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A complete listing of all the Indian villages, towns and settlements as listed in Handbook of Americans North of Mexico.
Calciati. A pueblo of the province of Atripuy in the region of the lower Rio Grande, N. Mex., in 1598. Onate (1598) in Doc. Ined., xvi, 115, 1871.
Camitria. A ruined pueblo of the Tewa, situated in Rio Arriba co., N. Mex. (Bandelier in Ritch, N.Mex., 201, 1885). First mentioned by Oñate in 1598 (Doc. Ined., xvi, 102, 116, 1871) as an inhabited village and assigned both to the Tewa and the “Chiguas” (Tigua).
Cantensapué. A pueblo of the province of Atripuy, in the region of the lower Rio Grande, N. Mex., in 1598. Onate (1598) in Doc. Ined., xvi, 115, 1871.
Canocan. A pueblo of the province of Atripuy in the region of the lower Rio Grande, N. Mex., in 1598. Onate (1598) in Doc. Ined., xvi, 115, 1871.
Carfaray. An ancient pueblo of the Tigua, reference to which is made in the folk-tales of that people. Supposed to have been situated E. of the Rio Grande in New Mexico, beyond the saline lakes. Bandelier (after Lummis) in Arch. Inst. Papers, iv, 255, 1892.
Carlanes (so called from Carlana, their chief). A band of Jicarilla who in 1719-24 were on Arkansas r., N. K. of Santa Fe, N. Mex. (Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers v 191, 197, note, 1890; Bancroft, Ariz, and N. Mex., 236, 1889). Orozco y Berra (Geog., 59, 1864) classes them as a part of the Faraon Apache.
Casa Chiquita (Span.: small house). A small ruined pueblo 1½ m. w. of Pueblo Bonito, on the N. side of the arroyo, against the mesa wall, in Chaco canyon, N. w. N. Mex. It is in the form of a solid parallelogram, 78 by 63 ft. A consider able part of the building was occupied by 2 large circular kivas. The rooms on the ground floor were mostly about 5 by 8 ft. in dimension. The pueblo was originally 4 stories high, but is now in a very ruinous condition, although such walls as remain standing display excellent workmanship, a well-preserved corner being found true to the square and plum met. (E. L. H.)
Casa Morena (Span.: brown house). An ancient pueblo ruin of considerable importance, situated near the top of the continental divide in N. w. New Mexico. It is usually assigned to the Chaco canyon group, but this is assumed without evidence except as to outward appearance. No excavations have been made and the ruin has not been described. It is built of sandstone after the manner of the Chaco canyon pueblos. It is in the midst of the desert, far from water, and not near any of the main trails. (E. L. H.)
Casa Rinconada (Span.: corner house). A small pueblo ruin 500 yds. s. E. of Pueblo Bonito, s. of the arroyo, at the foot of the wall of Chaco canyon, N. w. N. Mex. The building did not contain more than 50 rooms. Its most interesting feature is an enormous double-walled kiva, the largest in the Chaco canyon group, measuring 72 ft. in diameter, the rooms of the pueblo being built partially around it. The 2 walls were about 30 in. thick, and portions still stand from 10 to 12 ft. above the surrounding debris. Probably three-fourths of the kiva wall are still standing, being of tine, well-selected sandstone, smoothly laid. Thirty-two niches, 16 by 22 in., 14 in. deep, smoothly finished and plastered, extend around the interior of the kiva wall at regular intervals. The outer wall of the kiva is 8 ft. from the inner, the space between being divided into rooms. The indications are that the building was devoted to ceremonial rather than to domiciliary use. (B. L. H.)
Castildavid. An unidentified pueblo on the Rio Grande in New Mexico in 1582; situated s. of Sia (?), but definite locality unknown. Bustamente and Gallegos (1582) in Doc. Ined., xv, 85, 1871.
Cebolleta (Span.: tender onion ). A place on Pojuate r., in the N. E. corner of Valencia co., N. Mex., at which, in 1746, a temporary settlement of 400 or 500 Navaho was made by Father Juan M. Menchero. A mission was established there in 1749, but in the following year the Navaho grew tired of sedentary life, and Cebolleta, together with Encinal, which was established at the same time, was abandoned. In 1804 a request from the Navaho to resettle at Cebolleta was refused by the Spanish authorities. It is now a white Mexican town. Cebolleta mtn. and the Cebolleta land grant take their name from the settlement.
Ceca. Mentioned by Onate (Doc. Ined., xvi, 114, 1871) as a pueblo of the Jemez in New Mexico in 1598. The name can not be identified with the present native name of any ruined settlement in the vicinity.
Chacat. Mentioned by Pike (Exped., 3d map, 1810) as a Navaho settlement. It is probably identical in name with that of Chaco canyon, N. w. N. Mex.
Chein. Mentioned by Oñate (Doc. Ined., xvi, 114, 1871) as a pueblo of New Mexico in 1598; doubtless situated in the Salinas, in the vicinity of Abo, and in all probability occupied by the Tigua or the Piros.
Chettrokettle ( Rain pueblo in one of the New Mexican Indian languages). One of the most important ruins of the Chaco canyon group in N. w. New Mexico. It is less than ¼ m. E. of Pueblo Bonito, on the N. side of the arroyo near the base of the canyon wall. Its exterior dimensions are 440 by 250 ft, It encloses 3 sides of a parallelogram, the extremities of the wings being connected by a semicircular double wall, the space between being divided into apartments. There are 9 kivas within the space enclosed by the wings of the structure, 2 being in the court and 7 wholly or in part embraced within the walls. The walls still stand in places to a height of 30 ft. The building was not less than 4 stories high, probably 5. Many timbers are yet in place and well preserved. The masonry, which is exceptionally good, is of fine grained grayish-yellow sandstone, broken into small tabular pieces and laid in thin mortar; in places courses of heavier stone are laid in parallel at intervals, giving an ornamental effect and probably adding to the stability of the walls. The walls are finished alike on both sides. Jackson estimated that there were originally in the building not less than 315,000 cu. ft. of masonry. See Jackson (1875) in 10th Rep. Hayden Surv., 438, 1879, and the authors cited below r . (E. L. H.)
Chilili (Chi-li-li′). A former Tigua pueblo on the w. side of the Arroyo de Chilili, about 30 m. s. E. of Albuquerque, N. Mex. It is inadvertently mentioned as a “captain” of a pueblo by Oñate in 1598, and is next referred to in 1630 as a mission with a church dedicated to Nuestra Senora de Navidad. In this church were interred the remains of Fray Alonzo Peinado, who went to New Mexico about 1608, and to whom was attributed the conversion of the inhabitants and the erection of the chapel. The village was abandoned, according to Bandelier, between 1669 and 1676 on account of the persistent hostility of the Apache, the inhabitants retiring mostly to the Tigua villages on the Rio Grande, but some joined the Mansos at El Paso. According to Vetancurt the pueblo contained 500 Piros in 1680, and Benavides referred to it as a Tompiros pueblo 50 years earlier; but Bandelier believes these statements to be in error, since the northern pueblos of the Salinas belonged to the Tigua. See the latter authority in Arch. Inst. Rep., v, 34, 1884; Arch. Inst. Papers, iii, 128-131, 1890; iv, 255-257, 1892.
Chipiinuinge (Tewa: house at the pointed peak). A great ruined pueblo and cliff village occupying a small but high detached mesa between the Cañones and Polvadera cr., 4 m. s. of Rio Chama and about 14 m. s. w. of Abiquiu, Rio Arriba co., N. Mex. The site was doubt less selected on account of its defensible character, the pueblo being situated at least 800 ft. above the level of the creek and its walls built continuous with the edge of the precipice. The great Pedernal peak, from which the village takes its name, rises on the other side of the can yon about 2 m. to the s. w. The pueblo is inaccessible except by a single trail which winds up from the Polvadera and reaches the summit of the mesa at its s. end, passing thence through two strongly fortified gaps before the pueblo is reached. The site was impregnable to any form of attack possible to savage warfare. The commanding position was at the gateway to the Tewa country E. of the mountains, and, according to tradition, it was the function of Chipiinuinge to withstand as far as possible the fierce Navaho and Apache raids from the x. w. The pueblo was built entirely of stone and was of 3 stories, in places possibly 4. Portions of second-story walls are still standing and many cedar timbers are well preserved. The remains of 15 kivas, mostly circular, a few rectangular, are still traceable in and about the ruins; these were all mostly if not wholly subterranean, having been excavated in the rock surface on which the pueblo stands. The cliff-dwellings in the E. face of the mesa are all of the excavated type, and appear to have been used for mortuary quite as much as for domiciliary purposes. (E. L. H.)
Chusca. The name (Tsús-kai, Tsó-is-kai) given by the Navaho to a prominent hill on the Navaho res., N. w. N. Mex. Geographers extend the name (Choiska) to the whole mountain mass from which the knoll rises. Cortez in 1779 (Pac. R. R. Rep., in, pt. 3, 119, 1856) recorded it, with doubtful propriety, as the name of a Navaho settlement. In these mountains are the re mains of breastworks and other evidences of a disastrous fight that took place before 1850, according to Navaho informants, between their warriors and Mexican troops. (W. M.)
Cienega (Span.: marsh, moor, and in s. w. U. S., meadow ; Tewa name, Tziguma, ‘lone cottonwood tree’). A pueblo formerly occupied by the Tano, but apparently containing also some Queres, situated in the valley of Rio Santa Fe, 12 m. s. w. of Santa Fe, N. Mex. In the 17th century it was a visita of San Marcos mission. Of this pueblo Bandelier says: “It was abandoned at a time when the Pueblos were independent [between 1680 and 1692], and an effort to repeople it was made by Diego de Vargas after the pacification of New Mexico in 1695, but with little success. Tziguma was therefore a historic pueblo. Nevertheless, I am in doubt as to which stock its inhabitants belonged. They are mentioned as being Queres, but the people of Cochiti do not regard them as having been of their own stock, but as belonging to the Puya-tye or Tanos. Until the question is decided by further researches among the Tanos of Santo Domingo, I shall hold that the pueblo was a Tanos village.” It contained no Indians in 1782, and at no time did its population reach 1,000. Arch. Inst. Papers, in, 125, 1890; iv, 91-92, 1892.
Cieneguilla (Span.: little marsh). A former village on the Potrero Viejo, above the present Cochiti pueblo, N. Mex., occupied almost continuously by the Cochiti between 1 681 and 1 694. It was burned in the latter year by Gov. Vargas during his reconquest of the country. Bandelier in Arch. Inst, Papers, iv, 169, 1892.
Cizentetpi. Mentioned by Oñate (Doc. Ined., xvi, 114, 1871) as a pueblo of New Mexico in 1598. Doubtless situated in the Salinas, in the vicinity of Abo, E. of the Rio Grande, and in all probability formerly occupied by the Tigua or the Piros.
Conchi. Mentioned by Garcia (Origen Inds., 293, 1729) as an Indian province of New Mexico, but more likely identifiable with the Conchas, or Conchos, a little-known tribe formerly living on a river of the same name in Chihuahua, Mexico. (F. W. H.)
Copala. A mythical province, about which the “Turk,” apparently a Pawnee Indian, while among the Pueblos of the Rio Grande in New Mexico in 1540, endeavored to deceive Coronado and his army. It was said to have been situated in the direction of Florida and to have contained great wealth. See Winship in 14th Rep. B. A. E., 491, 1896. Cf. Eyish, Iza, Quivira.
Coquite. Mentioned by Mota Padilla (Historia, 164, 1742, repr. 1870) in connection with Jimena (Galisteo) and Zitos (Silos) as a pueblo which lay between Pecos and the Keresan villages of the Rio Grande in New Mexico when visited by Coronado in 1540-42. It was seemingly a Tano pueblo.
Couna. Mentioned by Oñate (Doc. Ined., xvi, 114, 1871) as a pueblo of New Mexico in 1598. Doubtless situated in the Salinas, in the vicinity of Abo, E. of the Rio Grande, and in all probability a Tigua or Piros village.
Cristone. A ruined pueblo on Gallinas cr., s. of Tierra Amarilla, N. w. N. Mex. Cope in Wheeler Survey Rep., vii, 355. 1879.
Cucho. An Indian province or settlement of New Mexico, noted, with Cibola (Zuñi), Cicuich (Pecos), and others, in Ramusio, Nav. et Viaggi, iii, 455, map, 1565. Probably only another form of Cicuich or Cicuyé, duplication being common in early maps of the region.
Cunquilipinoy. Mentioned as a pueblo of the province of Atripuy, in the region of the lower Rio Grande, N. Mex., in 1598. Onate (1598) in Doc. Ined., xvi, 115, 1871.
Cuyamunque. A former Tewa pueblo on Tesuque cr., between Tesuque and Pojoaque, about 15 m. N. w. of Santa Fe, N. Mex. With Nambe and Jacona the population was about 600 in 1680, when the Pueblo rebellion, which continued with interruptions until 1696, resulted in the abandonment of the village in the latter year and the settlement of its surviving inhabitants in the neighboring Tewa pueblos. In 1699 the site of Cuyamunque was granted to Alonzo Rael de Aguilar, and regranted in 1731 to Bernardino de Sena, who had married the widow of Jean l’Archeveque, the murderer of La Salle. It is now a “Mexican” hamlet. See Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, TV, 85, 1892; Meline, Two Thousand Miles, 231, 1867. (F. W. H.)
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Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, Frederick Webb Hodge, 1906