Montriel, Adele||Chippewa||Turtle Mountain||N. Dakota|
|25,00||Nicholson, Maggie||Gros Ventres||Ft. Belknap||Montana|
|28,00||Parker, Marie||Chippewa||Tongue River||Montana|
|30,00||Pejihutaskana, Josephine||Sioux||Ft. Totten||N. Dakota|
|31,00||Pilon, Celina||Chippewa||Rapid City||S. Dakota|
|36,00||Smoke, Annie||Piute||Warm Springs||Oregon|
|38,00||Taylor, Lulu||Chippewa||Leech Lake||Minnesota|
|39,00||Two Teeth||Sioux||Crow Creek||S. Dakota|
|42,00||Wash, Rose||Arickara||Ft. Berthold||N. Dakota|
Source: Commission of Indian Affairs, Washington DC, 1910